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This is My Faith : Simplified ideological dialogue-based series

By: Ali Al-Fatlawi

This book – This Is My Faith – comes to highlight the first science which is Ideology in a simplified dialogue-based style. All can understand its content as it is free from complicated reasoning and difficult demonstration. Some texts have been changed for the sake of simplification as the definitions to the five Principles are also provided. Thus, here we offer you this book in the form of dialogue-based serial stories between two friends seeking only truth and knowledge....

Hasan: I always encourage believers to ask about their religion. The Hadith says, “ask about your religion until you are called lunatic”, and there is no shame in seeking knowledge, especially when it comes to every day issues. Hasan: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) was the most forbearing, the most courageous, the most even-handed and the most virtuous of all. He never laid a hand on a woman unless he had their tenderness, married to them or had kinship that permits it. He was the most generous so much that no penny had stayed overnight with him. He did not return home until he had satisfied the needy. He used to mend his foot-wear, patch his garments and help with house-work like chopping the meat with female members of the family (Harem). Moreover, he was the most modest. He did not look sharply at a person. He answered the requests from both the free and the slave. He accepted any gifts even it was a drink of yogurt and he rewarded them for that. He would not accept any alms. He would only get angry for the sake of Allah and not to satisfy himself. He attended funerals. He walked among his enemies unguarded. He was the mos...

CHAPTER ONE Monotheism (At-Tawhid) CHAPTER TWO Divine justice (Al-‘Adl al-ilahi) CHATPTER THREE Prophecy (Nobowa) CHATPTER FOUR Imamate (Imamah) CHATPTER FIVE The Hereafter (Mi’ad) ...

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Guide to Understanding Islam

By: Ender TOSUN

This book may be downloaded from: http://www.islamicinformationcenter.info/understandingislam.pdf . This book enables its reader to thoroughly understand what Islam is. It makes strong analysis along with relevant knowledge and hundreds of quotations from the Quran, the main source of Islam. It gives answers to FAQ such as those about Islam and violence, men and women in Islam....

1 Introduction 19 2 The General Features of Islam 20 2.1 Islam Is Based on Logic 20 2.2 Islam Is Based on Loving Allah and Being Careful of Him 22 2.3 Islam Is Comprehensive 25 2.4 Islam Is Universal 26 2.5 Islam Is Based on Peace 28 3 Belief Essentials of Islam 29 3.1 Allah -The One Real God- 30 3.1.1 Belief in God as a General Concept 30 3.1.1.1 The Concept of Belief in General 30 3.1.1.2 Islam and the Other Main Approaches Regarding God 33 3.1.1.2.1 Islam and the Atheist Approach 34 3.1.1.2.2 Islam and the Agnostic Approach 40 3.1.1.2.3 Islam and Beliefs Largely Based on Communication 41 3.1.1.3 Everyone Believes in One or More Gods, Or in Things That Correspond to the Concept of God 44 3.1.2 There Is No God But Allah: This Universe and Its Parts Are Not Absolute, There Is Only One Absolute Power 45 3.1.3 The Methodology to Understand Who Allah Is and Some Key Facts Relating to Him That We Observe in Our Universe 48 3.1.3.1 General Methodology 48 3.1.3.2 Examples 49 3.1.3.2.1 Many Similar Things 49 3.1.3.2.2 Things -Including Causality- Are Parts of Systems 50 3.1.3.2.3 The Sequential Unity 53 3.1.3.3 Thing...

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Ye Gads! What if this 'stuff' is true?

By: Author

The material on these pages was compiled over many years and is the result of one person’s desire to figure out whether there is anything in our actions that must be ‘absolute’ or if all concepts of everything really are relative, based entirely on each person’s individual beliefs. A uniquely different kind of ‘trip’ took place after the compiler of this ‘stuff’ had a very heated argument with someone else when one of them yelled, “...well, your truth isn’t my truth!” What an amazing ‘trip’ it was......

1) FŌGIE/FRŌGIE comparison 2) ‘Garden Scene’ comparisons of certain commands 3) “Do it!” commands 4) dictionary command – D words 5) ‘Daniel’ details - ISLAM - CHRISTIANITY - JUDAISM 6) Imagery - oil rigs - stock markets 7) Procrastinating with LIBERTY 8) Finger-walking ‘assignment’ and MESSAGE given using numbers: - 379 - 213 - 383 and books: - Bible - Qur’ân - others 9) Symbolism development - circles - triangles - colors - cross - pyramid 10) Fruit... 11) Another Age 12) So what!!! or So what??? 13) Quotes/Media Events - “Restoring Honor” Rally - “One Nation Working Together” Rally - Comedy Rally - 9-11 14) “IMAGINE – THE FŌGIE WAY” 15) Developing another Word Picture: a Muslim and a Mormon 16) ‘RELIGION RAILS’ 17) 10 Cannots by Abraham Lincoln 18) ‘THE PROTESTER’ categories 19) ‘GOOD’ standards 20) Pledge of Allegiance change and TRUE REPUBLIC concept 21) TOUGH LOVE – WE, THE PEOPLE 22) Commander-in-Chief 22) Politics 23) Changes in Government (Federal) - Term Limits - Taxes - Government Reorganization/Balanced Budget - Social Security - Federal Assistance - Education - Health Ca...

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Inquiries About Shi'a Islam

By: Moustafa Al-Qazwini

Since the first edition of Inquiries about Shia Islam was published in the summer of 1999, four-thousand English copies have been distributed and sold to Muslims and non-Muslims in the United States of America and abroad. The book was also published in various languages. The need still exists for a better understanding about the traditions and followers of the Ahlul Bayt, and thus a revised second edition of the book was made. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Sister Fatma Saleh for her generous contributions in editing and revising this edition. Special thanks are also due to the Khaki family of Seattle, Washington for making this book come to print. May Allah, the most Merciful, the most Compassionate reward all those who work sincerely to serve His cause....

I ask all who read this book to read it objectively, with openmindedness and without sectarian biases, and I welcome any suggestions, criticisms, or inquiries. We ask Allah for guidance and enlightenment in our search for the truth. May Allah open our hearts and minds to it, and may He guide and extend His mercy upon us, for He is the one who grants all things. “Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate from the truth after You have guided us, and grant us mercy from You; truly, You are the Bestower.”Noble Quran, 3:8 We ask Allah for His mercy, grace, and blessings in this endeavor, and I ask the readers for their prayers that we all continue to be humble servants of the religion of Allah on the Earth....

Table of Contents Introduction Introduction to Second Edition Who are the Shi‘a? The Five Schools of Islamic Thought Ja‘fari Hanafi Maliki Shafi;i Hanbali Imamah Quranic Evidence for the Divine Ordination of the Imam Seven Categories of Verses of Allah’s Government in Quran (1) The Verses of Kingdom: (2) The Verses of Government: (3) The Verses of Command: (4) The Verses of Guardianship: (5) The Verses of Following: (6) The Verse of Choosing: (7) The Verse of Judgment: Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib Ghadir Khum The Verse of Warning (Indhar) The Verse of Bowing (Ruku) The Verse of Guardianship Prophetic Narrations Appointing Imam Ali as Successor Twelve Leaders to Succeed the Prophet. Who are the Twelve Leaders? The Ahlul Bayt The Verse of Purity (Taharah) The Verse of Affection (Muwaddah) The Verse of Malediction (Mubahilah) The Verse of Prayer (Salat) The Verse of Feeding The Verse of Guardianship The Hadith of the Two Weighty Things (Thaqalayn) Similar Narrations from the Prophet Muhammad about his Ahlul Bayt Infallibility Intercession (Shafa‘ah) Calling Upon the Prophet and ...

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Understanding Islam and Its Impact on Latin America

By: Curtis C. Connell

The initial question of this study concerns the debate between those who believe in a general Islamic threat, as defined most eloquently by Samuel P. Huntington in The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, and others who see a small band of religious fanatics who have hijacked Islam from the moderate majority. This question about the source of terrorism has importance to the major Islamic nations as it does for Latin American countries, where Muslims are a largely undistinguishable minority....

DISCLAIMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ABOUT THE AUTHOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xi 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 UNDERSTANDING “ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Perspectives of Islam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Islamic Anti-Western Rage: Historic and Strategic Explanations . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Islamic Angst: Psychological and Religious Struggles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Clash or Collusion of Islamic Fundamentalists? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3 ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN . . . . . . . . . . 19 Muslim Demographics in the Region . . . . . .20 Islamic Terrorist Attacks in the Region . . . . 21 Islamic Terrorist Support in the Region . . . . 23 Muslims’ Geographic Connection with Terrorism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

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Flying Inn, The

By: G. K. Chesterton

The Flying Inn is a novel first published in 1914 by G.K. Chesterton. It is set in a future England where a bizarre form of Progressive Islam has triumphed and largely dominates the political and social life of the country. Because of this, alcohol sales are effectively prohibited. The plot centers around the adventures of Humphrey Pump and Captain Patrick Dalroy, who roam the country in their cart with a barrel of rum in an attempt to evade Prohibition, exploiting loopholes in the law to temporarily prevent the police taking action against them. (Summary from Wikipedia)...

Fiction, Fantasy

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When Power and Piety Collide : A Critical Analysis of Early Caliphate in Islam

By: Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini

In our present era, it is most disturbing for many Muslims and non- Muslims alike to witness the escalating rise in sectarian violence between the Shia and Sunni followers of Islam, particularly in places such as Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Some people, including Muslims, ask why the Shia and Sunni are violently murdering each other; is there something in the history of the Muslims that continues to spark such hatred and violence today; why does one sect accuse the other of heresy; and why is one sect of the Muslims considered as “mainstream,” while the other wing is branded unconventional and literally pacified? Unquestionably, seeded in the history of Islam is the answer - in particular, the political course that was taken following the death of the Prologue ii Holy Prophet and the way in which the early history of Islam was written. They say that history is bound to repeat itself and this is much more apparent today because the remnants and unconsciousness of Muslims in regards to their own history is affecting Muslims today. The account of the Muslims is not the classical historical case of not knowing th...

Understanding that the historical and political aspects covered throughout this book may be delicate for some; nonetheless, never is it meant to be as a means to jostle sectarian division - this is far from my intention. I have maintained judicious care in the manner of presenting this work, but it is my belief that in order for Islam and Muslims to go forward in harmony and solidarity, we have to have the courage to recognize the truth of our past and rationally discuss the matter in a dignified and scholarly fashion. When an injustice is done in the past against others, then it becomes incumbent upon the people of the present to acknowledge it and make amends. This needs to happen so that the Muslims can truly practice what Allah has intended for them - a religion of brotherhood, peace, and justice. Until the end of time, even the most sincere Muslims will disagree upon what they truly believe is the most correct path. However, while accepting that there will be disagreement, it is important to represent each school of thought accurately - as it represents itself, and as reliable and mutually agreed-upon historical...

Contents PROLOGUE ........................................................................................................................... I DEDICATION ..................................................................................................................... XI CHAPTER 1 SMASHING THE IDOLS OF TRIBALISM ............................................ 1 CHAPTER 2 QURAYSH GROUP ................................................................................... 5 Development of the Quraysh Group............................................................................................................... 5 Objective of the Quraysh Group ....................................................................................................................... 6 Emergence of the Quraysh Group .................................................................................................................... 7 Quraysh Group Appears on the Scene .........................................................................................................10 “Calamity of Thursday” ......................................................

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The 9/11 Commission Report Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States

By: Thomas H. Kean

Excerpt: We present the narrative of this report and the recommendations that flow from it to the President of the United States, the United States Congress, and the American people for their consideration. Ten Commissioners--five Republicans and five Democrats chosen by elected leaders from our nation?s capital at a time of great partisan division--have come together to present this report without dissent....

CONTENTS List of Illustrations and Tables ix Member List xi Staff List xiii?xiv Preface xv 1. ?WE HAVE SOME PLANES? 1 1.1 Inside the Four Flights 1 1.2 Improvising a Homeland Defense 14 1.3 National Crisis Management 35 2. THE FOUNDATION OF THE NEW TERRORISM 47 2.1 A Declaration of War 47 2.2 Bin Ladin?s Appeal in the Islamic World 48 2.3 The Rise of Bin Ladin and al Qaeda (1988?1992) 55 2.4 Building an Organization, Declaring War on the United States (1992?1996) 59 2.5 Al Qaeda?s Renewal in Afghanistan (1996?1998) 63 3. COUNTERTERRORISM EVOLVES 71 3.1 From the Old Terrorism to the New: The First World Trade Center Bombing 71 3.2 Adaptation?and Nonadaptation? . . . in the Law Enforcement Community 73 3.3 . . . and in the Federal Aviation Administration 82 3.4 . . . and in the Intelligence Community 86...

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Year Amongst the Persians, A

By: Edward Granville Browne

Edward Granville Browne (1862 – 1926), born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. His works are respected for their scholarship, uniqueness, and style. He published in areas which few other Western scholars had explored to any sufficient degree. He used a language and style that showed high respect for everybody, even toward those he personally did not view in positive light. In A Year Amongst the Persians (1893) he wrote a sympathetic portrayal of a Persian society which few Westerners had ever seen, including a frank account of the effects of opium. It did not attract the attention it deserved at the time of its initial publication, but after his death in 1926 it was reprinted and became a classic in English travel literature. A Year Amongst the Persians includes moving accounts of the Bahá’í community in Iran. Concerning his meetings with the Bahá’ís of Iran, Browne writes: “The memory of those assemblies can never fade from my mind; the recollection of those faces and those tones no time...

Travel, Religion, Philosophy

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K's Bhoomika

By: Manohar Asija

Having lost her mother, and virtually rendered `orphan`, in the absence of `father`, a little girl Named Bhoomika, by dint of sheer circumstances, happens to reach a virgin teacher. Here, the `blessed opportunity for education` awaits her, as she is inspired and guided by this benevolent lady towards higher education. Once, she was offered a part-time job of `a reader for a blind class-fellow` of hers at Khadi Degree College, Guwahati: and she gladly accepted it. Of course, some nascent opportunities came to her, even in Delhi, when she was staying in a Working Women’s Hostel, while doing some odd jobs to support self, economically. But the travails of life also came her way; and she coped up with every sort of situation, by way of `fine-tuning` the responses from her brain and heart, every time, with an objective to attaining a quality decision from within. Having once been requested by very senior colleague to stay with one spinster Professor, during her illness, she served the lady so dutifully that the Professor persistently requested her to live with her till the young girl is married off. Having attained some extraordinary ...

"In fact, I had never spoken to her even a single word, though she continued to send me signals for initiating a dialogue with her. I had to go to fetch my daily quota of water from the water-tap, provided at the back of her tenement, for all the four segments, in the vicinity. Almost every time, we had to place our buckets or utensils, in a queue, while waiting for our turn. Being shy of passing through the front lane, while approaching the water-tap, I preferred to walk along the back of the segment, in our front. God knows, how she could spot me from such a long distance that I had come out of my room, with buckets in my hands. Quite often, I marked her busy in looking towards me with furtive glances, while waiting for her turn, as she would deliberately waste her time, simply to ignore the fact of my arrival there and would thus make room for me to place my buckets before hers.” .......... It pains him to recall his last meeting with that `unfortunate girl`, who was destined to spend a spinster's life and breathe her last, while resting her head at Bihari's knee, who kept caressing her forehead, in the presence of her trusted ...

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Information Technology Tales

By: Brad Bradford

This book also begins with that wondrous first Information Technology and then moves on to tales about the wonders of the written word—great stories, many of them likely new to most readers. In them, you‘ll find all the backgrounds, foregrounds, premises, conclusions, and surprises that make up the best and most valuable books....

In the Bible, God‘s first gift to man isn‘t a lesson about how to make a fire or fashion a needle, a knife, or a spear. He first blesses him with language. Even before He takes Adam‘s rib to make Eve, He tells Adam to name every living creature. Adam immediately understands God‘s words and enunciates his own....

1. Did Water Monkeys Swim before We Spoke?-From whence cometh language, the InfoTech that lets us dominate our planet? We listen. We easily hallucinate word boundaries. Spaces, such as you see in writing, are absent from speech. Yet somehow we find it easy to make sense of speech. -- 2. The Gift of Memory-For millennia, mnemonics reigned over commerce, news, entertainment, and the perpetuation and refinement of crafts. -- 3. From Whence Cometh Indo-European Tongues?-Did a freshwater lake community flee a saltwater surge that filled the Black Sea and scatter its language west toward the Atlantic, southeast toward India, and northeast toward the Pacific? -- 4. Scripting Symbols of Shape-Scripting symbolic images lets man communicate over space and time. Balance of power shifts from tribal chiefs to city-state warrior-kings and priests. -- 5. Symbols of Sound Demand Analysis-The alphabet makes the pen mightier than the sword, generating the powers of knowledge needed to create and govern empires. -- 6. China‘s InfoTech Siblings-For centuries, the Chinese keep to themselves ?the wasps’ secret? and then develop printing blocks—the precur...

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K's Bhoomika

By: Manohar Asija

Having lost her mother, and virtually rendered `orphan`, in the absence of `father`, a little girl Named Bhoomika, by dint of sheer circumstances, happens to reach a virgin teacher. Here, the `blessed opportunity for education` awaits her, as she is inspired and guided by this benevolent lady towards higher education. Once, she was offered a part-time job of `a reader for a blind class-fellow` of hers at Khadi Degree College, Guhahati: and she gladly accepted it. Of course, some nascent opportunities came to her, even in Delhi, when she was staying in a Working Women’s Hostel, while doing some odd jobs to support self, economically. But the travails of life also came her way; and she coped up with every sort of situation, by way of `fine-tuning` the responses from her brain and heart, every time, with an objective to attaining a quality decision from within. Having once been requested by very senior colleague to stay with one spinster Professor, during her illness, she served the lady so dutifully that the Professor persistently requested her to live with her till the young girl is married off. Having attained some extraordinary ...

"In fact, I had never spoken to her even a single word, though she continued to send me signals for initiating a dialogue with her. I had to go to fetch my daily quota of water from the water-tap, provided at the back of her tenement, for all the four segments, in the vicinity. Almost every time, we had to place our buckets or utensils, in a queue, while waiting for our turn. Being shy of passing through the front lane, while approaching the water-tap, I preferred to walk along the back of the segment, in our front. God knows, how she could spot me from such a long distance that I had come out of my room, with buckets in my hands. Quite often, I marked her busy in looking towards me with furtive glances, while waiting for her turn, as she would deliberately waste her time, simply to ignore the fact of my arrival there and would thus make room for me to place my buckets before hers.” .......... It pains him to recall his last meeting with that `unfortunate girl`, who was destined to spend a spinster's life and breathe her last, while resting her head at Bihari's knee, who kept caressing her forehead, in the presence of her trusted ...

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Dangerous Times II Edition : Living in and surviving the dangerous times: Living in and surviving the dangerous times

By: Magen Ha Cherut, Ph.D.; Occulta Aspicientis, Ph.D., Co-Author

On preservation of the Western rights, freedoms and quality of life in 21st century and beyond

Systemic approach to life of the highly cultured people provides them with higher level of happiness simply because their lives are better organized, risks are covered, reserves are maintained, dangers avoided, contacts established and so on so forth. Culture is not something that comes only with DNA, but genetic pre-disposition towards culture exists without doubt. Otherwise there would be no examples of people raising themselves above the scum they were born in and reaching high levels of society. Understanding of the elements of high culture, its systemic approach to organizing one’s life, can be practiced by virtually everybody. One just needs to want to elevate themselves and work towards that goal, which may involve getting better training and education, moving to a different neighborhood, getting a different job, spending time on more important things rather than on leisure, quitting drinking and smoking, refusing drugs, taking care of health, concentrating on the upbringing of the children and helping them in their adult life, babysitting grand-children, watching over quality of food supply and keeping the family ...

Table of Contents Introduction iii Table of Contents iv About this book ix Who should not read this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Who is this book for? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Response to our critics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x About the authors xiii I What do we want to preserve and why? 1 1 Foreword 3 2 Measuring the quality of life 5 2.1 Individual happiness and self-fulfillment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Individual rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.3 Social harmony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 Checks and balances 11 3.1 Acceptable personal risk and responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4 What is worth to fight for? 15 4.1 Security of the person . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 4.2 Personal and societal wealth . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

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The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry

By: Ph.D. Albert Martini

The 2000 year history of the atom and chemistry, from the Classic Greek Era to the present, is described in 800 pages, depicted with some 300 pictures and illustrations. This history of the atom and chemistry discusses the lives of about 180 chemists and physicists, through the evolution of several stages of development, representing the most important scientific accomplishments. The most significant discoveries in chemistry and physics are presented chronologically to illustrate their contributions to the creation of the chemical sciences during the last 21 centuries....

INTRODUCTION It is a genuine pleasure and challenge for me to try to express the full extent of my emotions and reasons for writing this book on the STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE SCIENCES, with special reference to the CHEMICAL SCIENCES. In one sentence, I can distill the essence of the purpose for this study by simply stating that it has been a labor of love that transcended the written word because sentiments and ideas belong in the realm of the ethereal and the philosophical as well as in the domain of LITERATURE and SCIENCE. Ever since a young and impressionable student attending a country school in a community of a few hundred people, began to be introduced to the world of knowledge over 65 years ago, the sciences became to me what water is to fish, air is to birds and earth is to humanity. The introduction to the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological sciences felt like reading a beautiful poem or listening to a romantic melody. In essence, it was truly a joyful experience, full of the enigmatic, the mysterious and the fantastic, beyond my wildest imagination. The words used in the title of this book, were car...

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY 7 THE CAVE MAN 7 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 8 THE MIGRATORY AND THE SEDENTARY MAN 9 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 THE CLASSIC GREEK AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHERS 17 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 BC) Greek Philosopher 20 Proposed the four basic elements: earth, water, air and fire. DEMOCRITUS (470-380 BC) Greek Philosopher 22 The founder of the atomic theory of antiquity. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer 24 Proponent of the geocentric theory of our solar system with the Earth and not the Sun at its center. ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 25 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES 32 THE METAL INDUSTRY OF ANTIQUITY 33 Mercury, Copper, Bronze, Iron and Steel. GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist 38 One of the first scholars and alchemists of the Islamic world. OMAR KHAYYAM (12th Century). Persian Scientist and Astronomer 38 Brilliant astronomer and alchemist of the 12th Century. BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406 -1490) Italian Alchemist 39 One of the most famous alchemists of th...

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