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Proportional Representation Electoral Systems (X)

       
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Links and Factoids

By: Sam Vaknin

...ribers. Strowger died in 1902 but his company still survives as AG Communications Systems. http://www.roserpark.net/greenwood/strowger.html http:/... ... history. http://www.corset.dk/ http://costume.dm.net/ Crime Fighting, Computer Systems and Databases As crime globalizes, so does crime fight... ...nts Provides information on the development and implementation of fingerprinting systems for the general public and international law enforcement... ...asants were allowed to sell surplus produce on the open market and taxes were made proportional to net output. In stark departure from communis... ...e as a cabinet secretary. Presidents are not elected by popular vote but by an electoral college representing the states. John Quincy Adams (18... ...d to be held every 4 years and anyone over 20 years of age could vote. A system of proportional representation gave voice and presence in the Reich... ...every 4 years and anyone over 20 years of age could vote. A system of proportional representation gave voice and presence in the Reichstag to even ...

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Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Analysis of Periyar's Views on Untouchability

By: W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy and Florentin Smarandache

...tarianism, police brutality, economic embargo, criminalization of activists, electoral violence, repressive laws that aim to curb fundamental right... ...local causal structure and perhaps the global equilibrium. The FCM knowledge representation and inferencing structure reduces to simple vector-matr... ...hools 12. Research (technical and scientific) devoid of any Dalit and Sudra representation 13. Research – Arts – place of Dalits and Sudras 14. D... ...together, become averse and quit. The reason behind this is absence of solid representation of Sudras and Dalits as teachers or research guides in ... ...ut up by the major political parties 76 end up holding public office. Also, electoral violence against Dalit candidates is rampant and widespread.... ...ained S 10 , the concept of political violence by speaking of the large scale electoral violence that takes place in the country. Several lives have... ... the British rule, Muslims and we were as intimate as brothers. By canceling proportional rights, they caused trouble. If there are three people in... ... to destroy caste. Even in pictures Brahmins should not exist. We did not get proportional share in employment or education. In the Government our p... ...stay comfortable and draw large salaries! Jobs should be given community-wise proportionally. [Viduthalai, 25-07-1957] Caste Annihilation Strug...

...lso from State Oppression— which includes, but is not limited to, authoritarianism, police brutality, economic embargo, criminalization of activists, electoral violence, repressive laws that aim to curb fundamental rights, and the non-implementation of laws that safeguard Dalit rights. The Dalits were considered untouchable for thousands of years by the Hindu society until...

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Cyclopedia of Economics

By: Sam Vaknin

...apital gains. In the Ponzi scheme known as the stock exchange, this expectation is proportional to liquidity - new suckers - and volatility. Thus, ... ...tance between the original experience (the emotion of the artist) and its external representation - the more prominent the artist. We declare artis... ...rominent the artist. We declare artistic success when the universally communicable representation succeeds at recreating the original emotion (felt... ...differently, who is to measure the distance between the original experience and its representation? After all, if the original experience is an elem... ...sing a right intention; 4. Having a reasonable chance of success; 5. The end being proportional to the means used." Yet, the evolution of warfare -... ...didates to spread their message). By doing so, it restricts choice and it tilts the electoral machinery in favor of the haves. Voters with money and... ...eable constituencies will be confined to multi-tiered, self- dissolving ("sunset") "electoral colleges" composed exclusively of volunteers. Left vs... ...ps, come September, Germany. Nor is the left's clean sweep of the central European electoral slate either complete or irreversible. With the except... ...all volume of space defined by the aforementioned coordinates. This probability is proportional to the square of the wavefunction. This is a way of...

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Cyclopedia of Philosophy

By: Sam Vaknin

...apital gains. In the Ponzi scheme known as the stock exchange, this expectation is proportional to liquidity - new suckers - and volatility. Thus, ... ...tance between the original experience (the emotion of the artist) and its external representation - the more prominent the artist. We declare artis... ...rominent the artist. We declare artistic success when the universally communicable representation succeeds at recreating the original emotion (felt... ...differently, who is to measure the distance between the original experience and its representation? After all, if the original experience is an elem... ...sing a right intention; 4. Having a reasonable chance of success; 5. The end being proportional to the means used." Yet, the evolution of warfare -... ...didates to spread their message). By doing so, it restricts choice and it tilts the electoral machinery in favor of the haves. Voters with money and... ...eable constituencies will be confined to multi-tiered, self- dissolving ("sunset") "electoral colleges" composed exclusively of volunteers. Left vs... ...ps, come September, Germany. Nor is the left's clean sweep of the central European electoral slate either complete or irreversible. With the except... ...all volume of space defined by the aforementioned coordinates. This probability is proportional to the square of the wavefunction. This is a way of...

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The World Factbook: 1987

By: Central Intelligence Agency

...986) Suffrage: universal over age 18 Political parties and leaders: People's Electoral Movement (MEP), Nel Oduber, acting leader; Aruban Patriotic Par... ...l, National Council), directly elected President whose functions are largely representational, independent federal judiciary Government leaders: Kurt ... ...Legal system: English law Branches: bicameral legislature (National Assembly electoral redistricting in Octo- ber 1984 expanded House of Representa- t... ... service; 65,000 reach military age (19) annually 2001"" "isha bong Boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative See refionil map VII Geog... ...e: compulsory over age 18 Elections: Tancredo Neves indirectly elected by an electoral college composed of members of congress and delegates from the ... ...udget Gull at Guinea "Pointe Noire See regional map VII BRAZZAVILLE Boundary representation is not necessarily authoritative Geography Total area: 342... ...s a cabinet; unicameral legislature (53-member National Assembly) elected by proportional representation every five years Government leaders: Hugh Des... ...ld every four years; last election held November 1985; legislature chosen by proportional representation; 282 county councils Political parties and le... ...onsists of 276 represen- tatives, 184 directly elected and 92 ap- pointed on proportional basis by major parties Political parties and leaders: major ...

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And Gulliver Returns Book IV : A Look at Our Human Values

By: Lemuel Gulliver XVI

... are in conflict with each other. We have conflicts within our own value systems and between what we value and what others value. ―On ... ...ght add the assumption that truth is better than ignorance, but all belief systems would support that claim. They would merely disagree on what truth... ... win the popular vote and lose the election because of the non-democratic electoral college?‖ —―Let‘s agree that by democracy we mean a governm... ...traditional Constitutional definition of marriage. ―Or look at the electoral college in the U.S. several presidents have won the popular vote ... ...zen of North Dakota should be equal to the vote of a Californian. But the Electoral College will be around for a long time. To hell with the people, ... ... --―Did you know that research shows that economic growth is inversely proportional to tax rate. For businesses the higher tax rate makes starting... ...or thinking. And I think we often experience our sensations as being true representations of objective reality.‖ -- ―Many people have had exper... ...ing erect penises that reach their chins, it probably was not a religious representation. Was this drawing symbolizing actual occurrences or was it m... ...h their lira. How could the icons of classic Rome permit such unchristian representations?‖ —―Maybe because in 79 AD Christianity hadn‘t yet e...

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The Williams Record

By: Student Media

...e start of football operations in the fall. V A combination of old ami new systems will possibly tie made, for it is probable that an alumnus will off... ...he college as an in- stitution is greatly benefited by a strong Northfield representation, .For by this mingling of represen- tatives from the univers... ...stifl:' for the stage, spedraens found by Prof. Agassiz and yet a truthful representation of the modern society girl who has no marked characteristics... ...m tlio ntteiidnnoo on the part of 1910and 1911. On the contrary liUO had a representation larger by eighteen than the sophonxn'o delecration in last y... ...ng effect upon the spirit of the college. College spirit is never directly proportional to the number of men in the college. Thus a rapid increase in ... ...ived by the members of the various organizations will perhaps be inversely proportional to the degree of closeness with which the members and the busi... ... of this infitrument is punishible by the forfeiture of eligibility to any electoral office. This agreement is to be bind- ing when signed by an autho... ...se corruption, contract corruption, police corruption, "honest" graft, and electoral cor- ruption. Of these, several have, of late years, been well-ni... ...them- selves are secretly made to favor one firm or patent. The problem of electoral cor- ruption is best viewed in the light of the history of n numb...

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In the Fourth Year Anticipations of a World Peace

By: H. G. Wells

... popula- tion of four or five thousand souls. The mere suggestion of equal representation between such “powers” is enough to make the British Empire b... ...ations will not suffer them for a moment. But when we dismiss this idea of representation by states, we are left with the problem of the proportion of... ...ch this present war was begotten, we must sit up to this novel proposal of electoral representation in the peace negotiations. Something more than com... ...esent war was begotten, we must sit up to this novel proposal of electoral representation in the peace negotiations. Something more than common sense ... ... of Nations? I am anxious here only to start for discussion the idea of an electoral representation of the nations upon these three bod- ies that must... ...uld be at least one Indian representative elected, perhaps by some special electoral con- ference of Indian princes and leading men. The chief defect ... ...mentary constituencies could be grouped and the clean scientific method of proportional representation could be used. But I suppose the party politici... ...cen- tury, in which this electoral reform movement began and the method of Proportional Representation was thought out, it was possible for the reform... ... ploitation of those who work elections, that the method of 75 H.G. Wells Proportional Representation with a single transferable vote has been evolve...

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The Writings of Abraham Lincoln in Seven Volumes Volume 7 of 7

By: Abraham Lincoln

... military service (Army, Navy, and Marine Corps) of the United States. The proportional quotas for the different wards, towns, town- ships, precincts,... ...able number of which were conversions from State banks. Changes from State systems to the national system are rapidly taking place, and it is hoped th... ...t and the people will derive great benefit from this change in the banking systems of the country can hardly be questioned. The national system will ... ...lution entitled “Joint resolution declaring certain States not entitled to representation in the electoral college” has been signed by the Executive i... ... resolution declaring certain States not entitled to representation in the electoral college” has been signed by the Executive in deference to the vie... ...icle of the Constitution, have complete power to exclude from counting all electoral votes deemed by them to be illegal, and it is not competent for t... ... Executive to interfere in any way in the matter of canvassing or counting electoral votes, and he also disclaims that by signing said resolution he h... ...with Messrs. Hunter and Stephens in February, called on me, and made such representations as induced me to put in his hands an informal paper, repeat...

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The World Set Free

By: H. G. Wells

... G Wells every circumstance in the manipulation of the fantastically naive electoral methods by which they clambered to power, conspired to keep them ... ...ce of the American people with the monstrous and socially paralysing party systems that had sprung out of their absurd electoral arrangements, led to ... ... and socially paralysing party systems that had sprung out of their absurd electoral arrangements, led to the appearance of what came to be called the... ... remnants of the British troops left France finally in March, after urgent representations from the provisional government at Orleans that they could ... ...nially, were arranged to add fifty members on each occasion. The method of proportional rep- resentation with one transferable vote was adopted, and t...

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The New Machiavelli

By: H. G. Wells

...lls, I think of huge clubs swarm- ing and excited by the bulletins of that electoral battle that was for me the opening opportunity . I see the stenci... ... up, and she never seemed to understand anything whatever of the political Systems across which she came to me. Also she forbade all toys on Sundays e... ...andidate and see what happens then—and that, you see, is why we don’t want proportional representation to let in the wild men.” I opened my eyes—the l... ...see what happens then—and that, you see, is why we don’t want proportional representation to let in the wild men.” I opened my eyes—the lids had dropp... ...aight at a conflict with the country, and I thought them bound to incur an electoral defeat. I under-estimated their strength in the counties. There w...

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Considerations on Representative Government

By: John Stuart Mill

...tisLiable.............................76 ChapterVIIOfTrueandFalseDemocracy;RepresentationofAll,andRepresentationoftheMajorityonly 92 ChapterVIIIOftheE... ... trouble, by a share of the spoil; and the only fruit produced by national representation is, that in addition to those who really govern, there is an... ...ay admit of being, in time and by degrees, expanded into a really national representation (which is in substance the history of the English Parliament... ...xpressed a willingness to be chosen. This would so far give reality to the electoral rights of the otherwise virtually disfranchised minority. But it ... ...cures a representation, in proportion to numbers, of every division of the electoral body: not two great parties alone, with perhaps a few large secti... ...ctory in which any person or class is pe remptorily excluded—in which the electoral privilege is not open to all persons of full age who desire to ob... ...erty is a kind of test; education, in most countries, though any thing but proportional to riches, is on the average better in the richer half of soci... ...of the operation even of equal and universal suffrage, if made real by the proportional representation of all minorities, on Mr. Hare’s principle. But... ... experience has made notorious to all the world. The evil would be exactly proportional to the amount of discretion left to the chosen electors. The o...

...Of the Infirmities and Dangers to which Representative Government is Liable ............................. 76 Chapter VII Of True and False Democracy; Representation of All, and Representation of the Majority only 92 Chapter VIII Of the Extension of the Suffrage ..................................................................................................... 108 Chapter...

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An Englishman Looks at the World Being a Series of Unrestrained Remarks Upon Contemporary Matters

By: H. G. Wells

...roy the machinery of the party system that sustains him, and to adopt some electoral method that will no longer put the independent representative man... ... disadvan- tage against the party nominee. Such a method is to be found in proportional representation with large constituencies, and to that we must ... ...ge against the party nominee. Such a method is to be found in proportional representation with large constituencies, and to that we must look for our ... ...ates appointed by the two great party organisations in the State. It is an electoral system that forbids absolutely any vote split- ting or any indica... ...o we have him. And so we have most of his colleagues. Now such a system of representation is surely a system to be destroyed at any cost, because it s... ...great people should be baffled by the mere mechanical degen- eration of an electoral method too crudely conceived. There exist alternatives, and to th... ...ssible work- ing of electoral methods, and it is now fairly proved that in proportional representation, with large constituencies return- ing each man... ...ing of electoral methods, and it is now fairly proved that in proportional representation, with large constituencies return- ing each many members, th... ...puller and the party nominee. I will not dwell upon the particulars of the proportional representation system here. There exists an active society whi...

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Autobiography

By: John Stuart Mill

...he said it, the same might have been said of all impressive speech; of all representation or inculcation more oratorical in its character than a sum i... ...rshalls, the same who was brought into Parliament for Y orkshire, when the representation forfeited by Grampound was transferred to it, an earnest Par... ...r ideas and another tone, and to obtain for my own shade of opinion a fair representation, along with those of other mem bers of the party. With this... ...has found favour with nobody; all who desire any sort of inequality in the electoral vote, desiring it in favour of property and not of intelligence o... ... that of giving to a numerical majority all power, instead of only a power proportional to its numbers, and enabling the stron gest party to exclude ... ...ical shape. I was convinced that no numerous or influential portion of any electoral body, really wished to be represented by a person of my opinions;... ...d be done by unpaid agency or by voluntary subscription. If members of the electoral body , or others, are willing to subscribe money of their own for... ... tion. One of them was Personal, or, as it is called with equal propriety, Proportional Representation. I brought this un der the consideration of th... ...ave had the good effect of converting the equal claim of all electors to a proportional share in the representation, from a subject of merely speculat...

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Proposed Roads to Freedom

By: Bertrand Russell

...igin in material conditions, and these he takes to be embodied in economic systems. Political constitutions, laws, religions, philosophies—all these h... ...me la- bor for the satisfaction of our wants is not imposed by politi- cal systems or by the exploitation of the working classes; it is due to physica... ... pay for the work which is considered more valu- able. All these different systems are compatible with the com- mon ownership of land and capital, tho... ...s time goes on they remember only dimly the passions and promises of their electoral campaign; they come to feel it an essential part of statesmanship... ...his part of the world, even if it were accompanied by women’s suffrage and proportional representation. So far as I know, no one supposes the populati... ...he world, even if it were accompanied by women’s suffrage and proportional representation. So far as I know, no one supposes the populations of these ...

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