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### Principa Mathematica

##### By: Isaac Newton

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Latin for "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy", often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Sir Isaac Newton, first published 5 July 1687. Newton also published two further editions, in 1713 and 1726. The Principia states Newton's laws of motion, forming the foundation of classical mechanics, also Newton's law of universal gravitation, and a derivation of Kepler's laws of planetary motion (which Kepler first obtained empirically). The Principia is "justly regarded as one of the most important works in the history of science". The French mathematical physicist Alexis Clairaut assessed it in 1747: "The famous book of mathematical Principles of natural Philosophy marked the epoch of a great revolution in physics. The method followed by its illustrious author Sir Newton, spread the light of mathematics on a science which up to then had remained in the darkness of conjectures and hypotheses." A more recent assessment has been that while acceptance of Newton's theories was not immediate, by the end of a century after publication in 1687, "no one could deny...

### Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 3, 2006

##### By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics. ...

x3. Some Observations Some observations about the Pseudo-Smarandache Function are given below : Remark 3.1. Kashihara raised the following questions (see Problem 7 in [1]) : (1) Is there any integer n such that Z(n) > Z(n + 1) > Z(n + 2) > Z(n + 3)? (2) Is there any integer n such that Z(n) < Z(n + 1) < Z(n + 2) < Z(n + 3)? The following examples answer the questions in the affirmative: ...

A. Majumdar : A note on the Pseudo-Smarandache function 1 S. Gupta : Primes in the Smarandache deconstructive sequence 26 S. Zhang and C. Chen : Recursion formulae for Riemann zeta function and Dirichlet series 31 A. Muktibodh : Smarandache semiquasi near-rings 41 J. Sandor : On exponentially harmonic numbers 44 T. Jayeo. la : Parastrophic invariance of Smarandache quasigroups 48 M. Karama : Perfect powers in Smarandache n-expressions 54 T. Jayeo. la : Palindromic permutations and generalized Smarandache palindromic permutations 65 J. Sandor : On certain inequalities involving the Smarandache function 78 A. Muktibodh : Sequences of pentagonal numbers 81 J. Gao : On the additive analogues of the simple function 88 W. Zhu : On the primitive numbers of power p 92 A. Vyawahare : Smarandache sums of products 96 N. Yuan : On the solutions of an equation involving the Smarandache dual function 104 H. Zhou : An in¯nite series involving the Smarandache power function SP(n) 109...

### Society: Progress and Force. Criteria and First Principles

##### By: Alex Battler

The present book, being a sequel to Dialectics of Force: Ontobia, is dedicated to the topics of progress and force of society - topics that may appear trivial at first sight, for a mountain of literature has been written on them. The author, however, having conscientiously presented the views on progress and force of all prominent thinkers over the past and the present, chose to follow a distinct path and formulated the criteria of progress based on entirely different scientific paradigms. Moreover, he dared to formulate the two Principles of Social Development, which are akin in their fundamental nature to the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The result is a book that is very complex in content. Nonetheless, the style of presentation used throughout most of the work makes it accessible even to those who have never read Hegel....

This book is intended for instructors and students of philosophy and social sciences, and also for all those who are interested in problems of man and mankind....

### Algunos Aportes de Mario Crocco a La Neurobiología y Psicofísica - Contreras, Norberto C. - Ediciones Rueda (2014) : Colección de Estudios Iberoamericanos del Nexo Psicofísico

##### By: Norberto César Contreras

La Escuela Neurobiológica Argentino-Germana formó más de 4500 profesionales de la medicina, ciencias naturales y filosofía. Muchos de ellos tienen o tuvieron fuerte militancia sociocultural, de esfuerzos muchas veces antitéticos en lo partidario; efectuaron aportes originales en un tema -la conexión entre psiquismo y cerebro- crítico para las ciencias físiconaturales, la filosofía, la biomedicina y hasta la ética y la política; y desarrollaron conceptos independientes de la ciencia angloestadounidense del área (los allá denominados "consciousness studies"). Mientras Cajal, quien después de estudiar a Hume en Huelva hízose afín a esa línea de pensamiento angloestadounidense y proponía que "Durante el sueño natural o provocado, las ramificaciones nerviosas entrarían en retracción, apartándose de las células e interrumpiendo el paso de las corrientes; en estado de vigilia ocurriría el fenómeno contrario", y mientras que la misma idea en nuestros días se acostumbra suponer realizada a nivel molecular, esta tradición iberoamericana, en particular a resultas de los aportes de Crocco, sostiene que un mecanismo delicadísimo, con base en la ...

"We shared a chapter explaining work done at the Center for Research Borda Hospital. Except for the specialists, the general public does not know. Based on the investigations of the neurobiological tradition Argentina, so go ahead with investigations of teachers predecessors (including Christofredo Jakob, José T. Borda, Braulio Moyano, Jose Arce, Luis Garabelli Solomon Chichilnisky, Diego Luis Outes, Ramon Santiago and Arturo Carrillo). Historically, national-School neuroscientist thanks to your inquiries and discoveries-has been providing foundations relevant to the appreciation of the human being as such, their dignity and their overall health, thus contributing directly to the possibilities of improving the quality of life of people." ...

Table of contents / Índice ** Colección de Estudios Iberoamericanos del Nexo Psicofísico - Presentación del Volumen I, 5 ** Prefacio del autor para esta edición, 10 ** La guerra por recuperar "su" puerto - Que narra de donde vino nuestro investigador, 52 ** Bichólogo - Que cuenta los afanes de nuestro investigador en su niñez, 53 ** Haciendo cuentas - Que sugiere medir superficies notando la pérdida de empuje de los líquidos arrojados sobre ellas, 55 ** Encuentro con viejas amigas en donde "no debían" encontrarse - Que indica los límites que impiden al control de las cilias desempeñar funciones psicológicas, límites conservados al formar los sistemas nerviosos, 58 ** El alma en la física - Do vemos que el animismo es impropio para describir cosas sin alma, pero es adecuado para describir espíritus, 63 ** La ciencia se disgrega cuando las disputas políticas meten la cola - O, ¿quién dijo que la ciencia es una sola?, 67 ** Creado en la anglofonía, King Kong rescata las ciencias cautivas de aquel modo de ver - Tanto el monazo como los cerebros son físicamente insostenibles, pero mientras aquel sólo se sostiene en el cine, esto...

### Advance of Science in the Last Half-Century, The

##### By: T. H. Huxley

Thomas H. Huxley, an English biologist and essayist, was an advocate of the theory of evolution and a self-proclaimed agnostic. A talented writer, his essays helped to popularize science in the 19th century, and he is credited with the quote, Try to learn something about everything and everything about something. In The Advance of Science in the Last Half Century , he presents a summary of the major developments in Physics, Chemistry and Biology during the period 1839-1889 and their impact on society, within the historical context of philosophical thought and scientific inquiry going back to Aristotle. Huxley’s clear and readable prose makes this subject equally enjoyable for both the student of scientific history and the casual listener alike. (Summary by the reader.)...

Science

### Psychotherapy

##### By: Hugo Münsterberg

Talking about viewing the Ocean If I take the attitude of appreciation, it would be absurd to say that this wave is composed of chemical elements which I do not see; and if I take the attitude of physical explanation, it would be equally absurd to deny that such elements are all of which the wave is made. From the one standpoint, the ocean is really excited; from the other standpoint, the molecules are moving according to the laws of hydrodynamics. If I want to understand the meaning of this scene every reminiscence of physics will lead me astray; if I want to calculate the movement of my boat, physics alone can help me. (from the Introduction)...

Psychology

### Brothers Karamazov, The

##### By: Fyodor Dostoyevsky

The Brothers Karamazov (Russian: Братья Карамазовы) is the final novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoevsky, and is generally considered the culmination of his life's work. The book portrays a parricide in which each of a murdered man's sons share a varying degree of complicity. The Brothers Karamazov is a passionate philosophical novel that explores deep into the ethical debates of God, free will, and morality. It is a spiritual drama of moral struggles concerning faith, doubt, reason, and modern Russia. Since its publication, it has been acclaimed all over the world by thinkers as diverse as Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein, and Pope Benedict XVI as one of the supreme achievements in literature....

Literature, Psychology, Philosophy

### Catechism of Familiar Things; Their History, and the Events Which Led to Their Discovery, A

##### By: Anonymous

This book, a reprint of a successful English publication, has been so enlarged as to be to all intents and purposes new. It has been carefully revised by a Reverend gentleman, who for some time filled the chair of Physics and Chemistry in one of our colleges. Recent inventions and improvements are described in a simple, popular style, so as to be easily understood by all, and short notices are given of prominent inventors and scientists. The paragraphs relating to doctrinal matters conform in every respect to the teachings of the Church. A feature which will commend the book to every teacher is the definitions of difficult words and terms, following the paragraphs in which such words occur. (from the Preface)...

Science

### Outline of Science, Vol 2, The

##### By: J. Arthur Thomson

The Outline of Science was written specifically with the man-on-the-street in mind as the target audience. Covering scientific subjects ranging from astronomy to biology to elementary physics in clear, concise and easily understood prose, this popular science work is largely as relevant today as when first published in 1922. In this second volume (of four), we learn about microscopy, and the intricate workings of the human body and mind. The major part, however, is devoted to the Natural History of birds, mammals, and insects. (Summary adapted from the first volume by Availle.)...

Nature, Psychology, Science

### Dialectics of Force: Ontobia

##### By: Alex Battler

In this theoretically sophisticated monograph Dr. Alex Battler formulates a new ontological interpretation of the category of force: - a definition of force as an ontological category; - the manifestation of force in the inorganic world within the framework of the idea of the Big Bang; - a definition of force in the organic world to determine the boundary between life and nonlife; - a solution to the mind–body problem (i.e., what consciousness and thought are), which has led me to a new formulation of the concept of Progress. ...

PREFACE......................................................................................................9 INTRODUCTION: LEXICON AND METHOD....................................17 CHAPTER I. THE PHENOMENOLOGY OF FORCE.........................31 1. Foreword.............................................................................................32 2 . Ancient Greek Philosophers On Force............................................35 3. The Philosophy of Force in the Works of European Philosophers of the 15th–19th Centuries.................................................................41 Nicholas of Cusa..........................................................................41 Leonardo da Vinci.......................................................................42 Bernardino Telesio and Francis Bacon.......................................44 René Descartes and Isaac Newton..............................................47 Benedict de Spinoza....................................................................50 John Locke...................................................................................51 ...

### Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 3, No. 3, 2007

##### By: Shaanxi Xi'an

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics....

An identity involving the function ep(n) Abstract The main purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between the Riemann zeta-function and an in¯nite series involving the Smarandache function ep(n) by using the elementary method, and give an interesting identity. Keywords Riemann zeta-function, in¯nite series, identity. x1. Introduction and Results Let p be any fixed prime, n be any positive integer, ep(n) denotes the largest exponent of power p in n. That is, ep(n) = m, if pm j n and pm+1 - n. In problem 68 of [1], Professor F.Smarandache asked us to study the properties of the sequence fep(n)g. About the elementary properties of this function, many scholars have studied it (see reference [2]-[7]), and got some useful results. For examples, Liu Yanni [2] studied the mean value properties of ep(bk(n)), where bk(n) denotes the k-th free part of n, and obtained an interesting mean value formula for it. That is, let p be a prime, k be any fixed positive integer, then for any real number x ¸ 1, we have the asymptotic formula....

F. Ayatollah, etc. : Some faces of Smarandache semigroups' concept in transformation semigroups' approach 1 G. Feng : On the F.Smarandache LCM function 5 N. Quang and P. Tuan : An extension of Davenport's theorem 9 M. Zhu : On the hybrid power mean of the character sums and the general Kloosterman sums 14 H. Yang and R. Fu : An equation involving the square sum of natural numbers and Smarandache primitive function 18 X. Pan and P. Zhang : An identity involving the Smarandache function ep(n) 26 A.A.K. Majumdar : A note on the Smarandache inversion sequence 30 F. Li : Some Dirichlet series involving special sequences 36 Y. Wang : An asymptotic formula of Sk(n!) 40 S. Gao and Z. Shao : A fuzzy relaxed approach for multi-objective transportation problem 44 J. Li : An infinity series involving the Smarandache-type function 52 B.E. Carvajal-Gamez, etc. : On the Lorentz matrix in terms of Infeld-van der Waerden symbols 56 X. Li : On the mean value of the Smarandache LCM function 58 K. Ran and S. Gao : Ishikawa iterative approximation of fixed points for multi-valued Ástrongly pseudo-contract mappings 63 X. Fan : On the divisi...

### Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 3, No. 1, 2007

##### By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

This issue of the journal is devoted to the proceedings of the third International Conference on Number Theory and Smarandache Problems. The conference was a great success and will give a strong impact on the development of number theory in general and Smarandache problems in particular. In this volume we assemble not only those papers which were presented at the conference but also those papers which were submitted later and are concerned with the Smarandache type problems or other mathematical problems. Other papers are concerned with the number-theoretic Smarandache problems and will enrich the already rich stock of results on them. Readers can learn various techniques used in number theory and will get familiar with the beautiful identities and sharp asymptotic formulas obtained in the volume....

Abstract : Let k be any ¯xed positive integer, n be any positive integer, Sk(n) denotes the smallest positive integer m such that m! is divisible by kn: In this paper, we use the elementary methods to study the asymptotic properties of Sk(n), and give an interesting asymptotic formula for it. Keywords : F. Smarandache problem, primitive numbers, asymptotic formula. ...

J. Wang : Cube-free integers as sums of two squares 1 G. Liu and H. Li : Recurrences for generalized Euler numbers 9 H. Li and Q. Yang : Some properties of the LCM sequence 14 M. Liu : On the generalization of the primitive number function 18 Z. Lv : On the F. Smarandache LCM function and its mean value 22 Q. Wu : A conjecture involving the F. Smarandache LCM function 26 S. Xue : On the Smarandache dual function 29 N. Yuan : A new arithmetical function and its asymptotic formula 33 A. Muktibodh, etc. : Sequences of pyramidal numbers 39 R. Zhang and S. Ma : An e±cient hybrid genetic algorithm for continuous optimization problems 46 L. Mao : An introduction to Smarandache multi-spaces and mathematical combinatorics 54 M. Selariu : Smarandache stepped functions 81 X. Zhang and Y. Zhang : Sequences of numbers with alternate common di®erences 93 Y. Zhang : On the near pseudo Smarandache function 98 A. Muktibodh : Smarandache mukti-squares 102...

### Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 1, No. 2, 2005

##### By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics....

0. In 1999, the second author of this remarks published a book over 30 of Smarandache's problems in area of elementary number theory (see [1, 2]). After this, we worked over new 20 problems that we collected in our book [28]. These books contain Smarandache's problems, described in [10, 16]. The present paper contains some of the results from [28]. In [16] Florentin Smarandache formulated 105 unsolved problems, while in [10] C.Dumitresu and V. Seleacu formulated 140 unsolved problems of his. The second book contains almost all the problems from [16], but now each problem has unique number and by this reason in [1, 28] and here the authors use the numeration of the problems from [10]. In the text below the following notations are used....

V. Mladen and T. Krassimir : Remarks on some of the Smarandache's problem. Part 2 1 W. Kandasamy : Smarandache groupoids 27 L. Ding : On the primitive numbers of power P and its mean value properties 36 D. Torres and V. Teca : Consecutive, reversed, mirror, and symmetric Smarandache sequence of triangular numbers 39 D. Ren : On the square-free number sequence 46 T. Ramaraj and N. Kannappa : On ¯nite Smarandache near-rings 49 X. Kang : Some interesting properties of the Smarandache function 52 L. Mao : On Automorphism Groups of Maps, Surfaces and Smarandache Geometries 55 L. Ding : On the mean value of Smarandache ceil function 74 M. Le : An equation concerning the Smarandache function 78 M. Bayat, H. Teimoori and M. Hassani : An extension of ABC-theorem 81 J. Ma : An equation involving the Smarandache function 89 C. Chen : Inequalities for the polygamma functions with application 91 W. Vasantha and M. Chetry : On the number of Smarandache zero-divisors and Smarandache weak zero-divisors in loop rings 96 M. Le : The function equation S(n) = Z(n) 109 Z. Li : On the Smarandache Pseudo-number Sequences 111 D. Mehendale :...

### Multi-Valued Logic, Neutrosophy, and Schrödinger Equation

##### By: Florentin Smarandache; V. Christianto

This book was intended to discuss some paradoxes in Quantum Mechanics from the viewpoint of Multi-Valued-logic pioneered by Lukasiewicz, and a recent concept Neutrosophic Logic. Essentially, this new concept offers new insights on the idea of ‘identity’, which too often it has been accepted as given....

2 Lukasiewicz Multi-Valued-logic: History and Introduction to Multi- Valued Algebra 2.1 Introduction to trivalent logic and plurivalent logic We all have heard of typical binary logic, Yes or No. Or in a famous phrase by Shakespeare: “To be or not to be.” In the same way all computer hardwares from early sixties up to this year are built upon the same binary logic. It is known that the Classical Logic, also called Bivalent Logic for taking only two values {0, 1}, or Boolean Logic from British mathematician George Boole (1815-64), was named by the philosopher Quine (1981) “sweet simplicity.” [57] But this typical binary logic is not without problems. In the light of aforementioned ‘garment analogue’, we can compare this binary logic with a classic black-and-white tuxedo. It is timeless design, but of course you will not wear it for all occasions. Aristotle himself apparently knew this problem; therefore he introduced new terms ‘contingency’ and ‘possibility’ into his modal logic [5]. And then American logician Lewis first formulated these concepts of logical modality. ...

Contents Foreword 6 1 Introduction: Paradoxes, Lukasiewicz, Multi-Valued logic 7 2 Lukasiewicz Multi-Valued Logic: History and Introduction to Multi-Valued Algebra 10 2.1. Introduction to trivalent logic and plurivalent logic 10 2.2. History of Lukasiewicz and Multi-Valued Logic 12 2.3. Introduction to Multi-Valued Algebra, Chang’s Notation 15 2.4. Linkage between Multi-Valued Logic and Quantum Mechanics 15 2.5. Exercise 17 3 Neutrosophy 25 3.1. Introduction to Neutrosophy 25 3.2. Introduction to Non-Standard Analysis 26 3.3. Definition of Neutrosophic Components 27 3.4. Formalization 28 3.5. Evolution of an Idea 30 3.6. Definition of Neutrosophic Logic 31 3.7. Differences between Neutrosophic Logic and IFL 32 3.8. Operations with Sets 33 3.9. Generalizations 34 4 Schrödinger Equation 39 4.1. Introduction 39 4.2. Quantum wave dynamics and classical dynamical system 43 4.3. A new derivation of Schrödinger-type Equation 45 5 Solution to Schrödinger’s Cat Paradox 47 5.1. Standard interpretation 47 5.2. Schrödinger’s Cat Paradox 48 5.3. Hidden-variable hypothesis 50 5.4. Hydrodynamic viewpoint and diffusion i...

### Hana Hou : The Kamehameha Journal of Education

##### By: Kamehameha Schools

The first issue of the Kamehameha Journal of Education was published in January 1990 to share ideas, strategies, and research about the education of Hawaii's children. The Journal grew from 1,000 copies to 3,500 copies per issue over a period of six years. Hana Hou is a collection of articles from all twelve issues that represents the breadth of topics the Journal explored. We saw this journal as a chance to improve education and bring important information, strategies, views, and data to educators. We saw it as a vehicle for change: a chance to inform the education of Hawaii's children through research, successful practice, and curriculum and instruction that was relevant, interesting, and meaningful for students. Most of all, we wanted to make a difference for children. The Journal was more than a record of information or a vehicle for authors who were already writing for national journals. Rather, the editors, coming from a variety of disciplines including education, anthropology, clinical psychology, and the Kamehameha Elementary Education Program (KEEP) were able to identify methods and research that were effective and...

Teaching and learning can—and does—go on in strange places. For so long, parents and teachers delegated learning to a formal setting with four walls, books, and a teacher teaching. Yet, those same parents and teachers taught children many unplanned—and often unintended—attitudes, language, and knowledge outside those walls. We learn from everything we do and the keys are our models and the richness of the learning environment. The three articles in this section describe how experiential, hands-on learning in widely varied contexts beyond the formal classroom may be more exciting, meaningful, memorable, and useful than the traditional style of education that students are largely accustomed to. Editors Gisela Speidel and Kristina Inn describe an unforgettable learning experience with master navigator Nainoa Thompson in “The Ocean Is My Classroom. ” Nainoa describes his path of learning from those who loved and cared for him through what felt like irrelevant school experiences, to his education aboard the Hokulea. In “A Hitchhiker's Guide to Technology,” Ian Jamieson shows us how to make a subject—as abstract and difficult...

Introduction. 3 -- The Ocean Is My Classroom-Gisela E. Speidel & Kristina Inn Fall 1994. 7 -- A Hitchhiker's Guide To Technology-Ian Jamieson Summer 1995. 19 -- Home Schooling: A Way Of Life L.-Sierra Knight Fall 1994. 31 -- Learning And Teaching The Hula-Mele Ah Ho Fall 1994. 41 -- Information Literacy: A Challenge For Critical Thinking-Elaine Blitman Summer 1995. 49 -- An ?ohana Of Writing Teachers-Joy Marsella Fall 1993. 55 -- Eric Chock: Poet In The Schools-Wendie Yumori Spring 1993. 71 -- Whole Language: Some Thoughts-Ramona Newton Hao March 1991. 83 -- Methods: Teaching And Learning Principles-Anthony J. Picard & Donald B. Young September 1990. 93 -- Encouraging Voluntary Reading-Alice J. Kawakami January 1990 -- 109 -- Cultural Aspects Of Learning And Teaching The Child As A Member Of A Culture-Ginger Fink May 1990. 117 -- Becoming A Teacher In A Multicultural Classroom-Virgie Chattergy Fall 1993. 123 -- The Role Of Culture In Minority School Achievement-Cathie Jordan Fall 1992. 135 -- Kula Kaiapuni: Hawaiian Immersion Schools-Lilikala Kame?eleihiwa Fall 1992. 151 -- When Children Don't Speak The Language Of Instruction-Gisel...

### A Critique of Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century"

##### By: Dr. Sam Vaknin

In his programmatic and data-laden tome, "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" (2014), Thomas Piketty makes several assertions, two of which merit a closer look: (1) That r (the return on capital) is, in the long-run always greater than g (the growth of the real economy), thus enriching the rich; and (2) that inherited wealth tends to create a "patrimonial" form of capitalism, akin to the aristocracy in the French and British ancient regimes. Putting aside the somewhat artificial and dubious distinction between the "real" and the financial economy, r and g are apples and oranges and cannot be compared. Economic growth (g) is not the return on the real economy in the same way that r is the return on capital and its assets. R is intended to compensate for a panoply of risks and is comparable to the wave function in Quantum Mechanics: it incorporates all the publicly and privately available information about future uncertainties and provides a distribution function of all plausible scenarios. Put simply: subject to political and market vicissitudes, capital can vanish overnight. Not so the real economy: it is always there, regardle...

### Unfolding the Labyrinth : Open Problems in Physics, Mathematics, Astrophysics, and Other Areas of Science

##### By: Florentin Smarandache

Progress and development in our knowledge of the structure, form and function of the Universe, in the true sense of the word, its beauty and power, and its timeless presence and mystery, before which even the greatest intellect is awed and humbled, can spring forth only from an unshackled mind combined with a willingness to imagine beyond the boundaries imposed by that ossified authority by which science inevitably becomes, as history teaches us, barren and decrepit. Revealing the secrets of Nature, so that we truly see ‘the sunlit plains extended, and at night the wondrous glory of the everlasting stars’*, requires far more than mere technical ability and mechanical dexterity learnt from books and consensus. The dustbin of scientific history is replete with discredited consensus and the grand reputations of erudite reactionaries. Only by boldly asking questions, fearlessly, despite opposition, and searching for answers where most have not looked for want of courage and independence of thought, can one hope to discover for one’s self. From nothing else can creativity blossom and grow, and without which the garden of science can o...

After the experiments were completed, the life span of such “atoms” was calculated theoretically in Chapiro’s works [61,62,63]. His main idea was that nuclear forces, acting between nucleon and anti-nucleon, can keep them far away from each other, hindering their annihilation. For instance, a proton and anti-proton are located at the opposite side of the same orbit and move around the orbit’s centre. If the diameter of their orbit is much larger than the diameter of the “annihilation area”, they can be kept from annihilation (see fig. 3). But because the orbit, according to Quantum Mechanics, is an actual cloud spreading far around the average radius, at any radius between the proton and the anti-proton there is a probability that they can meet one another at the annihilation distance. Therefore the nucleon---anti-nucleon system annihilates in any case, as this system is unstable by definition having a life span no more than 10-20 sec....

Contents Preface 5 Foreword 6 1 Unsolved Problems in Theoretical Physics 8 1.1. Problems related to elementary particles 8 1.2. Problems related to Unmatter 11 1.3 Some unresolved problems, questions and applications of the Brightsen nucleon cluster model 21 2 Unsolved Problems in Mathematics 24 2.1. Maximum number of circles 25 2.2. Consecutive sequence 25 2.3. Diophantine equation 25 2.4. Van Der Waerden Theorem 26 2.5. Differential equation with fractional power 26 2.6. Representation of odd number with prime 26 2.7. Magic square problem 27 2.8. Palindromic number and iteration 27 2.9. Non-Euclidean geometry by giving up its fifth postulate 28 2.10. Smarandache Geometry and Degree of Negation in Geometries 28 2.11. Non-Archimedean triangle theorem 33 2.12. The cubic Diophantine equation 33 2.13. Multispaces and applications in physics 34 3 Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics 35 3.1. Unsolved problems in Celestial Mechanics 35 3.2. Unsolved problems in Astrophysics 37 4 Unsolved Problems in Geophysics 45 4.1. Introduction 45 4.2. Some new questions 45 5 Unsolved Problems in Sorites Quantum Paradox and Sm...

### Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 4, 2006

##### By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics....

Smarandache inversion sequence Abstract We study the Smarandache inversion sequence which is a new concept, related sequences, conjectures, properties, and problems. This study was conducted by using (Maple 8){a computer Algebra System. Keywords Smarandache inversion, Smarandache reverse sequence. Introduction In [1], C.Ashbacher, studied the Smarandache reverse sequence: 1; 21; 321; 4321; 54321; 654321; 7654321; 87654321; 987654321; 10987654321; 1110987654321; (1) and he checked the _rst 35 elements and no prime were found. I will study sequence (1), from different point of view than C. Ashbacher. The importance of this sequence is to consider the place value of digits for example the number 1110987654321, to be considered with its digits like this : 11; 10; 9; 8; 7; 6; 5; 4; 3; 2; 1, and so on. (This consideration is the soul of this study because our aim is to study all relations like this (without loss of generality). Definition. The value of the Smarandache Inversions (SI) of a positive integers, is the number of the relations i > j ( i and j are the digits of the positive integer that we concern with it), where i alw...

M. Karama : Smarandache inversion sequence 1 W. He, D. Cui, Z. Zhao and X. Yan : Global attractivity of a recursive sequence 15 J. Earls : Smarandache reversed slightly excessive numbers 22 X. Ren and H. Zhou : A new structure of super R¤-unipotent semigroups 24 J. Li : An equation involving the Smarandache-type function 31 P. Zhang : An equation involving the function ±k(n) 35 Y. B. Jun : Smarandache fantastic ideals of Smarandache BCI-algebras 40 T. Jayeo. la : On the Universality of some Smarandache loops of Bol-Moufang type 45 W. Kandasamy, M. Khoshnevisan and K. Ilanthenral : Smarandache representation and its applications 59 Y. Wang, X. Ren and S. Ma : The translational hull of superabundant semigroups with semilattice of idempotents 75 M. Bencze : Neutrosophic applications in ¯nance, economics and politics|a continuing bequest of knowledge by an exemplarily innovative mind 81 J. Fu : An equation involving the Smarandache function 83 W. Zhu : The relationship between Sp(n) and Sp(kn) 87 X. Du : On the integer part of the M-th root and the largest M-th power not exceeding N 91 J. Earls : On the ten's complement fa...

### The Incunabula Papers : Ong's Hat and other Gateways to New Dimensions

##### By: Joseph Matheny

The Incunabula Papers are arguably the first immersive online legend complex that introduced readers to a host of content, including what religious historian Robert Ellwood has called the “alternative reality tradition. – Legend-Tripping Online: Supernatural Folklore and the Search for Ong’s Hat...

INCUNABULA A Catalog of Rare Books, Manuscripts & Curiosa Conspiracy Theory, Frontier Science & Alternative Worlds Emory Cranston, Prop.Incunabulum: cocoon; swaddling clothes; cradle; in-cunae, in the cradle; koiman, put to sleep, winding- sheet; koimetarium (cemetery); printed books before 1501, hence by extension any rare & hermetic book… Introduction This catalog is a reproduction. This is not a commercial advertisement. ECommerce links to the available books are offered a as courtesy to researchers. Consider this first file an unusually complete bibliography to the story that unravels in the companion files. No book for sale here was actually printed before 1501, but they all answer to the description ” rare and hermetic” – even the mass market paperbacks, not to mention the xeroxes of unpublished manuscripts, which cannot be obtained from any other source! The symbol INCUNABULA was chosen for our company for it’s shape – cocoon, egg-like, gourd-like, the shape of Chaos according to Chaung Tzu. Cradle: beginnings. Sleep: dreams. Silken white sheets of birth and death; books, white pages, the cemetery of ideas. Thi...

. Incunabula A Catalogue of Rare Books, Manuscripts & Curiosa. 2. Ong's Hat: Gateway to the Dimensions! A full color brochure for the Institute of Chaos Studies and the Moorish Science Ashram in Ong's Hat, New Jersey. 4. Joseph Matheny's Journal 3. Advances in Skin Science: Quantum Tantra...

### Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 2, 2006

##### By: Shaanxi Xi'an, Editor

In the volume we assemble not only those papers which were presented at the conference but also those papers which were submitted later and are concerned with the Smarandache type problems. There are a few papers which are not directly related to but should fall within the scope of Smarandache type problems. They are 1. L. Liu and W. Zhou, On conjectures about the class number of binary quadratic forms; 2. W. Liang, An identity for Stirling numbers of the second kind; 3. Y. Wang and Z. Sheng, Two formulas for x^n in terms of Chebyshev polynomials. Other papers are concerned with the number-theoretic Smarandache problems and will enrich the already rich stock of results on them. Readers can learn various techniques used in number theory and will get familiar with the beautiful identities and sharp asymptotic formulas obtained in the volume....

On Algebraic Multi-Vector Spaces Abstract A Smarandache multi-space is a union of n spaces A1;A2;An with some additional conditions hold. Combining these Smarandache multi-spaces with linear vector spaces in classical linear algebra, the conception of multi-vector spaces is introduced. Some characteristics of multi-vector spaces are obtained in this paper. Keywords Vector, multi-space, multi-vector space, dimension of a space. x1. Introduction These multi-spaces was introduced by Smarandache in under his idea of hybrid mathematics: combining different fields into a unifying field, which can be formally defined with mathematical words by the next definition. ...

L. Mao : On Algebraic Multi-Vector Spaces 1 L. Liu and W. Zhou : On conjectures concerning class number of binary quadratic forms 7 W. Zhai and H. Liu : On square-free primitive roots mod p 15 X. Pan : A new limit theorem involving the Smarandache LCM sequence 20 M. Le : The Smarandache Perfect Numbers 24 N. Yuan : On the solutions of an equation involving the Smarandache dual function 27 J. Wang : Mean value of a Smarandache-Type Function 31 H. Yang and R. Fu : On the mean value of the Near Pseudo Smarandache Function 35 W. Liang : An Identity of Stirling Numbers of the Second Kind 40 R. Ma : On the F.Smarandache LCM Ratio Sequence 44 L. Mao : On Algebraic Multi-Ring Spaces 48 Y. Han : On the Product of the Square-free Divisor of a Natural Number 55 P. Zhang : Some identities on k-power complement 60 Y. Wang and Z. Sheng : Two Formulas for xn being Represented by Chebyshev Polynomials 64 X. Chen : Two Problems About 2-Power Free Numbers 70 X. Ma : The Asymptotic Formula of P n·x log Pad(n) 72 Q. Tian : On the K-power free number sequence 77 C. Lv : On a generalized equation of Smarandache and its integer sol...

### Scientia Magna : An International Journal : Volume 2, No. 1, 2006

##### By: Shaanxi Xi'an, editor

Scientia Magna is published annually in 200-300 pages per volume and 1,000 copies on topics such as mathematics, physics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and linguistics....

x1. Introduction The study of Smarandache loops was initiated by W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy in 2002. In her book [19], she defined a Smarandache loop (S-loop) as a loop with at least a subloop which forms a subgroup under the binary operation of the loop. For more on loops and their properties, readers should check [16], [3], [5], [8], [9] and [19]. In her book, she introduced over 75 Smarandache concepts on loops. In her ¯rst paper [20], she introduced Smarandache : left(right) alternative loops, Bol loops, Moufang loops, and Bruck loops. But in this paper, Smarandache : inverse property loops (IPL), weak inverse property loops (WIPL), G-loops, conjugacy closed loops (CC-loop), central loops, extra loops, A-loops, K-loops, Bruck loops, Kikkawa loops, Burn loops and homogeneous loops will be introduced and studied relative to the holomorphs of loops. Interestingly, Adeniran [1] and Robinson [17], Oyebo [15], Chiboka and Solarin [6], Bruck [2], Bruck and Paige [4], Robinson [18], Huthnance [11] and Adeniran [1] have respectively studied the holomorphs of Bol loops, central loops, conjugacy closed loops, inverse property loops, A-loops,...

T. Jayeo. la : An holomorphic study of the Smarandache concept in loops 1 Z. Xu : Some arithmetical properties of primitive numbers of power p 9 A. Muktibodh : Smarandache Quasigroups 13 M. Le : Two Classes of Smarandache Determinants 20 Y. Shao, X. Zhao and X. Pan : On a Subvariety of + S` 26 T. Kim, C. Adiga and J. Han : A note on q-nanlogue of Sandor's functions 30 Q. Yang : On the mean value of the F. Smarandache simple divisor function 35 Q. Tian : A discussion on a number theoretic function 38 X. Wang : On the mean value of the Smarandache ceil function 42 Y. Wang : Some identities involving the Smarandache ceil function 45 J. Yan, X. Ren and S. Ma : The Structure of principal lters on po-semigroups 50 Y. Lu : F. Smarandache additive k-th power complements 55 M. Le : The Smarandache reverse auto correlated sequences of natural numbers 58 M. Karama : Smarandache partitions 60 L. Mao : On Algebraic Multi-Group Spaces 64 F. Russo : The Smarandache P and S persistence of a prime 71 Y. Lu : On the solutions of an equation involving the Smarandache function 76 H. Ibstedt : A Random Distribution Experiment 80 L. Mao...

### On The Origin Of The Human Mind, Second Edition

##### By: Ph.D. Andrey Vyshedskiy

“I like the idea of mental synthesis very much ... I quite agree that language evolved in a way that facilitates synthesis and transmission of the synthesized mental image. ... I don't think there can be much doubt, purely conceptually, that language was a late arrival. Whatever mutation provided the key to it would have had no selectional advantage at all, and would have just been a useless “organ,” if it could not have linked up to pre-existing thought systems.” —NOAM CHOMSKY, Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, MIT “Boston University’s Andrey Vyshedskiy brings a neuroscientist’s perspective to the discussion of human mental history in On the Origin of the Human Mind.” —Scientific American Mind (July 2009) “I found the Mental Synthesis theory stimulating and provocative. The author puts forward an explanation for the evolution of the human mind based on predator detection that led to increased visual mental analysis which set the stage for visual mental syntheses. The author presents an impressive array of recent research on the brain with up to date references that are highly relevant to his case and the origin of mi...

Introduction While studying the neuroscience of consciousness, I was struck with certain facts about mental imagery that seemed to shed some light on the process of the evolution of the human mind. The origin of the human mind remains one of the greatest mysteries of all times. The last 150 years, since Charles Darwin proposed that species evolve under the influence of natural selection (Darwin C, 1859), have been marked by great discoveries. Molecular biology described the genetic principles underlying species evolution and identified specific changes in the human genome since our lineage split off from the chimpanzee line about six million years ago (Somel M, 2013). Great paleontological discoveries have filled that span of six million years of human evolution with a number of intermediate species that display both human- and ape-like characteristics. However, the discussion of the evolution of the human intellect and specific forces that shaped the underlying brain evolution is as vigorous today as it was in Darwin’s times. At the center of the predicament about the origin of the human mind lies the question of human uniqu...

Introduction 1 Part 1. Neuroscience of imagination 5 Chapter 1. Object encoding in the brain 6 Chapter 2. Neuronal synchronization 26 Chapter 3. Imagining new objects 32 Chapter 4. External manifestations of mental synthesis 39 Chapter 5. Humans versus animals 80 Chapter 6: Overall Discussion of Part 1 108 Part 2. Evolution of the Human Mind 135 Chapter 7. Introduction: a quick guide to paleoanthropology 136 Chapter 8. Cognitive evolution through the prism of paleontological evidence 160 Chapter 9. Evolutionary pressure drives better predator detection 191 Chapter 10. Overall Discussion of Part 2 219 Part 3. The “last” mutation 254 Chapter 11. The role of the prefrontal cortex in the process of mental synthesis 256 Chapter 12. Evolution of the prefrontal cortex 277 Conclusions 327 A wish list of experiments 339 Appendix 367 Acknowledgments 400 Bibliography 401 Illustrations credits 428 About the author 430 ...

### The Rise of Peace : (Tuloo e Amn), Dedicated to all victims of terrorist attacks - Muslims, Non Muslims: A Fiction Novel on World Power Politics by Dr Hafiz Shahid Amin..Pakistan

##### By: Dr. Hafiz Shahid Amin

The Rise of Peace is an English version Of Urdu Novel“ Tuloo e Amn ” Dedicated to all victims of terrorist attacks (Muslims, Non Muslims) The Scenario… The Central Theme This Novel has been written in the context of present day fast changing political scenario of the world. Most important international burning issues have been touched in this novel in the most skilful and careful manner. Shall this peace seeking world ever reach the lasting peace..? There is destruction of all anti peace world forces in attempt to convert this world into peaceful world. All nations live peacefully in the long run. People respect each other’s religious, territorial limits and social taboo. This Novel is an action and adventure based fiction and an attempt to make this world as joint peaceful global village free of discriminations of caste and racial and Islamic and non Islamic likes and dislikes. Author seems to stress upon the fact that discriminations of this sort are very fatal for the restoration of world peace. Unless this discrimination is not completely finished it is almost impossible to convert this world into one peaceful ...

Table of Contents Title of Novel About The Author The Scenario The Preface Chapter-1 Meeting Of World Leaders Chapter-2 Dr. Jabran and Robot Sunny Chapter-3…. The Chief of ZSCIA Chapter-4 Killing of EX PM Chapter-5 The Naval Fleet of Zulimistan Chapter-6 Deaths of Muslim Leaders Chapter-7 Zulimistan Thinkers Association Chapter-8 President David of Zulimistan Chapter- 9 Chief of MFP Dr. Jabran Chapter- 10 Operation Tariq Bin Ziyad Chapter- 11 Missile Attacks on Zamaril Chapter -12 ZTA in Zulimistan Court Chapter -13 President’s Plans against ZTA Chapter -14 MFP Attacks Green House Chapter -15 MFP Attacks on Zulimistan Chapter -16 MFP Addresses to Zulimistan Chapter -17 President David in MFP Chapter -18 The Destructions in Zulimistan Chapter -19 Supreme Court Verdict Chapter -20 World Peace Formula ...

### The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Cell and Biology

##### By: Dr. Albert Martini

The concept of science and the sciences. Fundamental and historical development in the sciences. Great ideas that revolutionize our scientific world. The story of the cell and Biology. The birth of modern Biology. The rise of the modern University and experimental stations. The cell as the basic building block of life. The origin of life. The development of microbiology and microscopy. The germ theory of diseases, vaccines, and antibiotics. The vector insects and infectious diseases. The virus, viral diseases, and vaccines. The principle of vegetation and the basic requirements of plants. William Harvey, the heart and the circulatory system. Carl Linneaus and the development of modern taxonomy in biology. Charles Darwin and the development of evolution in biology. Gregor Mendel and the development of genetics and the laws of heredity....

THE GREATEST FUNDAMENTAL INVENTIONS CREATED BY MOTHER NATURE THE ATOM AND ITS CAPACITY TO STORE AND RELEASE UNIVERSAL ENERGY BY MEANS OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROCESSES THE CELL AND ITS CAPACITY TO SUSTAIN INDEPENDENT LIFE BY MEANS OF UNIQUE BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES THE PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSFORM SOLAR (LIGHT) ENERGY INTO CHEMICAL AND FOOD ENERGY BY MEANS OF BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES LIGHT AND ITS CAPACITY TO TRANSPORT ENERGY AND CHANGE OUR UNIVERSE BY TRANSFORMING DARKNESS INTO LIGHTNESS BY THE MIRACLE OF ILLUMINATION THE PHENOMENON OF ELECTROMAGNETISM AND ITS CAPACITY TO PRODUCE THE DYNAMIC ELECTRIC CURRENT THAT ENERGIZES AND POWERS OUR UNIVERSE AND THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL OF ALL OF NATURE’S INTUITIVE CREATIONS IS THE PROCESS OF UNIVERSAL TRANSFORMATION, WHERE PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION TRANSFORM MATTER, ENERGY, SPACE, TIME AND LIFE ITSELF ...

INTRODUCTION 1 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 4 THE CONCEPT OF SCIENCE 5 FUNDAMENTAL AND HISTORIC DEVELOPMENTS IN THE SCIENCES 7 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 GREAT IDEAS THAT REVOLUTIONIZED OUR SCIENTIFIC WORLD 16 DEMOCRITUS (470 - 380 BC) Greek Philosopher 16 NICHOLAS COPERNICUS (1473 - 1543) Polish Astronomer 17 GALILEO GALILEI (1564 - 1642) Italian Mathematician and Astronomer 18 RENE DESCARTES (1596 - 1650) French Mathematician and Philosopher. 19 ISAAC NEWTON (1642 - 1727) English Scientist and Mathematician 20 ANTOINE LAVOISIER (1743 - 1794) French Chemist 23 JOHN DALTON (1766 - 1844) English Chemist 24 JONS J. BERZELIUS (1779 - 1848) Swedish Chemist 25 HUMPHRY DAVY (1778 - 1829) English Chemist 25 AMEDEO AVOGADRO (1776 - 1856) Italian Physicist 26 DMITRI MENDELEEV (1834 - 1907) Russian Chemist 26 FRIEDRICH A. KEKULE (1829 - 1896) German Organic Chemist 27 JACOBUS VAN’T HOFF (1852 - 1911) Dutch Physical Chemist 28 WILLIAM H. WOLLASTON (1766 - 1828) English Chemist and Physicist 28 EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825 - 1899) English Chemist 29 SVANTE A. ARRHENIUS (1859 -...

### The Renaissance of Science : The Story of the Atom and Chemistry

##### By: Ph.D. Albert Martini

The 2000 year history of the atom and chemistry, from the Classic Greek Era to the present, is described in 800 pages, depicted with some 300 pictures and illustrations. This history of the atom and chemistry discusses the lives of about 180 chemists and physicists, through the evolution of several stages of development, representing the most important scientific accomplishments. The most significant discoveries in chemistry and physics are presented chronologically to illustrate their contributions to the creation of the chemical sciences during the last 21 centuries....

INTRODUCTION It is a genuine pleasure and challenge for me to try to express the full extent of my emotions and reasons for writing this book on the STORY OF THE ATOM AND THE SCIENCES, with special reference to the CHEMICAL SCIENCES. In one sentence, I can distill the essence of the purpose for this study by simply stating that it has been a labor of love that transcended the written word because sentiments and ideas belong in the realm of the ethereal and the philosophical as well as in the domain of LITERATURE and SCIENCE. Ever since a young and impressionable student attending a country school in a community of a few hundred people, began to be introduced to the world of knowledge over 65 years ago, the sciences became to me what water is to fish, air is to birds and earth is to humanity. The introduction to the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological sciences felt like reading a beautiful poem or listening to a romantic melody. In essence, it was truly a joyful experience, full of the enigmatic, the mysterious and the fantastic, beyond my wildest imagination. The words used in the title of this book, were car...

TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 1 THE STORY OF THE ATOM AND CHEMISTRY 7 THE CAVE MAN 7 ABSTRACT ON THE CONCEPT OF PERSPECTIVE AND SENSE OF DUTY 8 THE MIGRATORY AND THE SEDENTARY MAN 9 ABSTRACT ON THE ATOM AND ITS ENERGY 11 THE CLASSIC GREEK AND ROMAN PHILOSOPHERS 17 EMPEDOCLES (492-432 BC) Greek Philosopher 20 Proposed the four basic elements: earth, water, air and fire. DEMOCRITUS (470-380 BC) Greek Philosopher 22 The founder of the atomic theory of antiquity. CLAUDIUS PTOLEMY (100-170) Greek Astronomer 24 Proponent of the geocentric theory of our solar system with the Earth and not the Sun at its center. ABSTRACT ON THE GENESIS OF AN ORDERLY AND SYSTEMATIC UNIVERSE 25 THE ALCHEMY OF ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES 32 THE METAL INDUSTRY OF ANTIQUITY 33 Mercury, Copper, Bronze, Iron and Steel. GEBER (721-815) Arabian Alchemist 38 One of the first scholars and alchemists of the Islamic world. OMAR KHAYYAM (12th Century). Persian Scientist and Astronomer 38 Brilliant astronomer and alchemist of the 12th Century. BERNARDO TREVISAN (1406 -1490) Italian Alchemist 39 One of the most famous alchemists of th...

##### By: Florentin Smarandache

The whole paradoxist distich should be as a geometric unitary parabola, hyperbola, ellipse at the borders between art, philosophy, rebus, and mathematics – which exist in complementariness. The School of Paradoxist Literature, which evolved around 1980s, continues through these bi-verses closed in a new lyric exact formula, but with an opening to essence. For this kind of procedural poems one can elaborate mathematical algorithms and implement them in a computer: but, it is preferable a machine with … soul!...

I M M O D E S T With the shame Shamelessness U N D E C I D E D Fighting Himself J A Z Z ( I ) Melodious Anarchy J A Z Z ( I I ) Anarchic Melody...

Fore/word and Back/word _________ 3 The making of the distich : _____ 3 Characteristics: ______________ 3 Historical considerations: _____ 5 Types of Paradoxist distiches ___ 8 1. Clichés paraphrased: ___ 8 2. Parodies: _____________ 8 3. Reversed formulae: ____ 8 4. Double negation _______ 8 5. Double affirmation, ____ 8 6. Turn around on false tracks: _________________ 8 7. Hyperboles (exaggerated): __________________ 8 8. With nuance changeable from the title: ________ 8 9. Epigrammatic: ________ 8 10. Pseudo-paradoxes: ___ 8 11. Tautologies: ________ 9 12. Redundant: _________ 9 13. Based on pleonasms: _ 9 14. or on anti-pleonasms: 9 15. Substitution of the attribute in collocations ___ 9 16. Substitution of the complement in collocations 9 17. Permutation of various parts of the whole: ___ 9 18. The negation of the clichés ______________ 10 19. Antonymization (substantively, adjectively, etc.) ________________ 10 20. Fable against the grain: _________________ 10 21. Change in grammatical category (preserving substitutions’ homonymy): ________________ 10 22. Epistolary or colloquia style: _________...

### Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 Collected Papers of Sciences : Volume 4

##### By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors...

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases....

Collected Eclectic Ideas - preface by the author.............................3 Contents....................................................6 ASTRONOMY..................................14 1. First Lunar Space Base, project proposal, by V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache..15 2. On Recent Discovery of New Planetoids in the Solar System and Quantization of Celestial System, by V. Christianto, F. Smarandache..................28 3. Open and Solved Elementary Questions in Astronomy, by Florentin Smarandache.. 36 BIOLOGY......................................40 4. Statistical Modeling of Primary Ewing Tumors of the Bone, by Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, in in , Vol. 3, No. JJ05, 81-88, 2005................41 CALCULUS....................................53 5. A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals, by Florentin Smarandache, in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 25E, No. 1, 215-217, 2006.........54 6. Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using SuperMathematics Circular Ex-Centric Functions, by Florentin Smarandache & Mircea Eugen................................

### Multispace & Multistructure Neutrosophic Transdisciplinary : 100 Collected Papers of Sciences : Volume 4

##### By: Florentin Smarandache

The fourth volume, in my book series of “Collected Papers”, includes 100 published and unpublished articles, notes, (preliminary) drafts containing just ideas to be further investigated, scientific souvenirs, scientific blogs, project proposals, small experiments, solved and unsolved problems and conjectures, updated or alternative versions of previous papers, short or long humanistic essays, letters to the editors...

This short technical paper advocates a bootstrapping algorithm from which we can form a statistically reliable opinion based on limited clinically observed data, regarding whether an osteo-hyperplasia could actually be a case of Ewing’s osteosarcoma. The basic premise underlying our methodology is that a primary bone tumour, if it is indeed Ewing’s osteosarcoma, cannot increase in volume beyond some critical limit without showing metastasis. We propose a statistical method to extrapolate such critical limit to primary tumour volume. Our model does not involve any physiological variables but rather is entirely based on time series observations of increase in primary tumour volume from the point of initial detection to the actual detection of metastases....

Collected Eclectic Ideas - preface by the author.............................3 Contents....................................................6 ASTRONOMY..................................14 1. First Lunar Space Base, project proposal, by V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache..15 2. On Recent Discovery of New Planetoids in the Solar System and Quantization of Celestial System, by V. Christianto, F. Smarandache..................28 3. Open and Solved Elementary Questions in Astronomy, by Florentin Smarandache.. 36 BIOLOGY......................................40 4. Statistical Modeling of Primary Ewing Tumors of the Bone, by Sreepurna Malakar, Florentin Smarandache, Sukanto Bhattacharya, in in , Vol. 3, No. JJ05, 81-88, 2005................41 CALCULUS....................................53 5. A Triple Inequality with Series and Improper Integrals, by Florentin Smarandache, in Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, Vol. 25E, No. 1, 215-217, 2006.........54 6. Immediate Calculation of Some Poisson Type Integrals Using SuperMathematics Circular Ex-Centric Functions, by Florentin Smarandache & Mircea Eugen................................

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