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10th United States Congress


10th United States Congress

10th United States Congress
9th ← → 11th

United States Capitol (1800)

Duration: March 4, 1807 – March 4, 1809

Senate President: George Clinton
Senate Pres. pro tem: Samuel Smith
Stephen R. Bradley
John Milledge
House Speaker: Joseph Bradley Varnum
Members: 34 Senators
142 Representatives
3 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic-Republican
House Majority: Democratic-Republican

1st: October 26, 1807 – April 25, 1808
2nd: November 7, 1808 – March 3, 1809

The Tenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1807, to March 4, 1809, during the seventh and eighth years of Thomas Jefferson's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Second Census of the United States in 1800. Both chambers had an overwhelming Democratic-Republican majority.

Major events

President of the Senate George Clinton
President pro tempore
Stephen R. Bradley
Speaker of the House
Joseph B. Varnum

Major legislation

Territories organized

Party summary

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.


House of Representatives



House of Representatives


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.


Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 Senators' terms ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1808; Class 2 Senators' terms began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1810; and Class 3 Senators' terms began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1812.

House of Representatives

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


There were 5 resignations, 2 deaths, and 1 interim appointment. Neither party had a net change.

Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Abraham Baldwin (DR) Died March 4, 1807.
Temporary successor appointed August 27, 1807, to continue the term.
George Jones (DR) August 27, 1807
Uriah Tracy (F) Died July 19, 1807.
Successor elected October 25, 1807, to finish the term.
Chauncey Goodrich (F) October 25, 1807
Rhode Island
James Fenner (DR) Resigned September, 1807 to become Governor of Rhode Island.
Successor elected to finish the term.
Elisha Mathewson (DR) October 26, 1807
Israel Smith (DR) Resigned October 1, 1807, to become Governor of Vermont.
Successor elected to finish the term.
Jonathan Robinson (DR) October 10, 1807
George Jones (DR) Successor elected November 7, 1807, to finish the term, in place of a temporary appointee. William H. Crawford (DR) November 7, 1807
John Smith (DR) Resigned April 25, 1808.
Successor appointed to finish the term ending March 4, 1809.
Return J. Meigs, Jr. (DR) December 12, 1808
John Quincy Adams (F) Resigned June 8, 1808, having broken with his party and lost re-election to the next term.
Winner elected to finish the term, having already won election to the next term.
James Lloyd (F) June 9, 1808
Samuel Maclay (DR) Resigned January 4, 1809, believing he would lose re-election.
Winner was elected to finish the term, having already won election to the next term.
Michael Leib (DR) January 9, 1809

House of Representatives

Of the voting members, there were 4 resignations, 4 deaths, and 2 vacancies from the beginning of this Congress. Democratic-Republicans had no net change and Federalists picked up 2 seats.

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
South Carolina
Vacant Levi Casey (DR) died before the end of the preceding Congress Joseph Calhoun (DR) Seated June 2, 1807
Vacant James M. Broom (F) resigned before the beginning of this Congress Nicholas Van Dyke (F) Seated October 6, 1807
Barnabas Bidwell (DR) Resigned July 13, 1807, after becoming Attorney General of Massachusetts Ezekiel Bacon (DR) Seated September 16, 1807
North Carolina
John Culpepper (F) Seat declared vacant January 2, 1808 John Culpepper (F) Seated February 23, 1808
New Jersey
Ezra Darby (DR) Died January 27, 1808 Adam Boyd (DR) Seated March 8, 1808
Indiana Territory
Benjamin Parke
Resigned March 1, 1808 Jesse B. Thomas October 22, 1808
Joseph Clay (DR) Resigned March 28, 1808 Benjamin Say (DR) Seated November 16, 1808
Jacob Crowninshield (DR) Died April 15, 1808 Joseph Story (DR) Seated May 23, 1808
New York
David Thomas (DR) Resigned May 1, 1808, after becoming New York State Treasurer Nathan Wilson (DR) November 7, 1808
James Witherell (DR) Resigned May 1, 1808, after becoming judge of Supreme Court for Michigan Territory Samuel Shaw (DR) Seated September 6, 1808
Rhode Island
Nehemiah Knight (DR) Died June 13, 1808 Richard Jackson, Jr. (F) Seated November 11, 1808
John Claiborne (DR) Died October 9, 1808 Thomas Gholson, Jr. (DR) Seated November 7, 1808



House of Representatives


External links

  • Statutes at Large, 1789-1875
  • Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
  • Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress
  • U.S. House of Representatives: House History
  • U.S. Senate: Statistics and Lists
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