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Ride with the Devil (film)

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Title: Ride with the Devil (film)  
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Subject: Ang Lee, 5th Empire Awards, Rwtdposter2.jpg, Daniel Woodrell, Quantrill's Raiders
Collection: 1990S Drama Films, 1990S Western (Genre) Films, 1999 Films, African Americans in the Civil War, American Civil War Films, American Epic Films, American Films, American War Films, American Western (Genre) Films, English-Language Films, Epic Films, Fictional American People of German Descent, Films About American Slavery, Films About Race and Ethnicity, Films Based on Actual Events, Films Based on Military Novels, Films Based on Western (Genre) Novels, Films Directed by Ang Lee, Films Set in Missouri, Films Set in the 1860S, Films Shot in Kansas, Films Shot in Missouri, Kansas in the American Civil War, Missouri in the American Civil War, Universal Pictures Films, War Films Based on Actual Events
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Ride with the Devil (film)

Ride with the Devil
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ang Lee
Produced by Ted Hope
Robert F. Colesberry
James Schamus
Screenplay by James Schamus
Based on Woe to Live On 
by Daniel Woodrell
Starring Tobey Maguire
Skeet Ulrich
Jeffrey Wright
Simon Baker
Jonathan Rhys Meyers
James Caviezel
Thomas Guiry
Tom Wilkinson
Music by Mychael Danna
Cinematography Frederick Elmes
Edited by Tim Squyres
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release dates
  • November 26, 1999 (1999-11-26)
Running time
138 minutes[1]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $38 million[2]
Box office $635,096[2]

Ride with the Devil is a 1999 American Civil War film directed by Ang Lee. The storyline was conceived from a screenplay written by James Schamus, based on a book entitled Woe to Live On, by author Daniel Woodrell.

The events portrayed in the novel and film take place in Missouri, amidst escalating guerrilla warfare at the onset of the American Civil War. A loose dramatization of the Lawrence Massacre is depicted. Tobey Maguire stars as Jake Roedel, a Southern militiaman, who joins a group of marauders known as the Bushwhackers. The gang attempt to disrupt and marginalize the political activities of Northern Jayhawkers allied with Union soldiers.

The ensemble cast also features Skeet Ulrich, Jeffrey Wright, Jonathan Brandis, Jim Caviezel and musician Jewel.

The film was a co-production between Universal Studios and Good Machine. Theatrically, it was commercially distributed by the USA Films division of Universal. In 2010, The Criterion Collection released a restored high-definition digital transfer for the home media market. Ride with the Devil explores politics, violence and war.[3]

Following its limited release in theaters, the film failed to garner any award nominations for its acting or production merits from accredited film organizations. On November 23, 1999, the original soundtrack was released by the Atlantic Records label. The score was composed and orchestrated by Mychael Danna and Nicholas Dodd. Singer-songwriter Jewel also contributed a musical track from her second studio album Spirit.

Principal photography began on March 25, 1998. Ride with the Devil premiered in theaters nationwide in the United States on November 26, 1999 grossing $635,096. Taking into account its $38 million budget costs, the film was considered a major box office bomb. With its initial foray into the home video market, the widescreen DVD edition featuring the theatrical trailer, scene selections, and production notes, was released in the United States on July 18, 2000.


  • Plot 1
  • Cast 2
  • Production 3
    • Themes and analysis 3.1
    • Casting and set design 3.2
    • Music and soundtrack 3.3
  • Marketing 4
    • Novel 4.1
  • Release 5
    • Theatrical run 5.1
    • Home media 5.2
  • Reception 6
    • Critical response 6.1
    • Box office 6.2
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


Jake Roedel and Jack Bull Chiles are friends in Missouri when the American Civil War breaks out. During the mayhem, Chiles's father is murdered by Kansas pro-Union Jayhawkers. The two men join the First Missouri Irregulars, also known as the Bushwhackers; informal units loyal to Missouri in 1861. They later meet George Clyde and former slave Daniel Holt, whose freedom Clyde has previously granted.

The Bushwhackers battle Jayhawkers using guerrilla warfare tactics while trying to evade capture. The men manage to hide out in a coarsely-built shelter on the property of a pro-Confederacy family, the Evanses. A young widow in the household, Sue Lee Shelley, becomes romantically involved with Chiles. When Chiles dies of gangrenous wounds received during a skirmish, Roedel escorts Shelley to a refuge dwelling where another pro-Confederate kindred, the Browns family, reside.

Following the collapse and destruction of a makeshift prison holding the female relatives of guerrillas, a complementary clan of Bushwhackers led by William Quantrill plot a revenge attack against the Union and raid Lawrence, Kansas.[3]

In the midst of the offense, a quarrel arises between Roedel and fellow Bushwhacker Pitt Mackeson. Roedel, a German American, was born in Germany but raised by his immigrant father in Missouri. He suffers from sporadic anti-German suspicion from other Southerners, because the German population in the state is largely sympathetic to the Union. In an episode of hostility, Mackeson purposely shoots Roedel in the leg shortly after the raid on Lawrence, while retreating from a counterattack by Union forces. The perceived prejudice contributes to Roedel's sympathy to the plight faced by Holt, a former slave coping with racism.

Meanwhile, Shelley gives birth to Chiles's daughter. Holt and Roedel, both wounded, recover at the same residence that took in Shelley occupied by the Browns folk. The Browns, who mistakenly suppose Roedel is the child's father, pressure Roedel to marry her, which he is reluctant to do. However, after spending time with Shelley and the child, Roedel begins to have feelings for both of them.

Meanwhile, Anderson and many other Bushwhackers have been killed, taken prisoner or otherwise rendered inactive. Pitt Mackeson has gathered some of the survivors into a gang which no longer fights the Yankees, but instead robs, murders and plunders Unionists and Southerners alike. Word comes from one of Roedel's compatriots that Mackeson and his gang are headed South and plan on visiting Roedel soon.

One day Mr. Brown takes Holt to town and returns with a reverend and Roedel, after realizing he does love Shelley and she him, marries her in an abrupt wedding. Roedel's feelings toward Shelley are further deepened by a tender wedding night together.

Proclaiming himself finished with war, Roedel gives up being a Bushwhacker and takes his new family to California.

On the way, they meet Mackeson and the last of his men, Turner, ragged, injured and on the run. They report Black John and Quantrill are both dead and agree with Roedel the war is lost. Mackeson tells them of his plan to ride into Newport despite the fact the town is full of Federal soldiers, and his strange manner causes Roedel and Holt to hold guns on Pitt and Turner, but the two ride off without violence.

Holt rides with Roedel and his family toward California, until their roads part, and then Daniel tells Jake farewell, while Shelley and the baby sleep. Holt leaves for Texas, a free man, to find his long lost mother.[3]


Actor Jonathan Rhys Meyers who portrayed Bushwhacker Pitt Mackeson


Themes and analysis

Illustration of Southern Bushwhackers engaging in the destruction of Lawrence, Kansas in 1863.

The premise is based on the true story of pro-Confederate guerrillas who fought against Union troops under the leadership of William Clarke Quantrill. Associate producer Anne Carey had read and taken a liking to Woodrell's novel and delivered it to director Ang Lee. Lee remarked, "It's dramatic," and described how it related to "young people coming of age in the worst possible time in American history. I liked the theme of self-emancipation."[3] Quantrill gained infamy during the American Civil War for his atrocities against citizens and Union soldiers. He served the Confederacy and perhaps hoped to secure recognition and a high military rank from its leaders. But Quantrill's activities indicated that he fought for plunder and personal revenge.[4] In 1863, Quantrill undertook the great raid that made his name famous in the region. After bringing together over 400 Missouri riders for the Confederate cause in a carefully planned rendezvous on August 21 in Lawrence, Kansas, Quantrill led his men into the town, looting, burning, and executing between 150 and 200 adult males in reprisal for murderous raids conducted by Kansas Jayhawkers and Redleggers in Missouri.[5] In the North, this event became known as the Lawrence Massacre; and was vilified as one of the worst events of the war.[6]

Quantrill and his partisans staged numerous raids into Kansas during the early part of the Civil War. He was quickly labeled as an outlaw by the Union for his attacks. He was involved in several skirmishes with Jayhawkers and eventually was made a Captain in the Confederate Army.[6] Quantrill's men regularly yelled out the phrase 'Osceola'. This referred to an event in Osceola, Missouri where Federal Officer James Henry Lane, had his men burn and loot both Loyal and Confederate sympathizers indiscriminately.[6] Quantrill was later shot in an ambush by Union militia on May 10, 1865 during a raid in Kentucky, and died in a Louisville prison on June 6. However, he quickly became an admired figure of the Civil War from a southern perspective. He was a hero to his supporters in Missouri, and his fame actually assisted several other outlaw figures of the old west.[4][6] As such, in August 1864, a clash occurred by Fort Gibson between Federal troops and remnants of Quantrill's Raiders. During this skirmish, American outlaw Jesse James was deliberately shot in the right lung while attempting to surrender to Union militia.[5] Between 1888 and 1929, members of Quantrill's Raiders gathered to recount their war efforts. Today, there is the "William Clarke Quantrill Society" which was established to dedicate the study of Quantrill, his followers, and their involvement in the Civil War era border wars.[6] Director Lee summarized that Ride with the Devil was "not simply a war movie. It's more about the love and friendships that take place during a war. The film is both big and small, both epic and domestic."[3]

Casting and set design

The leading actors were required to go through three weeks of boot camp to prepare them for their roles. During shooting, Maguire hesitated under the grueling heat and 16-hour workdays, but pressed on to complete the filming. The actors first trained shooting blank loads, and then live ammunition for action conflict scenes.[3] More than 250 Civil War black-powder pistols were used during the production phase.[3] Over 140 extras played Lawrence residents, and more than 200 Civil War re-enactors were brought in to relay their style of living to the filming sequences.[3]

Principal photography began on March 25, 1998. Filming took place primarily on location in Sibley, Missouri, Kansas City, Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri.[7] Pattonsburg, Missouri also stood in as a primary filming set locale.[3] The set design production team removed telephone poles and utilized truckloads of dirt to cover existing asphalt and concrete.[3] Production designer Mark Friedberg created numerous indoor and outdoor sets of the time period to ensure and maintain historical accuracy.[3]

Music and soundtrack

The original motion picture music for Ride with the Devil, was released by the Atlantic Records music label on November 23, 1999.[8] The score for the film was orchestrated by Mychael Danna and Nicholas Dodd. Musical artist Jewel contributed vocals to the score with her song What's Simple Is True, from her 1998 album Spirit.[9]

Ride with the Devil: Music from and inspired by the Motion Picture
Film score by Mychael Danna
Released 11/23/1999
Length 53:21
Label Atlantic Records
Ride with the Devil: Music from and inspired by the Motion Picture
No. Title Length
1. "Opening Credits"   3:01
2. "Miss McLeod's Reel"   1:41
3. "Jayhawkers and Bushwhackers"   3:20
4. "Clark Farm Shootout"   3:05
5. "Fireside Letter"   1:50
6. "Sally in the Garden"   1:21
7. "Settling in for Winter"   0:49
8. "Ride to the Evans/Hilltop Letter"   2:10
9. "Sue Lee/Dinner at the Evans"   1:28
10. "The Ambush"   2:52
11. "George Clyde Clears Out"   1:44
12. "Jack Bull's Death"   4:45
13. "Old King Crow"   2:06
14. "Quantrill's Arrival/Ride to Lawrence"   2:37
15. "Sacking Lawrence"   4:05
16. "Don't Think You Are a Good Man"   2:11
17. "Battle and Betrayal"   3:13
18. "Freedom"   2:42
19. "A Chicken at the End of It"   1:36
20. "Finale"   3:09
21. "What's Simple Is True"   3:36
Total length:



The basis for the film, Daniel Woodrell's novel Woe to Live On (originally published in 1987) was released as a movie tie-in edition, re-titled Ride With the Devil, by Pocket Books on November 1, 1999. The book dramatizes the events of the American Civil War during the 1860s, as depicted in the film. It expands on the inner-fighting between rebel Bushwhackers and Union Jayhawkers, with civilians caught in the crossfire.[10] The story relates a coming of age experience for Roedel as he emotionally comprehends the losses of his best friend, father and comrades. On a separate front, Roedel expresses love for his best friend's widow, and learns about tolerance from his contact with a reserved black Irregular.


Theatrical run

Ride with the Devil made an initial screening on November 24, 1999 in New York City, Kansas City, Missouri and Los Angeles.[7] For most of its limited release, the film fluctuated between 11 and 60 theater screening counts. At its most competitive showing, the filmed ranked in 37th place for the December 17–19 weekend in 1999.[11]

Home media

Following its cinematic release in theaters, the Region 1 Code widescreen edition of the film was released on DVD in the United States on July 18, 2000. Special features for the DVD include; Jewel music video: "What's Simple Is True", the Theatrical Trailer, Production notes, Cast and filmmakers extra, and a Universal web link.[12] Additionally, a Special Edition DVD was also released by The Criterion Collection on April 27, 2010. Special features include; Two audio commentaries one featuring Lee and producer-screenwriter James Schamus and one featuring Elmes, sound designer Drew Kunin, and production designer Mark Friedberg; a new video interview with star Jeffrey Wright, and a booklet featuring essays by critic Godfrey Cheshire and Edward E. Leslie, author of The Devil Knows How to Ride: The True Story of William Clarke Quantrill and his Confederate Raiders.[13]

A restored widescreen hi-definition Blu-ray Disc version of the film was released by The Criterion Collection on April 27, 2010. Special features include; Two audio commentaries, one featuring Lee and producer-screenwriter James Schamus, and one featuring Elmes, sound designer Drew Kunin, and production designer Mark Friedberg; a new video interview with star Jeffrey Wright; and a booklet featuring essays by the critic Godfrey Cheshire and Edward E Leslie, author of The Devil Knows How To Ride: The True Story of William Clarke Quantrill and His Confederate Raiders.[14] A supplemental viewing option for the film in the media format of Video on demand is available as well.[15]


Critical response

Among mainstream critics in the U.S., the film received generally mixed to positive reviews.[16] Rotten Tomatoes reported that 63% of 65 sampled critics gave the film a positive review, with an average score of 6.2 out of 10.[17] At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average out of 100 to critics' reviews, Ride with the Devil received a score of 69 based on 29 reviews.[16] The film however, failed to receive any honor nominations for its dramatics or visual aspects.

Peter Stack, writing in the San Francisco Chronicle, said in outward positive sentiment, "Lee's approach mixes an unsettling grittiness with an appealing, often luminous elegance (thanks to Frederick Elmes' cinematography) in picturing a patch of America at war with itself."[19] Left impressed, Stephen Hunter in The Washington Post, wrote that the film was "terrific" and that it contained the "most terrifying kind of close-in gunplay, with big, pulsing holes blown into human beings for a variety of reasons ranging from the political to the nonsensical."[20] In a mixed to positive review, Stephen Holden of The New York Times, described the film's production aspects as being of "meditative quality and its attention to detail and the rough-hewn textures of 19th-century life are also what keep the story at a distance and make "Ride with the Devil" dramatically skimpy, even though the movie stirs together themes of love, sex, death and war."[21] Wesley Morris of The San Francisco Examiner, commented that Ride with the Devil was "downright hot-blooded in the nameless violence going on west of marquee Civil War battles. Never has this war been filmed with such ragged glory. The boys grasping their rifles look like trigger-happy rock stars of the prairies, so much so that they threaten to transform the film into a great hair movie."[22] In a slightly upbeat conviction, Andrew O'Hehir of asserted that "for all its clumsy dialogue and loose plotting, this is historical filmmaking of a high order, both visually and thematically ambitious."[23] Todd McCarthy of Variety, added to the exuberant tone by declaring, "Impressing once again with the diversity of his choices of subject matter and milieu, director Ang Lee has made a brutal but sensitively observed film about the fringes of the Civil War".[24]

The film however, was not without its detractors. Writing for the Chicago Sun-Times, Roger Ebert bluntly noted that the motion picture "does not have conventional rewards or payoffs, does not simplify a complex situation, doesn't punch up the action or the romance simply to entertain. But it is, sad to say, not a very entertaining movie; it's a long slog unless you're fascinated by the undercurrents."[25] In a primarily negative review, Lisa Schwarzbaum writing for Entertainment Weekly, called the film "an oddly unengaging one, not because of any weak performances (even crooning poetess Jewel acquits herself pleasantly in her film debut), but because the waxy yellow buildup of earnest tastefulness (the curse of the Burns school of history) seals off every character from our access."[26] Describing a favorable opinion, Russell Smith of The Austin Chronicle professed the film as exhibiting "unostentatious originality, psychological insight, and stark beauty". While following up, he stressed "There's an odd blend of stylization and extreme realism to this film. The dialogue is stilted, full of archaic $20-words and dime-novel flamboyance — all the more jarring when delivered by these teenaged bumpkin characters."[27]

James Berardinelli of ReelViews proclaimed Ride with the Devil "takes us away from the big battles of the East and to a place where things are less cleanly defined." He also stated that "As was true almost everywhere else, idealogical gulfs often divided families. This is the terrain into which Lee has ventured, and the resulting motion picture offers yet another effective and affecting portrait of the United States' most important and difficult conflict."[18] In consummate verbiage, David Sterritt writing for The Christian Science Monitor reasoned, "The movie is longer and slower than necessary, but it explores interesting questions of wartime violence, personal integrity, and what it means to come of age in a society ripping apart at the seams."[28] Film critic Steve Simels of TV Guide was consumed with the nature of the subject matter exclaiming, "A nicely ambiguous ending and terrific acting by the mostly young cast mostly makes up for the longeurs, however, and for the record, Jewel acquits herself well in a not particularly demanding role."[29]

In 2013 film was the subject of an essay in a collection of scholarly essays on Ang Lee's films, The Philosophy of Ang Lee.[30]

Box office

Ride with the Devil premiered in cinemas on November 26, 1999 in limited release throughout the United States.[2] During that weekend, the film opened in 50th place grossing $64,159 in business showing at 11 locations.[2] The film Toy Story 2 opened in 1st place during that weekend with $57,388,839 in revenue.[31] The film's revenue dropped by almost 20% in its second week of release, earning $51,600. For that particular weekend, the film fell to 53rd place although with an increased theater count showing at 15 theaters.[11] Toy Story 2 remained unchallenged in 1st place with $18,249,880 in box office business.[32] During its final week in release, Ride with the Devil opened in 57th place grossing $39,806.[11] For that weekend period, Stuart Little starring Geena Davis opened in 1st place with $11,214,503 in revenue.[33] Ride with the Devil went on to top out domestically at $635,096 in total ticket sales through a 6-week theatrical run.[2] For 1999 as a whole, the film would cumulatively rank at a box office performance position of 219.[34]

See also


  1. ^ (15)"RIDE WITH THE DEVIL".  
  2. ^ a b c d e (1999)"Ride with the Devil".  
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ang Lee. (1999). Ride with the Devil [Motion picture] Production Notes. United States: Universal Pictures.
  4. ^ a b "QUANTRILL'S RAIDERS". Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  5. ^ a b Wellman, Paul (1986). A Dynasty of Western Outlaws. University of Nebraska Press.  
  6. ^ a b c d e "William C. Quantrill: Soldier or Murderer?". Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  7. ^ a b Ride with the Devil (1999) Movie Details. Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  8. ^ "Ride with the Devil: Music from and inspired by the Motion Picture". Barnes & Noble. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  9. ^ "Ride with the Devil (1999) Cast and Credits". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  10. ^ Woodrell, Daniel (1999). Ride with the Devil. Pocket Books.  
  11. ^ a b c Domestic Total Gross. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  12. ^ "Ride with the Devil (1999) - DVD Widescreen".  
  13. ^ "Ride with the Devil DVD - Special Edition)".  
  14. ^ "Ride with the Devil Blu-Ray".  
  15. ^ "Ride with the Devil VOD Format". Retrieved 2011-12-01. 
  16. ^ a b Ride with the Devil. Metacritic. CNET Networks. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  17. ^ Ride with the Devil (1999). Rotten Tomatoes. IGN Entertainment. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  18. ^ a b Berardnelli, James (November 1999). Ride with the Devil. ReelViews. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  19. ^ Stack, Peter (17 December 1999). Civil War's Toll in Microcosm. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  20. ^ Hunter, Stephen (17 December 1999). When Johnny Doesn't Come Marching Home. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  21. ^ Holden, Stephen (24 November 1999). Ride With the Devil: Far From Gettysburg, a Heartland Torn Apart. The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  22. ^ Morris, Wesley (17 December 1999). Two new movies use Maguire as icon. The San Francisco Examiner. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  23. ^ O'Hehir, Andrew (24 November 1999). Ride with the Devil. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  24. ^ McCarthy, Todd (12 September 1999). Ride with the Devil. Variety. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  25. ^ a b Ebert, Roger (17 December 1999). Ride with the Devil. Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  26. ^ Schwarzbaum, Lisa (3 December 1999). Ride with the Devil. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  27. ^ Smith, Russell (17 December 1999). Ride with the Devil. The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  28. ^ Sterritt, David (November 1999). Ride with the Devil. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  29. ^ Steve, Simels (November 1999). Ride with the Devil:Review. TV Guide. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
  30. ^ "All's Fair in Love and War? Ang Lee's Ride With the Devil" in The Philosophy of Ang Lee, eds. Robert Arp, Adam Barkman, and Jim McRae (University Press of Kentucky, 2013), 265-290.
  31. ^ "November 26-28, 1999 Weekend".  
  32. ^ "December 10-12, 1999 Weekend".  
  33. ^ "January 7-9, 2000 Weekend".  
  34. ^ 1999 DOMESTIC GROSSES. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
Further reading
  • Woodrell, Daniel (2012). Woe To Live On. Back Bay Books.  
  • Schrantz, Ward (1988). Jasper County, Missouri, in the Civil War. The Carthage, Missouri Kiwanis Club.  
  • Livingston-Martin, Lisa (2011). Civil War Ghosts of Southwest Missouri. The History Press.  
  • Tibbetts, John C. (2007). The Literature/Film Reader: Issues of Adaptation. Scarecrow Press.  
  • Arp, Robert (et al.) (2013). The Philosophy of Ange Lee. University of Kentucky Press.  
  • Marcus, Alan (2010). Teaching History with Film: Strategies for Secondary Social Studies. Routledge.  
  • McCorkle, John (1998). Three Years with Quantrill. University of Oklahoma Press.  
  • Castel, Albert (2006). Bloody Bill Anderson: The Short, Savage Life of a Civil War Guerrilla. University Press of Kansas.  
  • Schultz, Duane (1997). Quantrill's War: The Life & Times Of William Clarke Quantrill. St. Martin's Griffin.  
  • McLachlan, Sean (2011). Ride Around Missouri - Shelby's Great Raid 1863. Osprey Publishing.  
  • Connelley, William (2010). Quantrill and the Border Wars. Forgotten Books.  
  • Monaghan, Jay (1984). Civil War on the Western Border, 1854-1865. Bison Books by University of Nebraska Press.  
  • O'Brien, Cormac (2007). Secret Lives of the Civil War. Quirk Books.  
  • Foreman, Amanda (2011). A World on Fire: Britain's Crucial Role in the American Civil War. Random House.  
  • Mills, Charles (2002). Treasure Legends of the Civil War. BookSurge Publishing.  
  • Fellman, Michael (1990). Inside War: The Guerrilla Conflict in Missouri During the American Civil War. Oxford University Press.  
  • Eicher, David (2002). The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War. Simon & Schuster.  
  • Nichols, Bruce (2004). Guerrilla Warfare in Civil War Missouri, 1862. McFarland & Company.  
  • Collins, Robert (2007). Jim Lane: Scoundrel, Statesman, Kansan. Pelican Publishing.  
  • Bird, Roy (2004). Civil War in Kansas. Pelican Publishing.  
  • Ponce, Pearl (2011). Kansas's War. Ohio University Press.  
  • Toplin, Robert (2002). Reel History. University Press of Kansas.  
  • McCrisken, Trevor (2005). American History and Contemporary Hollywood Film. Rutgers University Press.  
  • Goodrich, Thomas (1992). Bloody Dawn: The Story of the Lawrence Massacre. Kent State University Press.  
  • Benedict, Bryce (2009). Jayhawkers: The Civil War Brigade of James Henry Lane. University of Oklahoma Press.  
  • Ross, Kirby (2005). Autobiography of Samuel S. Hildebrand: The Renowned Missouri Bushwhacker. University of Arkansas Press.  

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