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Ismail Qemali

Ismail Qemali
1st Head of State of Albania
1st Prime Minister of Albania
1st Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
29 November 1912
4 December 1912 as Minister of Foreign Affairs – 22 January 1914
June 1913 as Minister of Foreign Affairs
Preceded by Independence declared
Succeeded by Prince William of Wied (as Head of State)
Fejzi Bej Alizoti (as Head of Government)
Myfit Libohova (as Minister of Foreign Affairs)
Personal details
Born 16 January 1844 (1844-01-16)
Avlonya, Ottoman Empire (today Albania)
Died Did not recognize date. Try slightly modifying the date in the first parameter. (aged 75)
Perugia, Italy
Nationality Albanian
Occupation Politics , Writer
Religion Folk Islam

Ismail Qemal Bej Vlora (   ; Turkish İsmail Kemal Bey or İsmail Kemal Vlora; 16 January 1844 – 24 January 1919) commonly known as Ismail Qemali , was a distinguished leader of the Albanian national movement, and founder of the Independent Albania. He was its head of state and president of its provisional government until January 1914 when he was forced to step aside by the International Commission of Control established by the six Great Powers.[1]

Contents

  • Life 1
  • Cabinet 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Sources 5

Life

Ismail Qemali on the first anniversary of the session of the Assembly of Vlorë which proclaimed the independence of Albania.

Qemali was born to a noble family in Vlorë. Having finished the primary education in his hometown, and the gymnasium Zosimea in Janina, in 1859 he moved to Constantinople where he embarked on a career as an Ottoman civil servant, being identified with the liberal reform wing of the service under Midhat Pasha, and was governor of several towns in the Balkans. During these years he took part in efforts for the standardization of the Albanian alphabet and the establishment of an Albanian cultural association.

By 1877, Ismail seemed to be on the brink of important functions in the Ottoman administration, but when Sultan Abdulhamid II dismissed Midhat as prime minister, Ismail Qemali was sent into exile in western Anatolia, though the Sultan later recalled him and made him governor of Beirut. However, his liberal policy recommendations caused him to fall out of favour with the Sultan again, and in May 1900 Ismail Qemali boarded the British ambassador's yacht and claimed asylum. He was conveyed out of Turkey and for the next eight years lived in exile, working both to promote constitutional rule in the Ottoman Empire and to advance the Albanian national cause within it.

After the

Political offices
Preceded by
Independence declared
Head of State of Albania
1912–1914
Succeeded by
William of Wied as a prince
Preceded by
Independence declared
Prime Minister of Albania
1912–1914
Succeeded by
Fejzi Bej Alizoti
Preceded by
Independence declared
Minister of Foreign Affairs
1912–1914
Succeeded by
  • David Barchard, The Man Who Made Albania—Ismail Kemal Bey, Cornucopia Magazine No 34, 2004.
  • Ismail Kemal Bey and Sommerville Story, ed. The memoirs of Ismail Kemal Bey. London: Constable and company, 1920. (The Internet Archive, full access)
  • Sommerville, A.M. (1927), Twenty years in Paris with a pen, A. Rivers ltd. 
  • Xoxi, Koli (1983), Ismail Qemali: jeta dhe vepra, Shtëpia Botuese "8 Nentori" 

Sources

  1. ^ Giaro, Tomasz (2007). "The Albanian legal and constitutional system between the World Wars". Modernisierung durch Transfer zwischen den Weltkriegen. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Vittorio Klosterman GmbH. p. 185.  
  2. ^ Blumi, Isa (12 September 2013). Ottoman Refugees, 1878-1939: Migration in a Post-Imperial World. A&C Black. p. 84.  
  3. ^ Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878–1912. Princeton University Press. p. 417. Retrieved 10 October 2011. The Gerche memorandum, referred to often as "The Red Book" because of the color of its covers 
  4. ^ Treadway, John D (1983), "The Malissori Uprising of 1911", The Falcon and Eagle: Montenegro and Austria-Hungary, 1908–1914, West Lafayette, Ind.: Purdue University Press, p. 78,  
  5. ^ Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës; Instituti i Historisë dhe i Gjuhësisë, Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë, Universiteti Shtetëror i Tiranës. Instituti i Historisë, Instituti i Historisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë), Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë), Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë. Seksioni e Shkencave Shoqërore (2004), "Essential Characteristics of the State (1912—1914)", Studia Albanica 36, Tirana: L'Institut, p. 18,  
  6. ^  
  7. ^ Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. I.B.Tauris. p. 81.  
  8. ^ Vickers, Miranda (1999). The Albanians: a modern history. I.B.Tauris. p. 82.  
  9. ^ Bank of Albania. Currency: Banknotes withdrawn from circulation. – Retrieved 23 March 2009.
  10. ^ Bank of Albania. Currency: Banknotes in circulation. – Retrieved 23 March 2009.
  11. ^ http://www.president.al/shqip/info.asp?id=7663

References

See also

Ismail Qemal Vlora Monument in Tirana.

Cabinet

Ismail Qemali is depicted on the obverses of the Albanian 200 lekë banknote of 1992–1996,[9] and of the 500 lekë banknote issued since 1996.[10] On 27 June 2012, Albanian President, Bamir Topi decorated Qemali with the Order of the National Flag (Post-mortem).[11]

During World War I, Ismail Qemali lived in exile in Paris, where, though short of funds, he maintained a wide range of contacts and collaborated with the correspondent of the continental edition of the Daily Mail, Somerville Story, to write his memoirs. His autobiography, published after his death, is the only memoir of a late Ottoman statesman to be written in English and is a unique record of a liberal, multicultural approach to the problems of the dying Empire. In 1918, Ismail Qemali travelled to Italy to promote support for his movement in Albania, but was prevented by the Italian government from leaving Italy and remained as its involuntary guest at a hotel in Perugia, much to his irritation. He died of an apparent heart attack at dinner there one evening.

In November 1913, Albanian pro-Ottoman forces had offered the Albanian throne to the Ottoman war minister of Albanian origin, Izzet Pasha.[6] The Ottoman Empire sent agents to encourage a revolt, hoping to restore Ottoman suzerainty over Albania.[7] Izzet Pasha sent major Beqir Grebenali, another ethnic Albanian, to be one of his chief representatives in Albania. The Provisional Government of Albania under control of Ismail Qemali captured and executed major Beqir Grebenali. Such provocative and damaging display of independence of Qemali's government angered Great Powers and International Commission of Control forced Qemali to step aside and leave Albania.[8]

He was a principal figure in the Albanian Declaration of Independence and the formation of the independent Albania in 28 November 1912. This signaled the end of almost 500 years of Ottoman rule in Albania. Together with Luigj Gurakuqi, he raised the flag on the balcony of the two-story building in Vlorë where the Declaration of Independence had just been signed. The establishment of the government was postponed for the fourth session of the Assembly of Vlorë, held on 4 December 1912, until representatives of all regions of Albania arrived to Vlore.[5] Qemali was prime minister of Albania from 1912 to 1914.

During the Albanian Revolt of 1911 he joined the leaders of the revolt at meeting in a village in Montenegro (Gerče) on 23 June and together they draw up "Gerče Memorandum" (sometimes referred to as "Red Book" because of the color of its covers[3] ) which addressed their requests both to Ottoman Empire and Europe (in particular to the Great Britain).[4]

[2]

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