World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Jascha Heifetz

Article Id: WHEBN0000312284
Reproduction Date:

Title: Jascha Heifetz  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: They Shall Have Music, Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, Grammy Award for Best Chamber Music Performance, Dolphin Stradivarius, Guarneri
Collection: 1901 Births, 1987 Deaths, 20Th-Century American Musicians, 20Th-Century Classical Musicians, 20Th-Century Violinists, American Classical Violinists, American People of Lithuanian-Jewish Descent, Child Classical Musicians, Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award Winners, Jewish American Classical Musicians, Jewish Classical Musicians, Jewish Classical Violinists, Lithuanian Classical Violinists, Lithuanian Emigrants to the United States, Lithuanian Jews, Musicians from Vilnius, People from Vilnius, Saint Petersburg Conservatory Alumni, Thornton School of Music Faculty
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Jascha Heifetz

Jascha Heifetz around 1920

Jascha Heifetz (; February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1901 – December 10, 1987) was a violinist, widely considered to be one of the finest violinists of modern times. Born in Vilnius, Russian Empire (now Lithuania), he moved as a teenager to the United States, where his Carnegie Hall debut was rapturously received. The New York Times called him "perhaps the greatest violinist of all time."[1] Fritz Kreisler, another leading violinist of the twentieth century, said on hearing Heifetz's debut, "We might as well take our fiddles and smash them across our knees."[2]

He had a long and successful performing and recording career; after an injury to his right (bowing) arm, he focused on teaching.[3][4][5][6]


  • Early life 1
  • Career 2
    • Technique and timbre 2.1
    • Early recordings 2.2
  • Wartime 3
    • Decca recordings 3.1
  • Later recordings 4
    • Third Israel tour 4.1
  • Immigration to the U.S. 5
  • Later life 6
  • Family life 7
  • Filmography 8
  • Notable instruments 9
  • Discography 10
  • In popular culture 11
  • See also 12
  • References 13
  • External links 14

Early life

Heifetz was born into a Russian Jewish family in Vilno, then part of the Russian Empire.[7] His father, Reuven Heifetz, son of Elie, was a local violin teacher and served as the concertmaster of the Vilnius Theatre Orchestra for one season before the theatre closed down. While Jascha was an infant, his father did a series of tests, observing how his son responded to his fiddling. This convinced him that Jascha had great potential, and before Jascha was two years old, his father bought him a small violin, and taught him bowing and simple fingering.[8] At five Jascha started lessons with Ilya D. Malkin, a former pupil of Leopold Auer. He was a child prodigy, making his public debut at seven, in Kovno (now Kaunas, Lithuania) playing the Violin Concerto in E minor by Felix Mendelssohn. In 1910 he entered the Saint Petersburg Conservatory to study under Leopold Auer.

He played in Germany and Scandinavia, and met Fritz Kreisler for the first time in a Berlin private house, in a "private press matinee on May 20, 1912. The home was that of Arthur Abell, the pre-eminent Berlin music critic for the American magazine, Musical Courier. Among other noted violinists in attendance was Fritz Kreisler. After the 12-year-old Heifetz performed the Mendelssohn violin concerto, Abell reported that Kreisler said to all present, "We may as well break our fiddles across our knees." [9]

Heifetz visited much of Europe while still in his teens. In April 1911, Heifetz performed in an outdoor concert in St. Petersburg before 25,000 spectators; there was such a sensational reaction that police officers needed to protect the young violinist after the concert. In 1914, Heifetz performed with the Berlin Philharmonic conducted by Arthur Nikisch. The conductor was very impressed, saying he had never heard such an excellent violinist.[10]


Heifetz and his family left Russia in 1917, traveling by rail to the Russian far east and then by ship to the United States, arriving in San Francisco.

On October 27, 1917, Heifetz played for the first time in the United States, at Carnegie Hall in New York, and became an immediate sensation.[11][12] Fellow violinist Mischa Elman in the audience asked "Do you think it's hot in here?", whereupon the pianist Leopold Godowsky, in the next seat, imperturbably replied, "Not for pianists."[13] The reviews by the New York critics were rapturous.[11]

In 1917, Heifetz was elected as an honorary member of Groucho Marx he had been earning his living as a musician since the age of seven, Groucho answered, "And I suppose before that you were just a bum."

In 1954, Heifetz began working with pianist Brooks Smith, who would serve as Heifetz's accompanist for many years until he chose Dr. Ayke Agus as his accompanist.[14] Heifetz's musicianship was such that he would demonstrate to his accompanist how he wanted passages to sound on the piano, and would even suggest which fingerings to use.[15]

After the seasons of 1955-56, Heifetz announced that he would sharply curtail his concert activity, saying "I have been playing for a very long time". In 1958, he tripped in his kitchen and fractured his right hip, resulting in hospitalisation at Cedars of Lebanon Hospital, and a near fatal staphylococcus infection. He was invited to play Beethoven at the United Nations General Assembly, and entered leaning on a cane. By 1967, Heifetz had considerably curtailed his concert performances.[16]

Technique and timbre

Heifetz is considered to be one of the finest violinists of all time. He was "regarded as the greatest violin virtuoso since Paganini," wrote Lois Timnick of the Los Angeles Times.[17] "He set all standards for 20th-century violin playing...everything about him conspired to create a sense of awe," wrote music critic Harold Schonberg of the New York Times.[18] "The goals he set still remain, and for violinists today it's rather depressing that they may never really be attained again," wrote violinist Itzhak Perlman.[19]

Heifetz's technical command of his instrument – his physical ability to play the violin with stunning precision – is regarded by many critics as unequaled. That physical control enabled Heifetz to produce a distinctive tone quality, intense and shimmering, that came to be regarded as his trademark. Yet, from time to time his near-perfect technique and conservative stage demeanor caused some critics to accuse him of being overly mechanical, even cold. Virgil Thomson called Heifetz's style of playing "silk underwear music", a term he did not intend as a compliment. Other critics argue that he infused his playing with feeling and reverence for the composer's intentions. His style of playing was highly influential in defining the way modern violinists approach the instrument. His use of rapid vibrato, emotionally charged portamento, fast tempi, and superb bow control coalesced to create a highly distinctive sound that makes Heifetz's playing instantly recognizable to aficionados. The violinist Itzhak Perlman, who himself is noted for his rich warm tone and expressive use of portamento, describes Heifetz's tone as like "a tornado" because of its emotional intensity. Perlman also said that Heifetz preferred to be recorded relatively close to the microphone; as a result, one would perceive a somewhat different tone quality when listening to Heifetz during a concert hall performance.[20]

In creating his sound, Heifetz was very particular about his choice of strings. He used a silver wound Tricolore gut G string, plain gut unvarnished D and A strings, and a Goldbrokat steel E string medium including clear Hill brand rosin sparingly. Heifetz believed that playing on gut strings was important in rendering an individual sound.

Early recordings

Heifetz made his first recordings in Russia during 1910–11, while still a student of Leopold Auer. The existence of these recordings was not widely known until after Heifetz's death, when several sides (most notably François Schubert's L'Abeille) were reissued on an LP included as a supplement to The Strad magazine.

Shortly after his Carnegie Hall debut on November 7, 1917, Heifetz made his first recordings for the Victor Talking Machine Company; he would remain with Victor and its successor, RCA Victor, for most of his career. For several years, in the 1930s, Heifetz recorded primarily for HMV in the UK because RCA Victor cut back on expensive classical recording sessions during the Great Depression; these discs were issued in the US by RCA Victor. Heifetz often enjoyed playing chamber music. Various critics have blamed his limited success in chamber ensembles to the fact that his artistic personality tended to overwhelm his colleagues. Some notable collaborations include his 1941 recordings of piano trios by Beethoven, Schubert, and Brahms with cellist Emanuel Feuermann and pianist Arthur Rubinstein as well as a later collaboration with Rubinstein and cellist Gregor Piatigorsky, with whom he recorded trios by Maurice Ravel, Tchaikovsky, and Felix Mendelssohn. Both formations were sometimes referred to as the Million Dollar Trio. Heifetz also recorded some string quintets with violinist Israel Baker, violists William Primrose and Virginia Majewski, and Piatigorsky.

He recorded the Beethoven Violin Concerto in 1940 with the NBC Symphony Orchestra conducted by Arturo Toscanini, and again in stereo in 1955 with the Boston Symphony Orchestra conducted by Charles Munch. A live performance from April 9, 1944, of Heifetz playing the Mendelssohn Violin Concerto, again with Toscanini and the NBC Symphony, has also been released.

He performed and recorded Erich Wolfgang Korngold's Violin Concerto at a time when Korngold's scoring of numerous films for Warner Brothers prompted many classical musicians to develop the opinion that Korngold was not a "serious" composer and to avoid his music in order to avoid being associated with him.


Heifetz commissioned a number of pieces, perhaps most notably the Violin Concerto by William Walton. He also arranged a number of pieces, such as Hora Staccato by Grigoraș Dinicu, a Romanian whom Heifetz is rumoured to have called the greatest violinist he had ever heard. Heifetz also played and composed for the piano;[12] he performed mess hall jazz for soldiers at Allied camps across Europe during the Second World War, and under the alias Jim Hoyl he wrote a hit song, "When You Make Love to Me (Don't Make Believe)", which was sung by Bing Crosby.

Decca recordings

From 1944 to 1946, largely as a result of the Stephen Foster; these were pieces he often played as encores in his recitals. He was accompanied on the piano by Emanuel Bay or Milton Kaye. Among the more uncommon discs featured one of Decca's most popular artists, Bing Crosby, in the "Lullaby" from Benjamin Godard's opera Jocelyn and Where My Caravan Has Rested (arranged by Heifetz and Crosby) by Hermann Lohr (1872–1943); Decca's studio orchestra was conducted by Victor Young in the July 27, 1946, session. Recorded mostly in small studios, the digitally remastered performances (issued by MCA) have remarkably clear, high fidelity sound. However, Heifetz soon returned to RCA Victor, where he continued to make recordings until the early 1970s.[21]

Later recordings

Returning to RCA Victor in 1946, Heifetz continued to record extensively for the company, including solo, chamber, and concerto recordings, primarily with the Three Preludes (transcribed by Heifetz) with pianist Brooks Smith; and the 1970 recording of Bach's unaccompanied Chaconne from the Partita No. 2 in D minor.

Third Israel tour

Heifetz in Be'er Sheba, Israel, 1953

On his third tour to Israel in 1953, Heifetz included in his recitals the Violin Sonata by Richard Strauss. At the time, Strauss was considered by many to be a Nazi composer, and his works were unofficially banned in Israel along with those of Richard Wagner. Despite the fact that the Holocaust had occurred less than ten years earlier and a last-minute plea from the Israeli Minister of Education, the defiant Heifetz argued, "The music is above these factors ... I will not change my program. I have the right to decide on my repertoire." Throughout his tour the performance of the Strauss sonata was followed by dead silence.

Heifetz was attacked after his recital in Jerusalem outside his hotel by a young man who struck Heifetz's violin case with a crowbar, prompting Heifetz to use his bow-controlling right hand to protect his priceless violins. As the attacker started to flee, Heifetz alerted his companions, who were armed, "Shoot that man, he tried to kill me." The attacker escaped and was never found. The attack has since been attributed to the Kingdom of Israel terrorist group.[22][23] The incident made headlines in the press and Heifetz defiantly announced that he would not stop playing the Strauss. Threats continued to come, however, and he omitted the Strauss from his next recital without explanation. His last concert was cancelled after his swollen right hand began to hurt. He left Israel and did not return until 1970.

Immigration to the U.S.

Soviet musicians considered Heifetz and his teacher Leopold Auer as traitors to their home country for emigrating to the US, and Heifetz especially because of his very young age. Meanwhile, musicians who remained, such as David Oistrakh, were seen as patriots. Heifetz greatly criticized the Soviet regime; he condemned the International Tchaikovsky Competition for being biased against Western competitors. During the Carl Flesch Competition in London, Oistrakh tried to persuade Erick Friedman, Heifetz's star student, to enter the Tchaikovsky Competition, of which he was the principal juror. Hearing of this, Heifetz strongly advised against it, warning Friedman, "You will see what will happen there." Consequently, the competition received international outrage after Friedman, already a seasoned performer and recording artist for RCA, who had performed with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, London Symphony Orchestra, and the Boston Symphony Orchestra, among many others, was placed sixth behind players who had yet to establish themselves. Joseph Szigeti later informed Heifetz himself that he had given his student top scores.

Later life

After an only partially successful operation on his right shoulder in 1972, Heifetz ceased giving concerts and making records. Although his prowess as a performer remained intact and he continued to play privately until the end, his bow arm was affected and he could never again hold the bow as high as before.

Rudolf Koelman (left) with Jascha Heifetz, 1979

Heifetz taught the violin extensively, holding master classes first at UCLA, then at the University of Southern California, where the faculty included renowned cellist Gregor Piatigorsky and violist William Primrose. For a few years in the 1980s he also held classes in his private studio at home in Beverly Hills. His teaching studio can be seen today in the main building of the Colburn School and serves as an inspiration to the students there. During his teaching career Heifetz taught, among others, Erick Friedman, Elaine Skorodin,[24] Pierre Amoyal, Rudolf Koelman, Endre Granat, Eugene Fodor, Paul Rosenthal, Ilkka Talvi and Ayke Agus.

Heifetz died at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California in December 1987.

Heifetz owned the 1714 Dolphin Stradivarius, the 1731 "Piel" Stradivarius, the 1736 Carlo Tononi, and the 1742 ex David Guarneri del Gesù, the last of which he preferred and kept until his death. The Dolphin Strad is currently owned by the Nippon Music Foundation. The Heifetz Tononi violin used at his 1917 Carnegie Hall debut was left in his will to Sherry Kloss, Master-Teaching Assistant to Heifetz, with "one of my four good bows." Violinist Kloss wrote "Jascha Heifetz Through My Eyes" and is a co-founder of the Jascha Heifetz Society. The famed Guarneri is now in the San Francisco Legion of Honor Museum, as instructed by Heifetz in his will, and may only be taken out and played "on special occasions" by deserving players. The instrument has recently been on loan to San Francisco Symphony's concertmaster Alexander Barantschik, who featured it in 2006 with Andrei Gorbatenko and the San Francisco Academy Orchestra in 2006.[25] In 1989, Heifetz received a posthumous Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

Family life

Heifetz was married in 1928 to the silent motion picture actress Florence Vidor, ex-wife of King Vidor, and adopted her seven-year-old daughter, Suzanne. The couple had two more children, Josefa (born 1930) and Robert (1932–2001) before divorcing in 1945. In 1947, Heifetz married Frances Spielberger Spiegelberg, with whom he had another son, Joseph (known as Jay). The second marriage ended in divorce in 1962.

Heifetz's son Jay is a professional photographer. He was formerly head of marketing for the Los Angeles Philharmonic and Hollywood Bowl, and the Chief Financial Officer of Paramount Pictures' Worldwide Video Division. He lives and works in Fremantle, Western Australia. Heifetz's daughter, Josefa Heifetz Byrne, is a lexicographer, the author of the Dictionary of Unusual, Obscure and Preposterous Words.[26]

Heifetz's grandson Danny Heifetz is an accomplished drummer/percussionist and has played with Mr. Bungle, Dieselhed, Secret Chiefs 3 and Link Wray.

His extended family was active in Los Angeles progressive political circles in addition to music and art: they include artist Frances Heifetz-Bloch and her husband and daughter Kalman Bloch and Michele Zukovsky—co-principal clarinetists for the Los Angeles Philharmonic—and son Gregory Bloch, violinist for the Italian rock band Premiata Forneria Marconi, It's A Beautiful Day, and member of the Saturday Night Live orchestra from 1978-1980.

Heifetz had a difficult personality, and has even been described as "misanthropic". His own childhood had been difficult; his father was an extremely stern man who, even after Jascha had become the family's sole breadwinner, would still roundly criticise every performance.[27]


Heifetz played a featured role in the movie They Shall Have Music (1939) directed by Archie Mayo and written by John Howard Lawson and Irmgard von Cube. He played himself, stepping in to save a music school for poor children from foreclosure. He later appeared in the 1947 film, Carnegie Hall, performing an abridged version of the first movement of Tchaikovsky's Violin Concerto, with the orchestra led by Fritz Reiner, and consoling the star of the picture, who had watched his performance. In 1951, he appeared in the film Of Men and Music. In 1962, he appeared in a televised series of his master classes, and, in 1971, Heifetz on Television aired, an hour-long color special that featured the violinist performing a series of short works, the Scottish Fantasy by Max Bruch, and the Chaconne from the Partita No. 2 by J.S. Bach. Heifetz even conducted the orchestra, as the surviving video recording documents.

The most recent film featuring Heifetz, Jascha Heifetz: God's Fiddler, premiered on April 16, 2011 at the Colburn School of Music. It is described as "The only film biography of the world's most renowned violinist, featuring family home movies in Los Angeles and all over the world. The documentary-like film talks about Heifetz's life and accomplishments and gives an inside view of his personal life."[6]

Notable instruments


Jascha Heifetz was a prolific recording artist. All of his recordings have been reissued on compact disc.

In popular culture

  • On The Dick Van Dyke Show, Buddy and Sally (Morey Amsterdam and Rose Marie) are doing a comedy sketch and Sally says to Buddy, "Hey, how 'bout Jascha Heifetz, he's got a whole symphony orchestra behind him!", to which Buddy replies, "Yeah, he's afraid to play alone!"
  • On I Love Lucy, Lucy, Fred, and Ethel are trying to play as a trio. Fred plays the violin, Lucy plays the saxophone, and Ethel is at the piano. As they are tuning, Lucy says to Fred, "Give me your 'A', Jascha!"
  • In NFL Films' Super Bowl XI highlights, Oakland Raiders announcer Bill King exclaims that 'Jascha Heifetz never played a violin with more dexterity than Kenny Stabler is playing the Minnesota Vikings defense this afternoon in the Rose Bowl Stadium in Pasadena!'
  • In season 5 episode 11 of Mad About You Fran tells Jamie that Ryan's violin teacher says he is a regular Jascha Heifetz.
  • In the television series MASH, season 11, episode 3, "Foreign Affairs," Major Charles Winchester mentions Heifetz to a woman he is falling in love with.
  • Heifetz was often mentioned by Jack Benny in his long-running radio program. Benny often cited his violin playing as being on par with Heifetz.
  • Heifetz is referenced in
  • Heifetz is later mentioned in The Muppet Movie (1979) when Rowlf the Dog, after being praised by Kermit the Frog for playing an impressive piece of music on the piano, shrugged modestly and replied, "I'm no Heifetz, but I get by."
  • Heifetz is mentioned by Woody Allen in Broadway Danny Rose (1984). As one of Danny Rose's clients plays a glass harmonica Danny remarks "She's the Jascha Heifetz of her instrument!"
  • In Season 3, Episode 5 of "The Golden Girls." "Nothing Left To Fear But Fear Itself" (1987), Sophia Petrillo (played by Estelle Getty) makes reference to Jascha Heifetz in sarcastic retort, when her daughter Dorothy (Bea Arthur) asks an obvious question: "Ma, are you going to tell a story?" Sophia: "Please! Does Heifetz rosin a bow?"
  • He was mentioned by the character, Data, on the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode "The Ensigns of Command" (1989) as one of the violinists he studied prior to his concert in Ten-Forward aboard the USS Enterprise.
  • From Woody Allen's Hollywood Ending (2002): "If there's a brownout, Heifetz will still be on key, but your guitarist won't be."
  • The character of Yasha the violinist in Marc Blitzstein's The Cradle Will Rock is a reference to Jascha Heifetz.
  • In the book The Jordan Rules, then-Chicago Bulls coach Phil Jackson made a reference to Heifetz by saying that, just as the musician was the featured performer no matter where he played in a performance, Michael Jordan would be the center of the Bulls' triangle offense, even when its design provided greater offensive opportunities for Jordan's teammates.
  • Heifetz is one of the subjects of [28]
  • For decades, an urban legend has persisted that Jascha Heifetz had a pseudonym of "Joseph Hague," a.k.a. "Victor Belmor." In fact, Victor Belmor was born Joseph Hague, immigrated to the United States from Germany after WWII with his wife and children, and was very much a real person. Belmor produced his own records and book, several of which are being erroneously sold as the work of Jascha Heifetz. The two families are unrelated and it is unlikely that either man knew of this phenomenon, or even knew each other.
  • In the manga Tokyo Ghoul:Re, Arima is compared to Heifetz.

See also


  1. ^ "Jascha Heifetz Is Dead at 86; A Virtuoso Since Childhood".  
  2. ^ Nikolaus de Palezieux, Jascha Heifetz – The Supreme (2000 RCA Victor compilation)
  3. ^ Kennedy, Michael and Joyce Bourne. .The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music Oxford University Press, 2004. p. 331.
  4. ^ "The Best Violinists." Time. February 2, 1962.
  5. ^ Wallechinsky, David and Amy Wallace. The New Book of Lists. Canongate, 2005. p. 94.
  6. ^ a b Rosen, Peter. "God's Fiddler". Peter Rosen Productions. Retrieved May 26, 2011. 
  7. ^ The record confirming his birth on January 20, 1901 (full archival citation – LVIA/728/4/77) is held at the Lithuanian State Historical Archives (LVIA). A copy of the record is held on microfilm by the family history archives of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Salt Lake City (No 2205068, image number – 795). The record states the family was registered in Polotsk.
  8. ^  
  9. ^
  10. ^ Nikolaus de Palezieux, Jascha Heifetz – The Supreme (2000 RCA Victor compilation)
  11. ^ a b Kahn (1969), p.66
  12. ^ a b Agus, Ayke (2001). Heifetz As I Knew Him. Amadeus Press. p. 4.  
  13. ^ MCA Classics liner notes, 1988
  14. ^ Heifetz As I Knew Him, by Dr. Ayke Agus
  15. ^ "Obituary: Brooks Smith", International Piano Quarterly, vols 4-5, p. 8, 2000
  16. ^ Kahn (1969), p.68
  17. ^ Lois Timnick (December 12, 1987). "Jascha Heifetz, 86, Hailed as Greatest Violinist, Dies". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2014-12-10. 
  18. ^ Harold Schonberg (December 28, 1987). "Critic's Notebook; Repertory of Legends Immortalizes Jascha Heifetz". New York Times. Retrieved 2014-12-10. 
  19. ^ Itzhak Perlman (April 19, 2001). "The Fiddler King". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-12-10. 
  20. ^ The Art of Violin (c) 2000 Ideale Audience / IMG Artists / LA Sept-Arte
  21. ^ Jascha Heifetz: The Decca Masters digitally remastered by MCA Classics in 1988, RCA Victor liner notes
  22. ^ Pedahzur, Ami, and Arie Perliger (2009). Jewish Terrorism in Israel. Columbia University Press. p. 176.
  23. ^ Sprinzak, Ehud (1999). Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination. Simon and Schuster. p. 68.
  24. ^ Elaine Skorodin. Centerstage – Chicago's Original City Guide. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  25. ^ "San Francisco Academy Orchestra Pressroom" (Press release). The San Francisco Academy Orchestra. 23 October 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  26. ^ Heifetz, Josefa (1974). Mrs. Byrne's dictionary of unusual, obscure, and preposterous words. Secaucus, NJ: University Books.  
  27. ^ Horthistoria, Three Jewish Violinists and California, 8 September 2005
  28. ^ George Gershwin, "Mischa, Jascha, Toscha, Sascha" (1922) on YouTube. Retrieved 4 May 2012.

External links

  • Jascha Heifetz official website
  • Jascha Heifetz fan website
  • Prominent People – Jascha Heifetz
  • Jascha Heifetz at Sony BMG Masterworks
  • NPR Classical Music: Heifetz at War: Behind the Scenes, Near the Front
  • "The Violinist of the Century" – 3-part series on
  • Jascha Heifetz at Find a Grave
  •  "Heifetz, Jascha".  
  • Download his Sibelius's Concerto here
  • Jascha Heifetz Collection (ARS.0046), Stanford Archive of Recorded Sound
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.