World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Keratitis

Article Id: WHEBN0000470742
Reproduction Date:

Title: Keratitis  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Conjunctivitis, List of ICD-9 codes 360–389: diseases of the sense organs, Cogan syndrome, Photophobia, Inflammations
Collection: Disorders of Sclera and Cornea, Inflammations
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Keratitis

Keratitis
An eye with non-ulcerative sterile keratitis.
Classification and external resources
Specialty Ophthalmology
ICD-10 H16
ICD-9-CM 370
DiseasesDB 7150
MeSH D007634

Keratitis is a condition in which the eye's cornea, the front part of the eye, becomes inflamed. The condition is often marked by moderate to intense pain and usually involves any of the following symptoms: pain, impaired eyesight, photophobia, red eye and a 'gritty' sensation.[1]

Contents

  • Classification (by chronicity) 1
    • Acute 1.1
    • Chronic 1.2
  • Classification (infective) 2
    • Viral 2.1
    • Bacterial 2.2
    • Fungal 2.3
    • Amoebic 2.4
    • Parasitic 2.5
  • Classification (by stage of disease) 3
  • Classification (by environmental aetiology) 4
  • Forms of Keratitis in non-humans 5
  • Treatment 6
  • Prognosis 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Classification (by chronicity)

Acute

Chronic

Classification (infective)

Viral

Bacterial

  • Bacterial keratitis. Bacterial infection of the cornea can follow from an injury or from wearing contact lenses. The bacteria involved are Staphylococcus aureus and for contact lens wearers, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains enzymes that can digest the cornea.[2]

Fungal

Amoebic

Acanthamoeba keratitis
  • Amoebic infection of the cornea is a serious corneal infection, often affecting contact lens wearers.[3][4] It is usually caused by Acanthamoeba. On May 25, 2007, the CDC issued a health advisory due to increased risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) associated with use of Advanced Medical Optics (AMO) Complete Moisture Plus Multi-Purpose eye solution.[5]

Parasitic

Classification (by stage of disease)

Classification (by environmental aetiology)

Forms of Keratitis in non-humans

  • Feline eosinophilic keratitis — affecting cats and horses; possibly initiated by feline herpesvirus 1 or other viral infection.[7]

Treatment

Treatment depends on the cause of the keratitis. Infectious keratitis can progress rapidly, and generally requires urgent antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral therapy to eliminate the pathogen. Antibacterial solutions include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin. It is unclear if steroid eye drops are useful or not.[8]

In addition, contact lens wearers are typically advised to discontinue contact lens wear and replace contaminated contact lenses and contact lens cases. (Contaminated lenses and cases should not be discarded as cultures from these can be used to identify the pathogen).

Aciclovir is the mainstay of treatment for HSV keratitis and steroids should be avoided at all costs in this condition. Application of steroids to a dendritic ulcer caused by HSV will result in rapid and significant worsening of the ulcer to form an 'amoeboid' or 'geographic' ulcer, so named because of the ulcer's map like shape.

Prognosis

Some infections may scar the cornea to limit vision. Others may result in perforation of the cornea, (an infection inside the eye), or even loss of the eye. With proper medical attention, infections can usually be successfully treated without long-term visual loss.

See also

References

  1. ^ Keratitis
  2. ^ Tang A, Marquart ME, Fratkin JD, McCormick CC, Caballero AR, Gatlin HP, O'Callaghan RJ (2009). "Properties of PASP: A Pseudomonas Protease Capable of Mediating Corneal Erosions". Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 50 (8): 3794–801.  
  3. ^ Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Khan, Naveed A.; Walochnik, Julia (2015). keratitis: diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment"Acanthamoeba"An update on . Parasite 22: 10.  
  4. ^ Martín-Navarro, M.; Lorenzo-Morales, J.; Cabrera-Serra, G.; Rancel, F.; Coronado-Alvarez, M.; Piñero, E.; Valladares, B. (Nov 2008). "The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic individuals in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain". Journal of medical microbiology 57 (Pt 11): 1399–1404.  
  5. ^ CDC Advisory
  6. ^ "What is onchocerciasis?". CDC. Retrieved 2010-06-28. transmission is most intense in remote African rural agricultural villages, located near rapidly flowing streams...(WHO) expert committee on onchocerciasis estimates the global prevalence is 17.7 million, of whom about 270,000 are blind. 
  7. ^ VET.uga.edu
  8. ^ Herretes, S; Wang, X; Reyes, JM (Oct 16, 2014). "Topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy for bacterial keratitis.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 10: CD005430.  

External links

  • Facts About the Cornea and Corneal Disease The National Eye Institute (NEI)
  • Filimentary keratitis
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.