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Housekeeping gene

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Title: Housekeeping gene  
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Subject: Methylation, Glossary of gene expression terms, C3orf14-Chromosome 3 open reading frame 14, Cystatin C, Real-time polymerase chain reaction
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Housekeeping gene

This article discusses the general topic of housekeeping genes. For a list of housekeeping genes that should be used as reference standards please see reference genes


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See also

  • SPAG7[1]
  • SRM[1][9] Spermidine synthase
  • TEGT[1][9] Bax-1 inhibitor
  • DAZAP2[1][9] Deleted in azoospermia
  • MEA1[1][9] Male enhanced antigen

Although this page is devoted to genes that should be ubiquitously expressed, this section is for genes whose current name reflects their relative upregulation in testes




  • ALAS1 Aminolevulinic Acid Synthase type 1 (type 2 is erythroid and associated with porphyria)
  • ARHGEF2[1] Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor
  • ARMET[1][9] Mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor
  • AES[1][9] amino terminal enhancer of split
  • BECN1[1] involved in autophagy and partners with PI3K
  • BUD31[1] formerly Maternal G10 transcript
  • Creatine kinase[1] CKB (ATP reservoir)
  • Cytidine deaminase[1] questionable: not present in very high levels at all
  • CPNE1[1]
  • ENSA (gene)[1]
  • FTH1[1] Heavy chain of Ferritin
  • GDI2[1] rab/ras vessicular trafficking
  • GUK1[1][9] Guanylate kinase transfers phosphate from ATP to GMP
  • HPRT[1][4][11] Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase
  • IFITM1[1] Induced by interferon, transmembrane protein
  • JTB (gene)[1][9] Jumping translocation breakpoint
  • MMPL2[1]
  • NME2[1][9] (formerly NM23B) Nucleoside diphosphate kinase
  • NONO[1][4]
  • P4HB[1][9]
  • PRDX1[1] peroxiredoxin (reduces peroxides)
  • PTMA[1] Prothymosin
  • RPA2[1] Binds DNA during replication to keep it straightened out
  • SULT1A3[1] Sulfate conjugation (note: SULT1C is cited in earlier literature as being ubiquitous [9] but this may be an example of different tags being used to refer to a common area of 2 closely related genes. If the tag is too short, then it may not be specific enough to truly specify one member of a gene family from another)
  • SYNGR2[1][9] Synaptogyrin (may participate in vessicle translocation)
  • Tetratricopeptide, TTC1[1] small glutamine rich


Casein Kinase

  • CD40[1] formerly TNFRSF5

Tissue Necrosis Factor

Growth Factors

  • ADRBK1[1] can downregulate response to epinephrine
  • AGPAT1[1][9] acyl 3 phosphoglycerol acyl transferase
  • ARF1[1][9]
  • ARF3[1]
  • ARF4[1]
  • ARF5[1][9]
  • ARL2[1][9] RAS Superfamily
  • CSF1[1] Colony stimulating factor not highly expressed constitutively at 5-12
  • CSK C-src tyrosine kinase[1]
  • DCT[1][9] dopachrome tautomerase
  • EFNA3[1]
  • FKBP1A[1][9]
  • GDI1[1] GDP Dissociation inhibitor (Rab family)
  • GNAS1[1] ubiquitously expressed, but differentially imprinted
  • GNAI2[1][9]
  • HAX1[1][9] associated with tyrosine kinases
  • ILK[1] Integrin linked kinase
  • MAPKAPK2[1]
  • MAP2K2[1][9]
  • MAP3K11[1]
  • PITPNM[1] Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein
  • RAC1[1][9] Ro GTPase involved with many signaling pathways
  • RAP1B[1][9] GTPase involved with cell adhesion
  • RAGA[1][9] Ras-related GTP Binding
  • STK19[1]
  • STK24[1] Serine/Threonine Kinase
  • STK25[9]
  • YWHAB[1][9] Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta polypeptide
  • YWHAH[1][9] Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, h polypeptide
  • YWHAQ[1][9] Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta polypeptide
  • YWHAZ[1][9] Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide


HLA/Immunoglobulin/Cell recognition


Channels and Transporters

Cell Adhesion



A specialized form of cell signaling

Organelle Synthesis

[4] [1] [11]




  • RNH[1][9] Ribonuclease inhibitor


  • PSMA1 NM_002786
  • PSMA2 NM_002787
  • PSMA3 NM_002788
  • PSMA4 NM_002789
  • PSMA5 NM_002790
  • PSMA6 NM_002791
  • PSMA7 NM_002792 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, alpha type, 7 (PSMA7),
  • PSMB1 NM_002793 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 1 (PSMB1), mRNA
  • PSMB2 NM_002794 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 2 (PSMB2), mRNA
  • PSMB3 NM_002795
  • PSMB4 NM_002796 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 4 (PSMB4), mRNA
  • PSMB5 NM_002797
  • PSMB6 NM_002798
  • PSMB7 NM_002799 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) subunit, beta type, 7 (PSMB7), mRNA
  • PSMC2 NM_002803
  • PSMC3 NM_002804
  • PSMC4 NM_006503
  • PSMC5 NM_002805
  • PSMC6 NM_002806
  • PSMD1 NM_002807
  • PSMD10 NM_002814
  • PSMD11 NM_002815 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 11
  • PSMD12 NM_002816
  • PSMD13 NM_002817
  • PSMD14 NM_005805
  • PSMD2 NM_002808
  • PSMD3 NM_002809
  • PSMD4 NM_002810
  • PSMD5 NM_005047
  • PSMD6 NM_014814
  • PSMD7 NM_002811
  • PSMD8 NM_002812 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) 26S subunit, non-ATPase, 8 (PSMD8),
  • PSMD9 NM_002813
  • PSME2 NM_002818 Homo sapiens proteasome (prosome, macropain) activator subunit 2 (PA28 beta)
  • PSME3 NM_005789
  • PSMF1 NM_006814
  • PSMG2 NM_020232
  • PSMG3 NM_032302
  • PSMG4 NM_001128591
  • UBA1 NM_003334 Homo sapiens ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 (A1S9T and BN75 temperature
  • UBA2 NM_005499
  • UBA3 NM_003968
  • UBA5 NM_024818
  • UBA52 NM_003333
  • UBAC2 NM_177967
  • UBALD1 NM_145253
  • UBAP1 NM_016525
  • UBAP2L NM_014847
  • UBB NM_018955 Homo sapiens ubiquitin B (UBB), mRNA
  • UBC NM_021009 Homo sapiens ubiquitin C (UBC), mRNA
  • UBE2A NM_003336
  • UBE2B NM_003337
  • UBE2D2 NM_003339 Homo sapiens ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2D 2 (UBC4/5 homolog, yeast)
  • UBE2D3 NM_003340
  • UBE2D4 NM_015983
  • UBE2E1 NM_003341
  • UBE2E2 NM_152653
  • UBE2E3 NM_006357
  • UBE2F NM_080678
  • UBE2G2 NM_003343
  • UBE2H NM_003344
  • UBE2I NM_003345 Homo sapiens ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2I (UBC9 homolog, yeast) (UBE2I),
  • UBE2J1 NM_016021
  • UBE2J2 NM_058167
  • UBE2K NM_005339
  • UBE2L3 NM_003347
  • UBE2M NM_003969 Homo sapiens ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2M (UBC12 homolog, yeast) (UBE2M),
  • UBE2N NM_003348
  • UBE2NL NM_001012989
  • UBE2Q1 NM_017582
  • UBE2R2 NM_017811
  • UBE2V1 NM_021988
  • UBE2V2 NM_003350
  • UBE2W NM_018299
  • UBE2Z NM_023079
  • UBE3A NM_000462
  • UBE3B NM_130466
  • UBE3C NM_014671
  • UBE4A NM_004788
  • UBE4B NM_006048
  • USP10 NM_005153
  • USP14 NM_005151
  • USP16 NM_006447
  • USP19 NM_006677
  • USP22 NM_015276
  • USP25 NM_013396
  • USP27X NM_001145073
  • USP33 NM_015017
  • USP38 NM_032557
  • USP39 NM_006590
  • USP4 NM_003363
  • USP47 NM_017944
  • USP5 NM_003481
  • USP7 NM_003470
  • USP8 NM_005154
  • USP9X NM_001039590


  • CTSD[1][9] can degrade insulin in hepatocytes
  • CSTB[1] May protect cell from leaking lysosomes
  • LAMP1[1][9]
  • LAMP2
  • M6PR[1][9]


  • ATP2C1 NM_014382
  • ATP5A1 NM_004046 Homo sapiens ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha
  • ATP5B NM_001686
  • ATP5C1 NM_005174
  • ATP5D NM_001687 Homo sapiens ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, delta
  • ATP5F1 NM_001688
  • ATP5G2 NM_005176
  • ATP5G3 NM_001689 Homo sapiens ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit c
  • ATP5H NM_006356 Homo sapiens ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit d
  • ATP5J NM_001685
  • ATP5J2 NM_004889 Homo sapiens ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F0 complex, subunit f,
  • ATP5J2-PTCD1 NM_001198879
  • ATP5L NM_006476
  • ATP5O NM_001697 Homo sapiens ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit
  • ATP5S NM_015684
  • ATP5SL NM_018035
  • ATP6AP1 NM_001183 Homo sapiens ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal interacting protein 1 (ATP6IP1),
  • ATP6V0A2 NM_012463
  • ATP6V0B NM_004047 Homo sapiens ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 21kDa, V0 subunit c (ATP6V0B),
  • ATP6V0C NM_001694 Homo sapiens ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 16kDa, V0 subunit c (ATP6V0C),
  • ATP6V0D1 NM_004691
  • ATP6V0E1 NM_003945
  • ATP6V1C1 NM_001695
  • ATP6V1D NM_015994
  • ATP6V1E1 NM_001696 Homo sapiens ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E isoform 1
  • ATP6V1F NM_004231 Homo sapiens ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 14kDa, V1 subunit F (ATP6V1F),
  • ATP6V1G1 NM_004888 Homo sapiens ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G isoform 1
  • ATP6V1H NM_015941
  • ATPAF2 NM_145691
  • ATPIF1 NM_016311


  • COX4I1[1] 001861
  • COX5B[1][9] NM_001862
  • COX6B1[1][9] NM_001863
  • COX6C NM_004374
  • COX7A2 NM_001865 Homo sapiens cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2 (liver) (COX7A2),
  • COX7A2L[1] NM_004718
  • COX7C[1] NM_001867
  • COX8[1]
  • COX8A NM_004074 Homo sapiens cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIII (COX8), nuclear gene encoding
  • COX11 NM_004375
  • COX14 NM_032901
  • COX15 NM_004376
  • COX16 NM_016468
  • COX19 NM_001031617
  • COX20 NM_198076
  • CYC1[1] Homo sapiens cytochrome c-1 (CYC1)
  • UQCC NM_018244 Required for the assembly of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III or cytochrome b-c1 complex)
  • UQCR10 NM_013387
  • UQCR11 NM_006830 Homo sapiens ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (6.4kD) subunit (UQCR), mRNA
  • UQCRB NM_006294
  • UQCRC1 NM_003365 Homo sapiens ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein I (UQCRC1), mRNA
  • UQCRC2 NM_003366
  • UQCRHL NM_001089591
  • UQCRQ NM_014402 Homo sapiens low molecular mass ubiquinone-binding protein (9.5kD) (QP-C), mRNA

(Note that COX1, COX2, and COX3 are mitochondrially encoded)

Cytochrome C Oxidase

NADH Dehydrogenase

  • COMT[1] Catechol-O-methyl transferase)

Amino Acid Metabolism

  • HADHA[1] Trifunctional protein subunit alpha

Lipid Metabolism

  • SDHA[1] NM_004168 Succinate Dehydrogenase subunit A
  • SDHAF2 NM_017841
  • SDHB NM_002973 Iron-sulfur protein (IP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q)
  • SDHC NM_003000 Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
  • SDHD NM_003001

Citric Acid Cycle

Carbohydrate Metabolism[9]

  • PRKAG1[1] Senses energy level and inactivates HMGCoA reductase and Acetyl CoA Carboxylase
  • PRKAA1 NM_006251 Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism
  • PRKAB1 NM_006253 Non-catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism
  • PRKACA NM_002730 Phosphorylates a large number of substrates in the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
  • PRKAG1 NM_002733 Homo sapiens protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 1 non-catalytic subunit (PRKAG1), mRNA
  • PRKAR1A NM_002734 Regulatory subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinases involved in cAMP signaling in cells
  • PRKRIP1 NM_024653 Binds double-stranded RNA. Inhibits EIF2AK2 kinase activity (By similarity).


  • MCM3AP[1] possibly a primase
  • XRCC5 NM_021141 Ku80[1]
  • XRCC6 NM_001469 Homo sapiens thyroid autoantigen: Single-stranded DNA-dependent ATP-dependent helicase. Has a role in chromosome translocation.

DNA Repair/Replication


  • DAD1[1][9] Defender against cell death
  • DAP3[1] Involved in mediating interferon-gamma-induced cell death.
  • DAXX[1] Death Associated Protein 6


  • IST1[1][9] (locates to central dividing line of dividing cells)
  • RAD1Homo sapiens ribonuclease/angiogenin inhibitor (RNH), mRNA
  • RAD17 NM_002869 Essential for sustained cell growth, maintenance of chromosomal stability, and ATR-dependent checkpoint activation upon DNA damage
  • RAD23B NM_002873
  • RAD50 NM_005732
  • RAD51C NM_002874
  • CCNB1IP1 NM_021178 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase. Modulates cyclin B levels and participates in the regulation of cell cycle progression through the G2 phase
  • CCNDBP1 NM_012142 May negatively regulate cell cycle progression
  • CCNG1 NM_004060 May play a role in growth regulation
  • CCNH NM_001239 Involved in cell cycle control and in RNA transcription by RNA polymerase II. Its expression and activity are constant throughout the cell cycle
  • CCNK NM_001099402 Regulatory subunit of cyclin-dependent kinases that mediates phosphorylation of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II
  • CCNL1 NM_020307 Transcriptional regulator which participates in regulating the pre-mRNA splicing process
  • CCNL2 NM_030937 Transcriptional regulator which participates in regulating the pre-mRNA splicing process. Also modulates the expression of critical apoptotic factor, leading to cell apoptosis.
  • CCNY NM_145012 Positive regulatory subunit of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK14/PFTK1 and CDK16. Acts as a cell-cycle regulator of Wnt signaling pathway during G2/M phase
  • CENPB[1] Centromere protein B
  • CTBP1[1][9] Centromere protein T

There is significant overlap in function with regards to some of these proteins. In particular, the Rho-related genes are important in nuclear trafficking (i.e.: mitosis) as well as with mobility along the cytoskeleton in general. These genes of particular interest in cancer research.

Cell Cycle


Heat Shock Proteins

  • PPID Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase D
  • PPIE Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase E
  • PPIF Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F
  • PPIG Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase G
  • PPIH[4] Cyclophilin H
  • CANX[1][9] Calnexin. Folding of glycoproteins within endoplasmic reticulum
  • CAPN1 Calpain subunit
  • CAPN7
  • CAPNS1[1][9] Calpain protease subunit
  • NACA[1][9] Nascent polypeptide associated complex alpha polypeptide
  • NACA2
  • PFDN2 Prefoldin 2
  • PFDN4 Prefoldin 4
  • PFDN5 Prefoldin 5
  • PFDN6 Prefoldin 6
  • SNX2 Sorting nexin 2
  • SNX3[1] Sorting nexin 3
  • SNX4 Sorting nexin 4
  • SNX5 Sorting nexin 5
  • SNX6 Sorting nexin 6
  • SNX9 Sorting nexin 9
  • SNX12 Sorting nexin 12
  • SNX13 Sorting nexin 13
  • SNX17 [9] Sorting nexin 17
  • SNX18 Sorting nexin 18
  • SNX19 Sorting nexin 19
  • SNX25 Sorting nexin 25
  • SSR1 Translocon-associated protein TRAPA. Protein translocation in ER
  • SSR2[1] Translocon-associated protein TRAPB. Protein translocation in ER
  • SSR3 Translocon-associated protein TRAPG. Protein translocation in ER
  • SUMO1 Protein targeting
  • SUMO3 Protein targeting

Protein Processing

RNA Polymerase

Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins

  • RPN1[1][9] Ribophorin anchors the ribosome to rough endoplasmic reticulum


Ribosomal Proteins

RNA Binding Protein
  • AARS NM_001605 alanyl-tRNA synthetase
  • AARS2 NM_020745 alanyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • AARSD1 NM_001261434 alanyl-tRNA synthetase domain containing 1
  • CARS NM_001751 cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase
  • CARS2 NM_024537 cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)
  • DARS NM_001349 aspartyl-tRNA synthetase
  • DARS2 NM_018122 aspartyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • EARS2 NM_001083614 glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • FARS2 NM_006567 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • FARSA NM_004461 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, alpha subunit
  • FARSB NM_005687 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, beta subunit
  • GARS NM_002047 glycyl-tRNA synthetase
  • HARS NM_002109 histidyl-tRNA synthetase
  • HARS2 NM_012208 histidyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • IARS NM_002161 isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase
  • IARS2 NM_018060 isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • KARS NM_005548 Homo sapiens lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KARS), mRNA
  • LARS2 NM_015340 isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • MARS NM_004990 methionyl-tRNA synthetase
  • MARS2 NM_138395 methionyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • NARS NM_004539 asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase
  • NARS2 NM_024678 asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial (putative)
  • QARS NM_005051 glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase
  • RARS NM_002884 arginyl-tRNA synthetase
  • RARS2 NM_020320 arginyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • SARS NM_006513 Homo sapiens seryl-tRNA synthetase (SARS), mRNA
  • TARS NM_152295 threonyl-tRNA synthetase
  • VARS2 NM_020442 valyl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • WARS2 NM_015836 tryptophanyl tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial
  • YARS NM_003680 Homo sapiens tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YARS), mRNA
  • YARS2 NM_001040436 Homo sapiens tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YARS), mRNA mitochondrial
tRNA Synthetases

Translation Factors

  • BAT1[9] aka DDX39B
  • HNRPD[1][9] Homo sapiens heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (AU-rich element RNA
  • HNRPK[1][9] Homo sapiens heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (HNRPK), transcript
  • PABPN1[1] poly(A) binding protein, nuclear 1
  • SRSF3[9] splicing factor, arginine/serine-rich
Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated proteins B and B'

RNA Splicing

  • PUF60[1][9] Homo sapiens fuse-binding protein-interacting repressor (SIAHBP1), transcript
  • ATF1 NM_005171
  • ATF2 NM_001880
  • ATF4[1][9] Activating transcription factor 4 NM_001675
  • ATF6 NM_007348
  • ATF7 NM_001206682
  • ATF7IP NM_018179
  • BTF3[1][9] NM_001207 Homo sapiens basic transcription factor 3
  • E2F4[1] Homo sapiens E2F transcription factor 4, p107/p130-binding (E2F4), mRNA
  • ERH (gene)[1][9] Enhancer of rudimentary homolog of drosophila (which in turn is the first enzymatic step in pyrimidine synthesis. Regulated by MITF)
  • HMGB1[1][9] High mobility group box binds DNA
  • ILF2[1] Homo sapiens interleukin enhancer binding factor 2, 45kDa (ILF2), mRNA
  • IER2[1] formerly ETR101 Immediate Early Protein?
  • JUND[1][9] Homo sapiens jun D proto-oncogene (JUND), mRNA
  • TCEB2[1][9] Elongin
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein

Transcription Factors

Gene Expression

The following is a partial list of "housekeeping genes." For a more complete list see list compiled by Eli Eisenberg and Erez Lavanon.[8] Entries that appear without a reference are from this updated list from 2013.

Common housekeeping genes in human


  • Common housekeeping genes in human 1
    • Gene Expression 1.1
      • Transcription Factors 1.1.1
        • Repressors
      • RNA Splicing 1.1.2
      • Translation Factors 1.1.3
        • tRNA Synthetases
        • RNA Binding Protein
      • Ribosomal Proteins 1.1.4
      • Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins 1.1.5
      • RNA Polymerase 1.1.6
      • Protein Processing 1.1.7
      • Heat Shock Proteins 1.1.8
      • Histone 1.1.9
      • Cell Cycle 1.1.10
      • Apoptosis 1.1.11
      • Oncogenes 1.1.12
      • DNA Repair/Replication 1.1.13
    • Metabolism 1.2
      • Carbohydrate Metabolism 1.2.1
      • Citric Acid Cycle 1.2.2
      • Lipid Metabolism 1.2.3
      • Amino Acid Metabolism 1.2.4
      • NADH Dehydrogenase 1.2.5
      • Cytochrome C Oxidase 1.2.6
      • ATPase 1.2.7
      • Lysosome 1.2.8
      • Proteosome 1.2.9
      • Ribonuclease 1.2.10
      • Thioreductase 1.2.11
    • Structural 1.3
      • Cytoskeletal 1.3.1
      • Organelle Synthesis 1.3.2
      • Mitochondrion 1.3.3
    • Surface 1.4
      • Cell Adhesion 1.4.1
      • Channels and Transporters 1.4.2
      • Receptors 1.4.3
      • HLA/Immunoglobulin/Cell recognition 1.4.4
    • Kinases/Signalling 1.5
      • Growth Factors 1.5.1
      • Tissue Necrosis Factor 1.5.2
      • Casein Kinase 1.5.3
    • Miscellaneous 1.6
      • Open_reading_frame 1.6.1
      • Sperm/Testis 1.6.2
  • See also 2
  • References 3

The following represent genes that should probably not be used for reference purposes: GUSB,[4] RPLP0,[4] and TFRC.[4] GAPDH, HSP90, and β-actin. Although they were once considered as "housekeeping genes," recent data suggests that they are not as reliable as once thought.[8] Although the terms "housekeeping genes" and "reference genes" are used somewhat interchangeably, caution must be used in selecting genes for reference purposes.

Commonly used housekeeping genes are LDHA,[4] NONO,[4] PGK1,[4] PPIH,[4]

In a study involving cardiac stem cells, ACTB and GAPDH were found to be the most consistent (although recent data now suggests otherwise), while β2M, HPRT1, and RPLP1 varied significantly between neonatal and adult cardiac cells.[6] The origin of the term "housekeeping gene" remains obscure. Literature from 1976 used the term to describe specifically tRNA and rRNA.[7] Interpreting gene expression data can be problematic, with most human genes registering 5-10 copies per cell (possibly representing error). Housekeeping genes are expressed in at least 25 copies per cell and sometimes number in the thousands.

[5]) are expressed at relatively constant levels in most non-pathological situations, other housekeeping genes may vary depending on experimental conditions.[4],PPIH [4],PGK1 [4],NONO [4],LDHA Although some housekeeping genes (such as [3][2][1]

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