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Economy of Oceania

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Title: Economy of Oceania  
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Economy of Oceania

Economy of Oceania
Population 34,700,201 (2010)[1]
GDP PPP: US$720 billion (2003)
GDP per capita
PPP: $22,647
During 2003 unless otherwise stated. Most numbers are from the UNDP from 2002, some numbers exclude certain countries for lack of information.

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.
The skyline of the Sydney central business district in Australia. Sydney is the most populous city in Oceania and is one of Oceania's only two Alpha world cities.
The Downtown area of Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea. Port Moresby is the most populous Oceanian city outside of Australia and New Zealand.

The economy of Oceania comprises more than 14 separate countries and their associated economies.

On a total scale the region has approximately 34,700,201[1] inhabitants who are spread among 30,000 islands in the South Pacific bordered between Asia and the Americas. This region has a diverse mix of economies from the highly developed and globally competitive financial market of Australia to the much less developed economies that belong to many of its island neighbours. New Zealand is the only other 1st world nation in the region, although the economy of Australia is by far the largest and most dominant economy in the region and one of the largest in the world.


  • Regional variation 1
  • Trade blocs 2
  • Currency 3
  • Economic sectors 4
    • Service industry 4.1
    • Manufacturing 4.2
    • Tourism 4.3
    • Agriculture and fishing 4.4
    • International aid and charity 4.5
      • Oceanian donor nations 4.5.1
      • Oceanian recipient states 4.5.2
  • Global trade relations 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7

Regional variation

to be completed


Trade blocs

The smallest Pacific nations rely on trade with Australia, New Zealand and the United States for exporting goods and for accessing other products.

Australia and New Zealand's trading arrangements are known as Closer Economic Relations. Australia and New Zealand, along with other countries, are members of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) and the East Asia Summit (EAS), which may become trade blocs in the future particularly EAS.


Below is a list of the currencies of Oceania, with exchange rates between each currency and both the Euro and US Dollars as of 28 October 2007. Australian figures are accurate as of 19 April 2012.

Country Currency worth in Euro worth in USD Central bank
Australia Australian Dollar 0.7899 1.0376 Reserve Bank of Australia
Federated States of Micronesia US Dollar 0.69483 1
Fiji Fiji Dollar 0.449888 0.647480 Reserve Bank of Fiji
Cook Islands New Zealand Dollar 0.526538 0.777634 Reserve Bank of New Zealand
French Polynesia Pacific Franc 0.008380 0.012065 Institut d'émission d'Outre-Mer
Kiribati Australian Dollar 0.7899 1.0376 Reserve Bank of Australia
Marshall Islands US Dollar 0.69483 1
Nauru Australian Dollar 0.63676 1.0376 Reserve Bank of Australia
New Caledonia Pacific Franc 0.008380 0.012065 Institut d'émission d'Outre-Mer
New Zealand New Zealand Dollar 0.526538 0.777634 Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Niue New Zealand Dollar 0.526538 0.777634 Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Palau US Dollar 0.69483 1
Papua New Guinea Kina 0.243569 0.350545 Bank of Papua New Guinea
Samoa Tala 0.260241 0.374500 Central Bank of Samoa
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands dollar 0.142410 0.0989611 Central Bank of Solomon Islands
Tonga Pa'anga 0.354054 0.509500 National Reserve Bank of Tonga
Tokelau New Zealand Dollar 0.526538 0.777634 Reserve Bank of New Zealand
Tuvalu Australian Dollar 0.63676 1.0376
Vanuatu Vatu 0.00731479 0.0105263
Wallis and Futuna Pacific Franc 0.008380 0.012065 Institut d'émission d'Outre-Mer

Table correct as of 28 February 2008, Australian figures correct as of 19 April 2012

Economic sectors

Service industry

The overwhelming majority of people living in the Pacific islands work in the service industry which includes tourism, education and financial services. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States and South Korea. The majority of people living in Australia and to a lesser extent, New Zealand work in mining, electrical and manufacturing sectors also.


The manufacturing of clothing is a major industry in some parts of the Pacific, especially Fiji, although this is decreasing.

Australia boasts the largest amount of manufacturing in the region. Producing cars, electrical equipment, machinery and clothes.


Tourism has become a large source of income for many in the Pacific; tourists come from Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the United Kingdom and the USA. Fiji currently draws almost half a million tourists each year; more than a quarter from Australia. This contributes $1 billion or more since 1995 to Fiji's economy but the Government of Fiji islands underestimate these figures due to invisible economy inside tourism industry.

Agriculture and fishing

Agriculture and natural resources constitutes only 5% to 10% of Oceania's total jobs, but contributes substantially to export performance. The most populous two nations, Australia and New Zealand, are also the most developed and have majority service industries. This dilutes the data from the less developed Pacific Island nations who have major agricultural economies. Most of the Pacific countries (excluding Australia and New Zealand) the primary industry is agriculture. Many nations are still quintessentially agricultural; for example, 80% of the population of Vanuatu and 70% of the population of Fiji works in agriculture. The main produce from the pacific is copra or coconut, but timber, beef, palm oil, cocoa, sugar and ginger are also commonly grown across the tropics of the Pacific. Fishing provides a major industry for many of the smaller nations in the Pacific, although many fishing areas are exploited by other larger countries, namely Japan. Natural Resources, such as lead, zinc, nickel and gold, are mined in Australia and the Solomon Islands. Oceania's largest export markets include Japan, China, the United States, India, South Korea and the European Union.

International aid and charity

Oceanian donor nations

Oceania's most populous nations, Australia and New Zealand, are both highly developed nations and are large international aid donors. These two wealthy nations share the region with less developed nations which still rely on foreign aid for development. In the 2007/08 financial year Australia provided $3.155 billion worth of official development assistance, of which $2.731 billion will be managed by AusAID. Every week, each Australian puts in around $2.40 to pay for Australia's aid program, amounting to around 1% of the Australian Federal Government expenditure compared to the 42% spent on social security and welfare.

Oceanian recipient states

In the Solomon Islands 50% of government spending is paid for by international donors; namely Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, Japan and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

Global trade relations

This region consists of many trading relations because of the small amount of land and limited resources they have. Many have trading economies and are transitioning to a developed economy and infrastructure.

See also


  1. ^ a b
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