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Brazilian rock

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Brazilian rock

Brazilian rock refers to rock music produced in Brazil and usually sung in Portuguese.


  • Overview 1
  • 1950s 2
  • 1960s 3
  • 1970s 4
    • Disco influence 4.1
    • Punk 4.2
  • 1980s 5
  • 1990s 6
  • The early years of the 2000s 7
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10


Rock entered the Brazilian music scene in 1956, with the screening of the film The Blackboard Jungle, featuring Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock", which would later be covered in Portuguese by Nora Ney.[1]

The electric guitar was already used in Brazil in 1948, in Salvador carnival bloc of Dodô e Osmar. They invented the famous "pau elétrico" (English: "electric stick"), the first electric guitar without microphonic feedback, with its typical acute color characteristic and sustained sound, no more similar to the previous jazzistic electric guitar models (then they developed another with two arms) and in 1949 they played carnival songs with this guitar at the first time in an open car named then "Trio Elétrico" on the Salvador streets (today in the big trucks with a very robust sound).


In 1957 Miguel Gustavo wrote the first original rock 'n' roll song Rock and roll em Copacabana, recorded by Cauby Peixoto and #52 on the year's charts.

In Brazil many bands continued to perform translations of English lyrics, though many avoided this problem by playing instrumental rock. Inspired by such instrumental bands Duane Eddy and The Champs, 1958 saw the release of the first Brazilian instrumental rock song, Here's the Blue Jean Rockers by The Blue Jean Rockers. Later that year, Bolão & His Rockettes recorded the first purely instrumental LP. This helped make rock the most popular style of Brazilian youth music. More bands, like The Avalons, The Clevers, The Rebels, The Jordans, The Jet Blacks, The Pops, Os Populares, The Bells, The Lions and The Youngs, arose.

1958 was a breakthrough year for Beatles did in Europe and America years later.

The Jackson do Pandeiro hit, "Chiclete com Banana" (chewing gum with banana) (music by Gordurinha and Almira Castilho), was the first song that try to make a cross between Brazilian music with North American Rock and roll or Boogie Woogie.


Right after rock'n'roll took America by storm, Bill Haley and Elvis Presley also became liberating icons for Brazilian youth. The youth of Brazil felt that they were under sexual and educational oppression, as Brazilian society had been based on the standards and rules of the Catholic church colonization. For example, looking at a strange boy or girl in public meant falling into public disgrace. With the advent of rock'n'roll, the Brazilian world began to change. Teenagers were not "only to be seen but not heard" anymore. However, the youth's first reaction was violent. Many movie theaters were totally wrecked during the showing of rock'n'roll movies. This went on for a couple of years until finally the young people decided that if American kids could do it, why couldn't they? So, some radio disc-jockeys and recording companies set out to find new talents that could not only sing but who would also do it in perfect English.

This new social era led to a total transformation of customs, and outlived many other attempts to keep Brazil's social structure rooted in the older traditions and religious dogmas.

Raul Seixas, still in Salvador, Bahia - influenced by Luiz Gonzaga -, formed the first rock band from this city in 1965, The Panthers, which soon changed names to Raulzito e os Panteras.

In 1963, Roberto Carlos had two hits: "Splish Splash" (Portuguese lyrics by Erasmo Carlos for the Bobby Darin song) and "Parei na Contramão" (I stopped at the wrong way), the first Roberto Carlos/Erasmo Carlos collaboration.[2] Roberto and Erasmo created a style that was named Jovem Guarda. The beginning of the Jovem Guarda, with Roberto Carlos, Erasmo Carlos and Wanderléa, was as a kind of Brazilian version of the North American garage bands in the 1960s but with a bit of Motown soul influence, from artists like Otis Redding. Also, Ronnie Von started his career with the garage influence of Jovem Guarda and his work uleashed on the psychedelic style and he was who suggested the name of the band Os Mutantes. Jerry Adriani is identified with the Jovem Guarda too, but his influence on Brazilian rock is greater with his Italian rock/pop style: he brought Raul Seixas from Salvador to success afterwards in Rio de Janeiro, allowing for his widespread national success and influence to future generations. Other artists and bands associated with the Jovem Guarda include Eduardo Araújo (and his late wife, Sylvinha Araújo), Martinha, Renato & Seus Blue Caps, Os Incríveis, Golden Boys, Os Vips, Vanusa and The Fevers.

Jovem Guarda and a new form of playing guitar, with a rhythmic form that he invented. This new style was named Samba-rock, a style which would be followed by Banda Black Rio, Trio Mocotó, Luís Vagner, Bebeto, Orlandivo and Wilson Simonal, among others.

The band The Bubbles, formed in 1965 in Rio de Janeiro, and Serguei, with his first album in 1966, were the link between the garage rock of Jovem Guarda and psychedelic rock. In São Paulo there were Os Baobás, who recorded cover versions of the Kinks, Love, Turtles and the Rolling Stones, during the beginning of their activities. From the 1960s is also Os Primitivos, from Brasília, mixing traditional folk rock (in the vein of the Byrds) with Brazilian Northeastern folk music (i.e. baião). Other bands that were close to garage rock and Jovem Guarda already pointing to the beginning of psychedelia were: Os Haxixins, O'Seis, José Luiz, The Pop's.

In the legendary show named Opinião, in 1964, the first Brazilian genuine musical, Zé Kéti represented the black people, João do Vale, the people from the Northeastern region, and Nara Leão (then substituted by Maria Bethânia) represented the woman from the Brazilian high society. The innovative proposal of this show changed the Brazilian music forever from the post-Bossa Nova period, because it introduced other Brazilian genres to popular music. Sometimes with the protest characteristic the MPB base was formed: Chico Buarque, Edu Lobo, Geraldo Vandré, Sérgio Ricardo, João Donato, Eumir Deodato, Roberto Menescal, MPB4, Quarteto em Cy, Francis Hime, and Joyce, arising from Bossa Nova, in spite of the music is not rock, their collaboration is important on almost all popular urban genres, including the rock. In 1969, Marcos Valle, that belonged to the second generation of the Bossa Nova, change his style to a Psychedelic rock and Soul music Brazilian concept, and his brother Paulo Sérgio Valle went in a similar way. Sidney Miller is a very important musician for the MPB transformation process because he included the rock and the 60s and 70s international pop in his music. From this post-bossa nova time, Tuca, a female singer/songwriter, traveled to Europe in 1969, settling in Paris for six years (she has performed for several countries including Spain, Italy and Holland) when in 1971 Françoise Hardy released the album "La question", the result of close partnership between both and thereafter, her performance turned more rocker.

The Tropicália movement turned the psychedelic rock and the use of electric instruments more popular in the Brazilian music. Some tropicalistas were: Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Tom Zé, Gal Costa, Rogério Duprat, Torquato Neto, Nara Leão, etc... The seminal "tropicalista" Os Mutantes influenced and tended for the psychedelic rock'n'roll and is one reference for several relevant bands and musicians in the world.

Toninho Horta, Beto Guedes, Novelli, Nelson Angelo, Tavinho Moura and the band Som Imaginário.


The 1970s started with the Progressive rock, the Hard rock and Glam rock, but is the period of the construction of the mutual interference between Brazilian pop music, MPB and rock.

Rita Lee (former Mutantes vocalist) started her own work with her band Tutti Frutti, with glam rock-like aesthetics. Other bands from this period include Casa das Máquinas with its music between Glam-hard-rock and Progressive, Patrulha do Espaço (also formed by a former Mutantes member, Arnaldo Baptista) between Progressive and Hard rock, Made in Brazil with its Hard rock (but in some songs already with the minimal characteristic of Punk rock), the pure Hard rock of Bixo da Seda, Edy Star, with his pure Glam rock and the proto Metal band O Peso.

There were many Brazilian folk music and the rock its influence and some expressive artists are Zé Rodrix, Ave Sangria, Sá & Guarabyra, Ruy Maurity Trio, Almôndegas and others. A more radical Brazilian folk (that can get muddled with the rock), a weighty influence in the Brazilian rock then, is found in Dércio Marques, Elomar, Xangai, Sérgio Reis, Diana Pequeno, and later by the 1980s, Almir Sater and Renato Teixeira. Even more radical is Marlui Miranda, an expert in the Brazilian indigene music and despite her music isn't rock in the classic form, the creative folk music that she makes is a great contribution to the alternative aesthetic, at a later time.

The "carioca" (from Rio de Janeiro city) Azymuth, was formed in 1969 and is the Jazz rock side of this generation, but is responsible of the Brazilian pop music development too. There are great musicians that can add up here - Jazz rock influence: Airto Moreira, Raul de Souza, Flora Purim, Hermeto Paschoal, Naná Vasconcelos, Arthur Verocai, André Geraissati, Egberto Gismonti, Grupo D'Alma, Eumir Deodato, and Sérgio Mendes (with Funk influence too).

This higher mix between rock and Brazilian pop music resulted in several famous musicians and bands: Taiguara, Arnaldo Baptista (Mutantes) and Sérgio Sampaio. Marku Ribas is the side more Black music of this group and was Bob Marley's friend in the 1970s, Jamaica, where he lived. On the other hand, Tim Maia, directly influenced by Soul music side of the Jovem Guarda, made several hits and his style influenced bands like Placa Luminosa and Skowa e a Máfia in the 80s.

There were some efforts to realize festivals in Brazil in the 1970s. In 1971 the "Festival de Verão de Milton Nascimento and Som Imaginário, A Bolha, Novos Baianos, Luiz Gonzaga and Tony Tornado. A fresh attempt was the Primeiro Festival de Iacanga (First Iacanga Festival - State of São Paulo - 1975), in a big farm, with a better structure, a milestone of the Brazilian underground, with the bands: Jazzco, Apokalypsis, Som Nosso de Cada Dia, Moto Perpétuo, Ursa Maior, Rock da Mortalha, Orquestra Azul, and others. The first Hollywood Rock happened in Rio, 1975 too, with the shows of Raul Seixas, Rita Lee, O Terço, Vímana and others. There were two great international shows in Brazil in the 1970s: Alice Cooper (1974) and Genesis (1977).

In the late 1970s, the progressive reference still was felt in Guilherme Arantes and 14 Bis (band).

Disco influence

The disco music, that arrived in Brazil in the half of the 1970s, influenced some rockers like Rita Lee and Zé Rodrix. As Frenéticas were an instant phenomenon with its mix of Brazilian rock and disco.


The Brazilian punk rock scene was born in the late 1970s in São Paulo and Brasília with Restos de Nada, AI-5, Joelho de Porco, Condutores de Cadáver, and Aborto Elétrico, among others. The first show was in 1978 in São Paulo and the punk "boom" was when the 1980s began, with Inocentes, Cólera, Ratos de Porão, Garotos Podres, Plebe Rude, Ignoze, Olho Seco, Mercenárias, Lobotomia, Ulster, Fogo Cruzado, Coquetel Molotov (from Rio de Janeiro), Replicantes (from Porto Alegre), Devotos (or Devotos do Ódio, from Recife), Beijo AA Força (from Curitiba), and many others, mostly from São Paulo.

The first records from the end of the 1970s to the 1980s were issued by dint of the demo-tapes because Brazil was living a dictatorial regime (until 1985) and there was the rebuke. Since the beginning, the Brazilian punk music style was more for Jello Biafra than Sex Pistols, that is, it was more for Hardcore punk. An independent label was created in the beginning of the 1980s, Punk Rock Discos, and the Lixomania single was the first record of an individual Brazilian Punk band, in 1982, with six songs. By the same label, the first long play of Brazilian Punk bands appeared in the same year, Grito Suburbano album, with three bands from São Paulo city: Cólera, Olho Sêco and Inocentes. Some of these first registers are rarities and well paid by the collectors in Europe and Japan. The Brazilian punk rock gained visibility in the international media also in 1982 with O Começo do Fim do Mundo, a festival that gathered peacefully the rival gangs for the first time, and it is one of the biggest punk festivals of the world until today. Tokyo, the Supla's band, in 1985 released its first LP in one big label, and then, in 1986, Inocentes and Replicantes too, when the Brazilian punk scene was already growing colder. In 1986 Cólera was the first Brazilian punk band to make international shows, and then, Ratos de Porão. In the 1990s the punk returned to the scene. Some examples of bands: Zumbis do Espaço, Ludovic, Mukeka di Rato, Blind Pigs (today Porcos Cegos), Carbona, Flicts, Ação Direta, Ack, Gritando HC, Nitrominds, Tequila Baby, Dominatrix, Motores, Pastel de Miolos, Sweet Suburbia, Hellsakura, Pupila Dilatada, Dance of Days.

Wander Wildner, former frontman of Replicantes, released his solo debut in 1996 with a creative punk fusion that he named Punk-brega.

The early Brazilian punk scene was immortalized on the documentary Botinada: A Origem do Punk no Brasil directed by former MTV VJ Gastão Moreira.


Even though the 1960s witnessed the phenomenon of Jovem Guarda and the 1970s saw the appearance of many prolific artists, like Raul Seixas, and bands like Os Mutantes, Brazilian rock's explosion began in 1981 with the first expressions of the Brazilian new wave, later renamed the New Jovem Guarda by the media. The Punk rock already was incorporated but the ska was the news. The alterations of the English new wave movement, with its surprising variety of styles, arrived in Brazil through groups and personalities such as the Gang 90 e as Absurdettes, Agentss, Blitz, Camisa de Vênus, Barão Vermelho, Kid Abelha, Paralamas do Sucesso, Ritchie, Fausto Fawcett, Lulu Santos, Radio Taxi, Sempre Livre, Magazine (from which Kid Vinil would later project his solo career), Marina Lima, Dr. Silvana & Cia., Absyntho, Eduardo Dussek, Kiko Zambianchi, Hanói Hanói, Hojerizah, Engenheiros do Hawaii, RPM, Metrô, Uns e Outros, Graffiti, Musak, Picassos Falsos, Alvin L, Ultraje a Rigor, Legião Urbana, Ira!, Titãs, Capital Inicial, 365, Nenhum de Nós, Dulce Quental, Laura Finocchiaro, Biquini Cavadão, Lobão & Os Ronaldos, Heróis da Resistência, Zero, Violeta de Outono, Fellini, Vange Leonel, Os Cascavelletes, Akira S & as Garotas que Erraram, Neusinha Brizola, Voluntários da Pátria, Gueto, Vzyadoq Moe, Léo Jaime and João Penca e Seus Miquinhos Amestrados, Aguilar e Banda Performática.[3] The Rock in Rio took over a million people to "Cidade do Rock" (where the event was held) during the ten days of the event, and established Brazil as a venue for international artists - some artists, like Santana and Queen, had come before this event, but the number of international attractions rose abruptly after Rock in Rio.

From Minas Gerais, the instrumental group Uakti was debuting and despite their music not being rock in the classic meaning, their experimental music with the instruments built by the group itself (Anton Walter Smetak influence) started a new era in the Brazilian popular music.

The underground scene had - Post-punk with Jazz, Funk, Folk, Rap, Reggae, Art rock, Dodecaphonic and Atonal experience - experimental bands and musicians such as Arrigo Barnabé, Itamar Assumpção, Susana Salles, Robson Borba, Grupo Rumo, Tetê Espíndola, Eliete Negreiros, Bocato, Patife Band, Tiago Araripe, Os Mulheres Negras, Hermelino Neder - this group was identified as São Paulo Vanguard or "Vanguarda Paulistana", from the beginning of the 1980s. Some "cariocas" (from Rio de Janeiro) representatives of this style are Tim Rescala and Letícia Garcia.

On the other hand had Hard rock, Punk rock and Heavy metal bands such as Vênus from the State of Piauí, Golpe de Estado, Viper, Korzus, Ratos de Porão, Mammoth and Karisma from the State of São Paulo, DeFalla from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Sepultura from the State of Minas Gerais, and Dorsal Atlântica from the State of Rio de Janeiro, from the mid to late 1980s - this last, the pioneer in the unification of this three styles of hard music. But one of the first bands of extreme metal from Brazil is Sarcófago, also from Belo Horizonte, formed in 1985. The female Thrash metal band Volkana, founded in 1987 in Brasília, could compete with a lot of much more known all-girl bands in other countries.

This movement is seen as a reflection of the worldview of urban youth who had grown up under a dictatorial regime and faced such processes as industrial expansion. This is the same generation that enjoyed the democratic abertura (opening) and began to absorb rather quickly an infinite amount of new information, previously inaccessible. The universe of that generation appeared rich in diversity, implying a desire to enjoy the present.[3]

In the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s another group that mixes electronic music scene up appeared - in Suba (his album "São Paulo Confessions" is a worldwide milestone to the Electronic music), Tek Noir etc..

It's important emphasize that the history of the record label Baratos Afins became forever intertwined with the indie history in São Paulo and Brazil.

Two musicians and singer songwriters, Renato Russo from Legião Urbana and Cazuza from Barão Vermelho, begun brilliant solo careers from the 1980s to the 1990s, but were HIV fatal victims.


The 1990s saw a resurgence in instrumental rock's popularity, and some of the classic bands from previous decades reformed. Surf music also became popular, especially The Argonauts, The Gasolines and Os Ostras. Hard rock had in 1993 a new representative in Brazil, Dr. Sin. Heavy metal had two debuts: in 1990 Torture Squad and in 1991 Angra - all of these are from São Paulo.

Also in this period, many other bands acquired widespread national projection, such as: Raimundos (which was formed in the late 1980s, but only released its first album in 1994) with its Forrocore style, Skank and O Rappa, both of which with a style that can be designated like a kind of reggae-rock, Pato Fu as the first indie band that arrived at mainstream, Charlie Brown Jr., with its alternative rock with rap and skate punk influences, and Mamonas Assassinas, who were a great hit with humour and rock but its members died in a tragic plane accident (1996). Also Jota Quest was a success since the first album, 1996, and they arrived with a powerful pop-rock-funk.

From the end of the 1980s to beginning of the 1990s names like Pelvs, Planet Hemp, Karnak, Walverdes, Relespública, Garage fuzz, Beach Lizards, Virna Lisi, Wry, Graforréia Xilarmônica, Killing Chainsaw, Pin Ups (band), Second Come, Okotô, Brincando de Deus and Boi Mamão are prominent. This moment can be called the first Brazilian independent scene (or indie scene). It was time to Grunge and Britpop, the distorted colors, the development of hardcore, and a return to Punk. The independent festival Junta Tribo in Campinas in 1993 and 1994 and M2000, a beach festival in Santos (São Paulo), in 1994, were a milestone and became the independent attitude a new option.

The MTV Brasil Unplugged format brought back to the mainstream some bands whose career had been mainly consolidated in the 1980s, like the Titãs in 1996, Capital Inicial in 2000, Ira! in 2004 and Lobão in 2007.

In the beginning of the 1990s there was the Manguebeat (or Mangue Bit) movement that put Recife definitively as one of principal places that has an important modern rock scene. Its style is a cross between the local rhythms, like Maracatu, and Rock, Hip hop and Electronic music . Coming from this movement are Chico Science & Nação Zumbi (which shortened their name to only Nação Zumbi following Science's death), Mundo Livre S/A, Fred 04, DJ Dolores, Stela Campos, Otto etc...

Kurt Cobain after his shows in Brazil with Nirvana (band) in 1993 helped spread the Brazilian rock in the world. David Byrne, Beck, Of Montreal, Devendra Banhart and others were influenced by the 1960s Tropicália and have divulged this musical style to the world. In the 1990s, Björk, Stereolab, Towa Tei, Amon Tobin and The High Llamas were approaching the Brazilian pop music increasingly.

Between final 1990s and beginning of 21st century are relevant: Los Hermanos that is a noteworthy reference to the independent bands. Cássia Eller, who recorded several songs of the Brazilian rock musicians with powerful vocal and suddenly died in 2001. Pitty, the rarity of being a woman bandleader (with the band of the same name), has typified her career with brave lyrics and uncommon vocals. Lobão (that in the 1980s was mainstream) started his independent career and is obtaining a brilliant result, and the singer of Sepultura, Max Cavalera, left the band and started Soulfly with the same powerful Heavy metal.

The important hardcore scene from Brasília continued in this period with Raimundos and Rumbora. In the highlight of Raimundos, Rodolfo Abrantes, the vocal, decided to go out and assembled a new band, Rodox, in 2002, but they continued with the typical creative explosion of hardcore into the end of the band, in 2004.

Some rock genres are very specific in Brazil, but with an important scene since the 90s like Grindcore, Psychobilly, Death Metal, Ska Punk, etc. Some highlights are: Tihuana, Sapo Banjo, Madame Machado, Rusty Machine, Kães Vadius and Sick Sick Sinners. There are several festivals about these genres in Brazil with an faithful fans in Brazil. Krisiun is an example of Death Metal band that is a hit of this genre abroad of Brazil: they toured extensively through North America, South America and Europe (recording their first official DVD while in Poland).

The early years of the 2000s

The boundary between MPB - "Música popular brasileira" - and international electric pop and rock was largely broken since the TV Record Festival (1967), a milestone (as seen in the documentary Uma Noite em 67), and the beginning of a great revolution in the contemporary pop music: Tropicalismo. The shaping of Brazilian popular music can be considered a result from a gradual union between the wealth of the regional folk music and the contemporary urban references, which means that music is also receptive to the world, and for this reason, creative. But if in that time (1967) was evident a dichotomy ("MPB" versus electric music), on the other hand, in this moment is visible the beginning of the electric fusion inside the acoustic Brazilian music.

Musicians and bands of the 90s absorbed definitely the rock aesthetic in the "MPB" or vice versa: Chico César, Fernanda Abreu, Paula Morelenbaum, Adriana Calcanhoto, Lenine (musician), Paulinho Moska, Ed Motta, Badi Assad, Marisa Monte, Carlinhos Brown, Arnaldo Antunes, Nando Reis, Zeca Baleiro, Lula Queiroga, Jair Oliveira, Wilson Simoninha, Léo Minax, Chico Amaral, Marina Machado, Bebel Gilberto, Zélia Duncan, Tony Platão (or Toni Platão), Pedro Mariano and Max de Castro.

In the first decade of the millennium, many musicians had already incorporated the new rock as an alternative aesthetic to this generation. This new fusion is encountered in Fernando Catatau, Ben Harper) became number-one hits in Brazil.

The real independent attitude raises also a growing audience at the beginning of the twenty-first century. There is a lot of opportunities with the festivals such as Bananada (Canto dos Malditos na Terra do Nunca, Bidê ou Balde, Lampirônicos, Leela (banda), Fernando Chuí, Hurtmold (instrumental), Zumbi do Mato, Mopho, Os Pistoleiros, Polara, Declinium, Pullovers, Mamelo Sound System, MQN, Vulgue Tolstoi, Flu, Doiseu Mimdoisema, Hipnóticos, Monokini, Sleepwalker, Astromato, The Butcher's Orquestra, Grenade, Wado, The Charts, Astronautas, Módulo, China and O Grito. The term Post-rock is already well used in Brazil.

Some magazines in the English language in the beginning of the 2000s deemed some worldwide genres like electronic rock (using this term on the 2000s music) and new rave having some Brazilian bands not only as the exponents but builders of these movements.

A sparkle of new musicians and bands appear: Pastilhas Polegarinas, Simples Mente Livre, Marcelo Camelo, Lirinha, Stop Play Moon, Watson, Transmissor, Ultrafônica, Cabaret, Black Drawing Chalks, Macaco Bong, Rockz, Bazar Pamplona, Rodrigo Amarante, Little Joy, Drosóphila, Calvin Voichicovsky,Capitão Iguana, Mula Mansa & a Fabulosa Figura, Diego de Moraes e O Sindicato, Os Azuis, Plato Divorak, Blanched, Los Porongas, Seychelles, Clorofones, Sweet Cherry Fury, Comunidade Nin-Jitsu, Bonde do Rolê, Um porem dois, Transmissor, Jair Naves, Apanhador Só, Wannabe Jalva, Visconde, Vespas Mandarinas, Boogarins, Baleia, and Live Wire.

The greatest success however stepped in XXI century with a melodious rock bands most exploited by the media: Detonautas Roque Clube, CPM 22, NX Zero and Fresno, who took media attention throughout the first decade.

See also


  1. ^ Cravo Albin, Ricardo. "Dicionário Cravo Albin da Música Popular Brasileira". Instituto Cultural Cravo Albin. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 
  2. ^ Araújo, Paulo César de (2006). Roberto Carlos em detalhes. São Paulo: Editora Planeta do Brasil.  
  3. ^ a b Behague, Gerard. "Rap, Reggae, Rock, or Samba: The Local and the Global in Brazilian Popular Music (1985–95)." Latin American Music Review 27, no. 1 (Spring/Summer 2006): 79-90.


  • Cravo Albin, Ricardo. "Dicionário Cravo Albin da Música Popular Brasileira". Instituto Cultural Cravo Albin. Archived from the original on 2007-03-28. Retrieved 2007-04-22. 
  • Dapieve, Arthur (2000). BRock - o rock brasileiro dos anos 80. São Paulo: DBA.  
  • Alexandre, Ricardo (2001). Dias de Luta - o Rock e o Brasil dos Anos 80. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva.  
  • Motta, Nelson (2001). Noites Tropicais. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva.  
  • Araújo, Paulo César de (2006). Roberto Carlos em detalhes. São Paulo: Editora Planeta do Brasil.  
  • Basualdo, Carlos (org) (2007). Tropicália, Uma Revolução na Cultura Brasileira. São Paulo: Cosaicnaify.  
  • Sanches, Pedro Alexandre (2004). Como Dois e Dois São Cinco - Roberto Carlos & Erasmo & Wanderlea. São Paulo: Boitempo Editorial.  
  • Essinger, Silvio (1999). Punk: Anarquia Planetária e a Cena Brasileira. São Paulo: Editora 34.  
  • Marchetti, Paulo (2001). O Diário da Turma 1976–1986: A História do Rock de Brasília. São Paulo: Conrad.  
  • Alves Junior, Carlos; Maia, Roberto (2003). Rock Brasil, o Livro: Um Giro pelos Últimos 20 Anos do Rock Verde e Amarelo vol.2. São Paulo: Esfera.  
  • Aguillar, Antonio; Aguillar, Débora; Ribeiro, Paulo Cesar (2005). Histórias da Jovem Guarda. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Globo.  
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