World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Texas Education Agency

Texas Education Agency
The logo of the TEA
Formation 1949
  • 1701 North Congress Avenue
The main offices of the Texas Education Agency are located in the William B. Travis State Office Building in Downtown Austin

The Texas Education Agency (TEA, each letter pronounced separately) is a branch of the state government of Texas in the United States responsible for public education.[1] The agency is headquartered in the William B. Travis State Office Building in Downtown Austin.[1][2]


  • History 1
  • Duties 2
  • Curriculum controversies 3
  • State Board of Education 4
    • Regions 4.1
  • School and District Accountability 5
    • Education Performance Rating 5.1
    • Gold Performance Acknowledgements 5.2
  • References 6
  • External links 7


Prior to the late 1940s, Texas had many "dormant" school districts which did not operate schools, but spent money to send children to schools operated by other districts. In the late 1940s state lawmakers passed a bill abolishing those districts, prompting a wave of mass school district consolidation.[3]


TEA is responsible for the oversight of public primary and secondary education in the state of Texas, involving both the over 1,000 individual school districts in the state as well as charter schools. Also the safety of children. However, it does not have any jurisdiction over private or parochial schools (whether or not accredited) nor over home schools.

Although school districts are independent governmental entities, TEA has the authority to oversee a district's operations (either involving an individual school or the entire district) if serious issues arise (such as poor standardized test performance, financial distress, or reported mismanagement). This can be in the form of requiring the district to submit corrective action plans and regular status reports, assigning monitors to oversee operations (including the authority to assign a management board, which essentially replaces and performs the duties of the elected school board), and in extreme cases closure of a school campus or even the entire school district.

The University Interscholastic League (UIL), which oversees academic and athletic interscholastic competition in Texas public schools, is a separate entity not under TEA oversight.

In addition to primary and secondary education, TEA has oversight duties with respect to driver's education courses (initial permits) and defensive driving courses (used to have a ticket dismissed and/or for lower insurance premiums).

Curriculum controversies

On November 7, 2007, Christine Comer resigned as the director of the science curriculum after more than nine years. Comer said that her resignation was a result of pressure from officials who claimed that she had given the appearance of criticizing the teaching of intelligent design.[4][5]

In 2009, the Board received criticism from more than fifty scientific organizations over an attempt to weaken science standards on evolution.[6]

In 2010, a group of historians, including Jean A. Stuntz of West Texas A&M University in Canyon, Texas, signed a petition to oppose the revisions in the social studies curricula approved by the state Board, changes which require the inclusion of conservative topics in public school instruction. For instance, Jefferson's name must be restored to a list of Enlightenment thinkers. There must be emphasis on the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States in regard to property rights. Students must be taught that new documents, the Venona project, verify U.S. Senator Joseph R. McCarthy's suspicions of communist infiltration of the U.S. government during the post-World War II era. Stuntz told the Amarillo Globe-News that the SBOE is "micromanaging. They don't know what they're doing."[7]

In October 2012, The Revisionaries, a documentary film about the re-election of the chairman of the Texas Board of Education Don McLeroy and the curriculum controversy was released.[8] In late January 2013, PBS's Independent Lens aired an abridged version the film.

Texas House Speaker Joe Straus of San Antonio said that the government should "take a look" at the structure of the Board and consider a nonpartisan or appointed board if the elected members are "not getting their job done and they're not pleasing the Legislature or the citizens, then we ought to take a thorough look at what they are doing."[9] In 2010, it was said to be "drafting its own version of American history", including altering school textbooks to remove what it said was a "left leaning bias" and making changes that are said to have "religious and racial overtones".[10]

For example, the proposed curriculum would downplay Thomas Jefferson's emphasis on the separation of church and state (outlined in his Letter to Danbury Baptists), and would include a greater emphasis on the importance of religion to the founding fathers. Other changes include downplaying Abraham Lincoln's role in the civil war and putting more emphasis on the Confederate leader Jefferson Davis, questioning the African American Civil Rights Movement in addition to downplaying Martin Luther King Jr.'s legacy, removing such instances and points of history such as downplaying slavery, putting more emphasis on the states rights cause during the Civil War. Critics of the proposed changes believe that such a focus on the religious elements of the founding period could cause teachers to omit lessons on history more pertinent to national standards. Proponents of the new changes argue that the religious elements are often downplayed to the point of obscurity due to the left-leaning nature of public education.

State Board of Education

TEA is overseen by a 15-member State Board of Education, elected from single-member districts[11] for four years.[12] TEA is managed by a Commissioner of Education, who is appointed by the Governor of Texas.[13] The current Commissioner is Michael L. Williams, a former member and chairman of the Railroad Commission of Texas, who was appointed by Governor Rick Perry on August 27, 2012.[14] The board devises policies and sets academic standards for Texas public schools as well as oversees the $17.5 billion Permanent School Fund and selects textbooks for Texas' 4.7 million schoolchildren.[15]

Since 2011, the board can still recommend textbooks, but public school districts can order their own books and materials even if their selections are not on the state-approved list. So far, most districts have continued to follow the state-endorsed textbooks, but that trend is expected to change in the next two years as the districts become more cognizant of their available options. Thomas Ratliff, a Moderate Republican and the son of former Lieutenant Governor Bill Ratliff of Mount Pleasant, in 2010 unseated the Bryan dentist Don McLeroy, a former education board chairman who was the leader of the conservative bloc. Ratliff said in 2013 that the board is "far different" in political complexion that it was in 2010. Though the Republicans hold eleven of the fifteen seats, social conservatives are no longer in the majority.[16]

SBOE Officers, Committees, and Members[12]
District Name Party Committee First elected Seat up
1 Martha Dominguez Dem Instruction 2012 2016
2 Ruben Cortez, Jr. Dem School Initiatives 2012 2014
3 Marisa Perez Dem Instruction 2012 2014
4 Lawrence A. Allen Jr. Dem School Finance/Permanent School Fund, Vice Chair 2004 2014
5 Ken Mercer Rep School Finance/Permanent School Fund 2006 2016
6 Donna Bahorich Rep School Initiatives, Chair 2012 2016
7 David Bradley Rep School Finance/Permanent School Fund 1996 2014
8 Barbara Cargill, Chair Rep School Initiatives 2004 2016
9 Thomas Ratliff, Vice Chair Rep School Finance/Permanent School Fund 2010 2016
10 Tom Maynard Rep Instruction, Chair 2012 2016
11 Patricia Hardy Rep School Finance/Permanent School Fund, Chair 2002 2014
12 Geraldine Miller Rep Instruction 2012 (1984-2010) 2014
13 Mavis Knight, Secretary Dem School Initiatives 2002 2014
14 Sue Melton-Malone Rep Instruction, Vice Chair 2012 2016
15 Marty Rowley Rep School Initiatives, Vice Chair 2012 2016


Education Service Center Region XIII in Austin

In order to serve the large number of individual school districts and charter schools in Texas, TEA is divided into 20 regions, each containing an Educational Service Center (ESC, sometimes called Regional Service Center or RSC).

School and District Accountability

Education Performance Rating

TEA rates schools and districts using four criteria. The criteria are the same for schools and districts. According to the Texas Education Agency, the number of state schools and districts receiving the top ratings of "exemplary" and "recognized" increased from 2,213 in 2005 to 3,380 in 2006.[17]

Gold Performance Acknowledgements

In addition to the state ranking, districts and schools can be awarded additional commendations (referred to as Gold Performance Acknowledgements) for other noteworthy accomplishments not included in the ranking system.


  1. ^ a b "Welcome to the Texas Education Agency." Texas Education Agency. Accessed August 30, 2008.
  2. ^ "Week of April 16 - 20, 2001." Railroad Commission of Texas. Accessed August 30, 2008.
  3. ^ Cervantes, Bobby. "Chopping block: school district consolidation." San Antonio Express-News. February 22, 2011. Retrieved on May 9, 2011.
  4. ^ "Evolution Debate Led to Ouster, Official Says".  
  5. ^ "State science curriculum director resigns".  
  6. ^ "Texas needs to get it right".  
  7. ^ "Brenda Bernet, "Rewriting the history books: Educators reflect on state's curriculum changes," May 18, 2010".  
  8. ^
  9. ^ "Straus: Look at changing state school board elections--maybe more".  
  10. ^ Halkett, Kimberly. Texas looks to rewrite history. Al Jazeera. 9 April 2010.
  11. ^ District map (PDF)
  12. ^ a b "SBOE Officers, Committees, and Members". Texas Education Agency. Retrieved 2011-06-28. 
  13. ^ "Commissioner of Education". Texas Education Agency. 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-02. 
  14. ^ Smith, Morgan. Michael Williams to Head Texas Education Agency, Texas Tribune, August 27, 2012.
  15. ^ "End poor guidance of Texas education".  
  16. ^ Will Weissert, "Law weakens ed board", Laredo Morning Times, September 16, 2013, p. 6A
  17. ^ "Schools improve across the state". The Daily Texan. 3 August 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-03. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.