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Qabus

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Qabus

Qabus
Emir of the Ziyarid dynasty
Tomb of Qabus in Gonbad-e Qabus
Reign 977–981 (first reign)
997–1012 (second reign)
Predecessor Bisutun
Successor Manuchihr
Born 10th century
Died 1012
Gorgan
House Ziyarid
Father Vushmgir
Religion Sunni Islam

Qabus ibn Wushmagir (full name: Abol-Hasan Qābūs ibn Wušmagīr ibn Ziyar Sams al-maʿālī, ابوالحسن قابوس بن وشمگیر بن زیار, شمس المعالی; (died 1012) (r. 977–981; 997–1012) was the Ziyarid ruler of Gurgan and Tabaristan in medieval Iran. He was the son of Vushmgir and a daughter of the Bavandi Ispahbad Sharwin II.

Contents

  • Struggle for power 1
  • Reign 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Struggle for power

Upon Vushmgir's death in 967, his eldest son Bisutun marched to the capital Gurgan to take control of the Ziyarid state. A Samanid army that had arrived shortly before Vushmgir's death for a joint campaign against the Buyids, however, threw its support behind Qabus. When Bisutun gained the assistance of the Buyid Rukn al-Dawla the Samanid army left for Khurasan. Qabus found a new ally in al-Hasan ibn al-Fairuzan, who ruled in Semnan, but Bisutun occupied both Gurgan and Semnan, forcing Qabus to give up his claims as his father's successor.

Reign

Bisutun's death in 977 provided Qabus with another opportunity to take control of the Ziyarids. Bisutun's governor of Tabaristan, the [1]

In 980 Qabus offered refuge to the Buyid ruler of Ray, Fakhr al-Dawla, who had recently fought a losing war with 'Adud al-Dawla. The latter offered the Ziyarid money and territory in exchange for the surrender of Fakhr al-Dawla, but Qabus refused. 'Adud then invaded and conquered Tabaristan; in 981 'Adud's brother Mu'ayyad al-Dawla took Gurgan. Qabus and Fakhr al-Dawla were forced to flee to Samanid Khurasan. The Samanids sent a force to take back the provinces, but were unsuccessful.

In 984 Fakhr al-Dawla was able to recover his territories in Ray. Upon the advice of his vizier, however, he refused to give back Qabus control of Gurgan and Tabaristan. Qabus was forced to live in exile until 997, when Fakhr al-Dawla died and was succeeded by his young son Majd al-Dawla. Supporters of the Ziyarid gained control of Tabaristan and from there conquered Gurgan. Qabus returned there in 998. After a few Buyid attempts to expel him again failed.

Although he formally recognized the caliph as his sovereign, Qabus ruled effectively as an independent ruler for the rest of his reign. He opened up relations with Mahmud of Ghazna, setting the stage for the eventual Ghaznavid takeover of the Ziyarids, while the Buyids did not undertake any more campaigns against him. Internal troubles, however, soon cost Qabus his position. His heavy-handed approach with officials in the army eventually caused a conspiracy to be formed against him.

The army leaders failed to capture him in his castle outside Gurgan, but they took control of the capital and invited Qabus's son

Preceded by
Bisutun
Ziyarid ruler
977–1012
Succeeded by
Manuchihr
  • Richard Frye's Notes on the Renaissance of the 10th and 11th Centuries in Eastern Iran, Central Asiatic Journal I (1955) 137-143.
  • Chaliand, Gerard (1994). The Art of War in World History: From Antiquity to the Nuclear Age. Retrieved 25 January 2014. 
  • R. N. Frye (1975). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume Four: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. ISBN 0-521-20093-8

External links

  1. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica, C. Edmund Bosworth, ZIYARIDS
  2. ^ Chaliand 1994, p. 430
  3. ^ Chaliand 1994, p. 431

References

The tower of Gonbad Kavous was built for him as his tomb, and he is the subject of the Qabus nama, a major work of Persian literature from the eleventh century, which was written by his grandson Keikavus.

Qabus then arrived to the castle where he could spend the rest of his life in devotion. The conspirators, however, still considered him to be a threat and had him frozen to death in 1012. [3]

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