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Tamil diaspora

Tamil diaspora
புலம்பெயர் தமிழர்
MIA
Total population
3,300,000 (estimated)
Regions with significant populations
 Malaysia ~1,396,000 (2000)[1]
 Europe ~700,000
 United Kingdom ~300,000[2]
 USA ~300,000[2]
 South Africa ~250,000[2]
 Canada ~200,000[3]
 Singapore 188,591 (2010)[4]
 France ~125,000[5]
 Reunion ~120,000[2]
 Fiji ~80,000[2]
 Mauritius 72,089 (2011)[6]
 Germany ~50,000[2]
 Indonesia ~40,000[7]
  Switzerland ~40,000[2]
 Australia ~30,000[2]
 Italy ~25,000[2]
 Netherlands ~20,000[2]
 Norway ~12,000[2]
 Thailand ~10,000[2]
Languages
Religion
Related ethnic groups
Dravidians

The Tamil diaspora is a demographic group of Tamil people of Indian and Sri Lankan origin who have settled in other parts of the world. Significant Tamil diaspora populations can be found in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Middle East, Réunion, South Africa, Mauritius, Seychelles, Fiji, Guyana, Burma, Trinidad and Tobago, the French West Indies, Europe, Australia, Canada and the United States.

Contents

  • Early migrations 1
  • British, French, and Dutch indentured workers and others 2
    • 19th century dispersal of Tamils from India and Sri Lanka 2.1
  • 20th Century 3
    • Back flow from Sri Lanka and Burma 3.1
    • Post-1983 dispersal of Sri Lankan Tamils 3.2
    • 20th century dispersal of Tamils from India 3.3
  • By Region 4
    • Africa 4.1
      • Mainland Africa 4.1.1
        • South Africa 4.1.1.1
      • Indian Ocean Islands 4.1.2
        • Mauritius 4.1.2.1
        • Réunion 4.1.2.2
        • Seychelles 4.1.2.3
    • Americas 4.2
      • North America 4.2.1
        • Canada 4.2.1.1
        • United States of America 4.2.1.2
      • Caribbean and Latin America 4.2.2
        • French West Indies 4.2.2.1
        • Guyana 4.2.2.2
        • Trinidad and Tobago 4.2.2.3
    • Asia 4.3
      • South Asia 4.3.1
        • Pakistan 4.3.1.1
      • South-East Asia 4.3.2
        • Burma 4.3.2.1
        • Indonesia 4.3.2.2
        • Malaysia and Singapore 4.3.2.3
        • Other countries 4.3.2.4
      • West Asia 4.3.3
        • Qatar 4.3.3.1
        • United Arab Emirates 4.3.3.2
        • Other countries 4.3.3.3
    • Europe 4.4
      • Northern Europe 4.4.1
        • Scandinavia 4.4.1.1
        • United Kingdom 4.4.1.2
      • Western Europe 4.4.2
        • France 4.4.2.1
        • Germany 4.4.2.2
        • Switzerland 4.4.2.3
        • Other countries 4.4.2.4
    • Oceania 4.5
      • Australasia 4.5.1
        • Australia 4.5.1.1
        • New Zealand 4.5.1.2
      • Melanesia 4.5.2
        • Fiji 4.5.2.1
        • New Caledonia 4.5.2.2
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Early migrations

Many are descendants of emigrants who left thousands of years ago and mixed with countless other ethnicities, while others are recently moved from Tamil Nadu. The diaspora's identity is rooted in an ancient heritage, the rich Tamil language and literature and a vibrant culture that many still retain. Many groups claim descent from medieval-era Tamil emigrants such as the Chitty, Vellalars of Malaysia and the Colombo Chetty, Vellalar of Sri Lanka.

An early emigrant group that is not well documented is the Tamil Muslims who emigrated in considerable numbers to the Sultanate of Malacca (in present-day Malaysia) and were instrumental in spreading Islam amongst the indigenous Malays. Some are descended from immigrants from land of Arabia (Middle East), though it is not known which part of the Arab world they are from.

British, French, and Dutch indentured workers and others

Another stream of Tamils left during the British colonial period as indentured workers to the far flung corners of the British Empire. Their descendants are found in Malaysia, Burma, Singapore, South Africa, Mauritius, Réunion, Fiji, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, and other Caribbean Islands as well, in large numbers.

Many also left to work in the possessions of the French Empire via its holdings in Pondichéry in Réunion and the French Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe (See Malabars). A small group was hired by the Dutch colonial government in Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) to work in Sumatra (namely in Medan). Roughly about 40,000 (est) descendants of these immigrants are still found in Medan.

Many independent Tamil merchant guilds such as the Nagarathar also left for these areas in an age old tradition of their ancestors who had traded in these areas for the last 2,000 years. Britain also hired many Sri Lankan Tamils as clerical and other white collar workers, especially in Malaysia and Singapore. All these different streams have combined to create vibrant Tamil communities in these countries.

19th century dispersal of Tamils from India and Sri Lanka

In the century, Tamils from India and Sri Lanka migrated to Crown colony of Singapore and British Malaya as labours, army clerks and merchants.

20th Century

Back flow from Sri Lanka and Burma

During and after the devastating WW2 a large number of Tamils and Indians from Burma fled to India- to Manipur,[8] and Tamil Nadu. They established Burmese refugee colonies that still exist today and maintain an identity as Burmese returnees. In Sri Lanka the Sinhalese nationalist SLFP party disfranchised all Indian origin Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka and returned 600,000 back to India under the Srimavo-Shastri Pact signed between India and Sri Lanka. Many were repatriated to the Nilgiris region's tea estates. They too maintain a distinct identity as Ceylon returnees in Tamil Nadu. Black July has created another stream of Sri Lankan and Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka refugees in India who have languished for the last 20 years in refugee camps throughout Tamil Nadu while many others have integrated with the mainstream community or left India for other countries in the west.

There is also a movement of native Sri Lankan Tamils to India; some migrated to do white-collar jobs during the British days, but there has been a much bigger diaspora today.

Post-1983 dispersal of Sri Lankan Tamils

The Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora is less than 100 years old and was well established in Malaysia, Singapore and England prior to the post 1983 Black July induced dispersal of refugees and asylum claimants in India, Europe, and Canada. Although relatively recent in origin, this subgroup had well-established communities in these host countries prior to the 1983 pogroms. A more recent Sri Lankan Tamil community has developed rapidly in the United States.

20th century dispersal of Tamils from India

In the second half of the 20th century, Tamils from India migrated as skilled professionals to the United States, Canada, Europe, and Southeast Asia.

By Region

Africa

Mainland Africa

With reference to Mainland Africa, There is a significant amount of Tamilians in Africa, Especially Kenya. Kenya holds at least 30% of the Tamilians in the Country followed by Uganda. Most of these people are Migrants while some of them have been living there for generations.

South Africa

Tamil migration to South Africa started as from 1860, first as indentured labour and in the first batch 340 Tamils were there. Now there are more than 250,000 Tamils spread over in many cities, the concentration being in Natal and Durban.[2]

Indian Ocean Islands

Mauritius

Mauritius has a Tamil population of 115,000. Most arrived from Tamil Nadu after 1727 to serve as labourers on the sugar cane plantations.[2] Tamil culture has flourished in Mauritius. Since 1727, the Tamil community has built almost 125 Tamil temples and Murugan is a popular deity. Tamil holidays and festivals such as Tamil New Year, Pongal, Timiti and Thaipusam are celebrated on a national level. Thiruvalluvar and Bharathi days are also celebrated while Deepavali, Thaipusam, Maha Shivaratri and Pongal are public holidays. But most of the people in Mauritius do not speak Tamil.

The Tamil language is taught in approximately 100 primary schools. Tamils are attempting to include their religion and other Hindu practices. Once Tamil priests came from Jaffna in Sri Lanka, they conducted prayers in Tamil. Later, some scholars started to facilitate the population to get access to sacred books. This helped the people to learn Tamil holy Enchantment from Thevarams and Thiruvasagam [2]

Réunion
A Malbar temple in Réunion.

Tamil settlement in the French department of Réunion started as far back as 1848 as indentured labour, mainly from Pondichéry and Karaikal, the French territories in Southern India. There are now about 120,000 Tamils living in Réunion or "Malabars" as they are known there with a large number of Hindu temples run by voluntary organisations where Hindu and Tamil cultural links are preserved well.

Seychelles

Tamil traders from Pondicherry used to visit the Seychelles for purposes of timber trade followed by settlements of Tamils from Tamil Nadu for trading purposes.[2] Later, a trading community was in place here mainly of Tamils and many of them got integrated with the local community. Now there about 4000 Tamils in the trading business as well as in other professions.

Americas

North America

Canada
Expatriate Sri Lankan Tamil children in traditional clothes in Toronto, Canada

Canada has a large concentration of Sri Lankan Tamils, almost 90% of the Tamil population - amounting to 300,000.[2] Tamil is taught from primary to pre-university level and 75% of them learn the language with interest. The cultural needs of the community are catered to well by round the clock radio/television channels and by numerous Tamil publications - literary and religious. Several Canadian universities contain large Tamil Student Associations (TSAs).

There are many more pro-active voluntary organisations keeping the Tamil culture alive. Toronto is home to the largest Tamil-speaking population outside Asia.

United States of America
The New York City Metropolitan Area, USA, including Central New Jersey, as well as Long Island and Staten Island in New York, is home to the largest Tamil American population.

New York City Metropolitan Area and the Washington Metropolitan Area, as well as on the West Coast in the Silicon Valley, where there are Tamil associations such as the Bay Area Tamil Manram.[10]

On the other hand, the New York City and Los Angeles metropolitan areas and Central New Jersey are home to the largest concentrations of Tamil-speaking Sri Lankan Americans.

Caribbean and Latin America

French West Indies

Tamil migration to the French West Indies was mainly sailings from Pondicherry and Karaikal during the years 1853 to 1883 and since 1893 almost all of them got well integrated with the people there. Presently a microscopic minority of 17 who are in the age range 60-70 could speak the Tamil language.

Guyana

Guyana had a large number of Tamils in their plantations since 1838.[2] Most of them came from Madras and in 1860, about 2500 Tamils from Madras alone settled in Guyana. Tamils were spread in about 60 towns.

There is also popular Mariamma temple.

Trinidad and Tobago

Tamils have been in Trinidad and Tobago since 1840.[2] The first Tamils arrived in Trinidad and Tobago as plantation workers who were brought by the British to work there. There was a Shiva temple called the "Madras Sivalayam" or the Canra Road temple. The Deepavali celebration by the Tamils there displayed extraordinary pluralism.

Asia

South Asia

Pakistan

A large community of Tamils exists in Karachi, Pakistan, which includes approximately 1,000 Tamil-speaking Hindus as well as much larger numbers of Muslims - including some refugees from northern Sri Lanka.[11] Tamil festivals are also celebrated like Pongal, Panguni uthiram, Thaipoosam etc.[12][13]

South-East Asia

Tamil peoples in Medan, Indonesia
Burma

Burma had a Tamil population of 200,000 at one point in the country's history but since the end of the Second World War the number got reduced.[2] The affluence of the Tamil community could be gauged by the existence of Dandayuthapani temples in 32 towns, the functioning of 50 Tamil primary schools, and the circulation of two Tamil newspapers, "Rasika Ranjani" and "Thondan", both of which were banned as of 1966.

Indonesia

Tamils were brought to Indonesia by the Dutch in the 1860s to build up their plantations. They were used as hard labor, and as the conditions were not conducive many returned in the 1940s. About 30,000 to 40,000 remained in Northern Sumatra, and as a result, there remained a concentration of Tamils in that region.

Malaysia and Singapore
Tamil girls in Malaysia

Malaysia has a Tamil population of 2,560,000 starting mainly from 1901 when it was called British Malaya.[2] Initially the migration was to work in the rubber plantations but later turned to trade and other professions mostly in the government sector such as the railways and the Public Works Department. The first Tamil school was there as early as 1876 but by 1925 it rose to 235 and by 1999 they had 548 schools.

Singapore is home to about 500 000 Tamil people. Tamil Language is one of the four official languages in Singapore.[14] An estimation of about 3.2% percent of the total population in Singapore speaks Tamil at home, while about 5% is literate in Tamil language.[15] Almost all official documents printed in Singapore are translated and distributed in Tamil as well as three other national languages. In 1956, the Singapore government decided to adopt a trilingual policy. Students were taught English, a second language, as well as Malay as a third language.[16] Today the emphasis has shifted to bilingualism.

Tamil is taught as a second language in all government schools from the primary to junior college levels. Tamil is an examinable subject at all major nationwide exams. There is a daily Tamil newspaper printed in Singapore, the Tamil Murasu. There is a full-time radio station, Oli 96.8, and a full-fledged TV channel, Vasantham.[17]

Other countries

Sepoy troops from Madras (now Chennai, Tamil Nadu), arrived in Manila, Philippines with the British expedition and occupation between 1762 and 1764 during the Seven Years' War. When the British withdrew, many of the Sepoys mutinied and refused to leave. Virtually all had taken Filipina brides (or soon did so). They settled in what is now Cainta, Rizal, just east of Metro Manila.[18] The region in and around Cainta still has many Sepoy descendants.

Vietnam has a small minority of about 3000 Tamils mostly in the Ho Chi Minh city.[2] Near to Bến Thành Market Dandayuthapani, Subramaniam Swamy & Mariyamman temples are there. Thailand has about 10,000 Tamils living there while there are 1,000 Tamils in Cambodia.

West Asia

The Middle East is home to thousands of migrants from Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka, and over 75.000 migrants immigrated to the Middle East in 2012 alone.[19] However, statistics on the numbers of migrants are scarce.

Qatar

Qatar is the home for about 4,000 Tamils mostly from Tamil Nadu.[2] In December 2000, the "Qatar Tamil Sangam" was inaugurated for conducting Tamil cultural programmes, teaching of Thirukkural and for conducting Tamil elocution contests for Tamil children.

United Arab Emirates

There are about 10,000 Tamils in the United Arab Emirates having come from Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka as professionals and workers in many sectors.[2] Pongal and New Year are celebrated on a grand scale in Dubai and in a few other states. Recently a Tamil newspaper "Tamilan Kural" circulates in Dubai.

Other countries

Bahrain is home for over 7000 Tamils mostly professionals and workers.[2] Saudi Arabia and Kuwait are also home for a substantial number of Tamils who are recent migrants.

Europe

Northern Europe

Scandinavia

The first Tamil immigrant to Norway, Anthony Rajendram, came to Norway in 1956. The majority of the early immigrants had contacts to Rajendram, and came as immigrant worker. Most had their origins in a few villages on the edge of Jaffna town; Karaioor, Arialai, Navanthurai. This first group was a starting point for future immigration to Norway. Norway has about 13,000 Tamils most of whom are Sri Lankan refugees. The city of Bergen is the home for about 400 Tamil families and it has become the centre for Tamil gatherings. Around 7,000 Tamils also live in the capital Oslo. Sweden has a Tamil population of about 2,000 and is of recent origin.

United Kingdom

Community estimates suggest that 150,000 Tamils lived in the United Kingdom (UK) as of 2008,[20][21] with a 2006 Human Rights Watch report putting the number of Sri Lankan Tamils in the UK at 110,000.[22] Migration of significant numbers of Tamils to the UK started with labour migrants in the 1940s. These were joined by students moving to the UK for education in the 1970s, and by refugees fleeing the Sri Lankan Civil War in the 1980s and 1990s.[20] The majority live in North London.[21]

Western Europe

France
Celebrations of Ganesh by the Sri Lankan Tamil community in Paris, France

About 57,600 Tamils live in France. The first Tamils to arrive in France came from Pondichéry when it was still a French colony.[2] However, a majority of Parisian Tamils are of Sri Lankan origin who fled the country and came to France as refugees in the 1980s, escaping the violent civil conflict.

Germany
Sri Kamadchi Ampal temple in Hamm, Germany

Hamm since 1984. According to the journal Hinduism Today, the youth are being well trained in their religion and culture at home and in weekend schools in rented halls using texts from Sri Lanka. They even wear Hindu symbols of Vibuthi and Tilakam.[23]

Switzerland

Switzerland has about 40,000 Tamils the majority of whom are from Sri Lanka who went as refugees.[2] Although they are well entrenched in the country and integrated with the local community, yet they are actively alive to their Hindu religious and Tamil cultural links.

Temples, cultural festivals, international conferences, seminars and meetings draw a large number of the Tamil diaspora from other European countries to the various Swiss cities, so much so that it has become the nerve centre of Tamil cultural activism. Tamil language classes, dance and music classes run by voluntary bodies are fast increasing.

A large Tamil community was established in Zurich with a place known as little Jaffna. However most of the Tamils reside in the German part of Switzerland.

Other countries

Denmark has over 7,000 Tamils, the majority being refugees.[2] There are two well-patronised Hindu temples – one for Vinayagar and another for Abhirami – and the Tamil population has got well adapted to the Danish environment. The Netherlands also has more than 20,000 Tamils, the majority of whom are, again, refugees from Sri Lanka.

Oceania

Australasia

Australia
Murugan Temple, Sydney

There are officially about 52,000 Tamils in Australia spread out in all the six states but the concentration is mainly in the states of New South Wales and Victoria. However, the actual number of ethnic Tamils is possibly double this amount and could be estimated at around 100,000.[24] Among this 40% are from Sri Lanka and 35% are from India. The remainder come from various countries like Malaysia, Singapore, Canada, USA, South Africa, Fiji and Mauritius. More than 80% have completed high school education compared to 78% (2010) for the general Australian population. More than 15% own their houses while more than 30% of the general population own their houses.

Numerous Tamil schools and Hindu Temples have been established in all main cities to cater for the growing Sri Lankan Tamil population. The Sydney Murugan Temple was constructed for the needs of the large Tamil population in Western Sydney. Smaller temples have been built in the greater Sydney area. The Siva Vishnu Temple in Carrum Downs south east of Melbourne is also a temple built by Sri Lankan Tamils. The Sunshine Murugan Temple in western Melbourne also caters to the Tamil community. In other cities such as Adelaide, Brisbane, Perth, Townsville, Darwin, Canberra and Hobart, Hindu temples have also been built.

The Tamil language is one of the approved subjects for the HSC examination and Tamil skill tests are conducted for children of ages five to sixteen.

New Zealand

New Zealand has about 6,800 Tamils, mostly professionals who have migrated on their own.[25]

Melanesia

Fiji

Fiji had a Tamil population of over 110,000 having been taken there to work in the plantations by the colonial masters in the 1880s.[2] Out of an Indian population of 350,000 the Tamils could number about 80,000 now.

The number who could speak is about 5,000 only and another 1,000 could write. It is only about 6,000 who declare their origins as Tamils as most of them have got well integrated with the local population. Most of them have lost their Tamil identity and are Tamils only in name. The South Indian Sanmarga Sangam is the pioneer body that forged the Tamil culture, Tamil education and the Hindu practices in the country for a long time.

New Caledonia

There are about 500 New Caledonians of Indian Tamil descent. Like in Réunion, they were known as Malabars and orinignally arrived in the 19th century from other French Territories, namely Réunion. New Caledonia has several descendants of Tamils, whose parents intermarried with the local population in the last century.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tamil". Ethnologue. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Sivasupramaniam, V. "History of the Tamil Diaspora". International Conferences on Skanda-Murukan. 
  3. ^ Foster, Carly. "Group Backgrounds: Tamils". Diversity Watch.  
  4. ^ "Basic Demographic Characteristics: Table 6 Indian Resident Population by Age Group, Dialect Group and Sex". Census of Population 2010 Statistical Release 1: Demographic Characteristics, Education, Language and Religion. Department of Statistics, Singapore. 
  5. ^ "Politically French, culturally Tamil: 12 Tamils elected in Paris and suburbs".  
  6. ^ "Volume: II Demographic and Fertility Characteristics" (PDF). The 2011 Housing and Population Census. Statistics Mauritius. p. 68. 
  7. ^ "Tamil Diaspora-Indonesia". Tamilnation.org. 18 May 2009. 
  8. ^ webindia123.com-people of manipur-Panjabies-marvaris-south indians-bengalese
  9. ^ New Jersey Tamil Sangam
  10. ^ Bay Area Tamil Manram
  11. ^ "Osama's shadow on Sri Lanka?". The Hindu Business Line. Retrieved August 20, 2012 
  12. ^ "Strangers to Their Roots and Those Around Them". The News (Pakistan). Retrieved August 20, 2012 
  13. ^ "Tamil Hindus in Karachi". Pakistan Hindu Post. Retrieved August 20, 2012 
  14. ^ Singapore, R. o. (1999). Constitution of the Republic of Singapore. Retrieved 10 1, 2010, from Singapore Statutes Online: http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/non_version/cgi-bin/cgi_retrieve.pl?&actno=Reved-CONST&date=latest&method=part
  15. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sn.html
  16. ^ Amy J, M. Singapore: A Multilingual, Multiethnic Country.
  17. ^ http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/singaporelocalnews/view/384243/1/.html
  18. ^ Rye 2006, pp. 720–721
  19. ^ "Uttar Pradesh sends the largest number of Indian workers abroad, not Kerala or Punjab". Retrieved 2015-09-15. 
  20. ^ a b Dissanayake, Samanthi (8 December 2008). "UK Tamils polarised but powerful". BBC News. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  21. ^ a b Beeston, Richard (13 June 2008). "Stop Tamil Tigers raising money in UK, says President Rajapaksa". The Times (London). Retrieved 28 December 2009. 
  22. ^ "Funding the 'Final War': LTTE Intimidation and Extortion in the Tamil Diaspora" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. 14 March 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2009. 
  23. ^ http://www.sangam.org/articles/view2/?uid=585
  24. ^ http://www.sbs.com.au/yourlanguage/tamil/censusexplorer
  25. ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/~/media/Statistics/Census/2013%20Census/data-tables/totals-by-topic/totals-by-topic-tables.xls

External links

  • Tamil Diaspora by V. Sivasupramaniam
  • Tamil Diaspora - A Trans State Nation by Nadesan Satyendra
  • History of Tamil Diaspora by V. Sivasupramaniam
  • Tamils in French Polynesia
  • Myanmar: A Neglected Area of Tamil Lexicography
  • World Tamil Population Map
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