List of Dutch inventions and discoveries

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The Netherlands, despite its comparatively modest size and population, had a considerable part in the making of the modern society.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] The Netherlands[9] and its people have made numerous seminal contributions to the world's civilization,[10][11][12][13][14][15][16] especially in art,[8][17][18][19][20] science,[21][22][23][24] technology and engineering,[25][26][27] economics and finance,[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37] cartography and geography,[38][39] exploration and navigation,[40][41] law and jurisprudence,[42] thought and philosophy,[7][43][44][45] medicine,[46] and agriculture.

During the Age of Discovery (the Dutch Golden Age in particular), using their expertise in doing business, cartography, shipbuilding, seafaring and navigation, the Dutch traveled to the far corners of the world, leaving their language embedded in the names of many places.[47][48] Dutch exploratory voyages revealed largely unknown landmasses to the civilized world and put their names on the world map. In the 16th and 17th centuries, Dutch-speaking cartographers[49] helped lay the foundations for the birth and development of modern cartography (including nautical cartography and stellar cartography). The Dutch came to dominate the map making and map printing industry by virtue of their own travels, trade ventures, and widespread commercial networks.[50] The Dutch initiated what we would call today the free flow of geographical information. As Dutch ships reached into the unknown corners of the globe, Dutch cartographers incorporated new discoveries into their work. Instead of using the information themselves secretly, they published it, so the maps multiplied freely. They were able to share their discoveries and ideas with the world because Dutch officials supported the freedom of press. The Dutch were the first (non-natives) to undisputedly discover, explore and map many unknown isolated areas of the world such as Svalbard, Australia,[51] New Zealand, Tonga, Sakhalin,[52] and Easter Island. In many cases the Dutch were the first Europeans the natives would encounter.[53] Australia (originally known as New Holland), never became a permanent Dutch settlement,[54] yet the Dutch were the first to undisputedly map its coastline. The Dutch navigators charted almost three-quarters of the Australian coastline, except the east coast. During the Age of Exploration, the Dutch explorers and cartographers were also the first to systematically observe and map (chart) the largely unknown far sounthern skies – the first significant addition to the topography of the sky since Ptolemy's time. Among the IAU's 88 modern constellations, there are 15 Dutch-created constellations, including 12 southern constellations.[55][56][57] In the sixth episode Travellers' Tales of the popular documentary TV series Cosmos (1980), American astronomer Carl Sagan, who also served as host, took a look at the Voyager missions to Jupiter and Saturn, and compared the excitement to the adventuring spirit of the early Dutch explorers who traveled unknown seas for the first time. Their discoveries led to further knowledge of previously unheard of wonders and riches, comparable to the invaluable data retrieved by the spacecraft.

Dutch-speaking people, in spite of their relatively small number, have a significant history of invention, innovation, discovery and exploration. The following list is composed of objects, (largely) unknown lands, breakthrough ideas/concepts, principles, phenomena, processes, methods, techniques, styles etc., that were discovered or invented (or pioneered) by people from the Netherlands and Dutch-speaking people from the former Southern Netherlands (Zuid-Nederlanders in Dutch). Until the fall of Antwerp (1585), the Dutch and Flemish were generally seen as one people.[58]


  • Inventions and innovations 1
    • Arts and architecture 1.1
      • Movements and styles 1.1.1
        • De Stijl (Neo-Plasticism) (1917)
      • Architecture 1.1.2
        • Brabantine Gothic architecture (1300s)
        • Netherlandish gabled architecture (1400s-1600s)
        • Netherlandish Mannerist architecture (Antwerp Mannerism) (1500s)
        • Cape Dutch architecture (1650s)
        • Amsterdam School (Dutch Expressionist architecture) (1910s)
        • Rietveld Schröder House (De Stijl architecture) (1924)
        • Van Nelle Factory (1925–1931)
      • Furniture 1.1.3
        • Dutch door (1600s)
        • Red and Blue Chair (1917)
        • Zig-Zag Chair (1934)
      • Visual arts 1.1.4
        • Foundations of modern oil painting (1400s)
        • Glaze (painting technique) (1400s)
        • Proto-Realism (1400s–1600s)
        • Proto-Surrealism (1470s–1510s)
        • Modern still-life painting (1500s–1600s)
        • Naturalistic landscape painting (1500s–1600s)
        • Genre painting (1500s)
        • Marine painting (1600s)
        • Vanitas (1600s)
        • Civil group portraiture (1600s)
        • Tronie (1600s)
        • Rembrandt lighting (1600s)
      • Mezzotint (1642) 1.1.5
      • Aquatint (1650s) 1.1.6
        • Pronkstilleven (1650s)
        • Proto-Expressionism (1880s)
        • M. C. Escher's graphic arts (1920s–1960s)
        • Miffy (Nijntje) (1955)
      • Music 1.1.7
        • Franco-Flemish School (Netherlandish School) (1400s-1500s)
        • Venetian School (Venetian polychoral style) (1500s)
        • Hardcore (electronic dance music genre) (1990s)
        • Hardstyle (electronic dance music genre) (1990s-2000s)
    • Agriculture 1.2
      • Holstein Friesian cattle (100s BC) 1.2.1
      • Brussels sprout (1200s) 1.2.2
      • Orange-coloured carrot (1500s) 1.2.3
      • Belle de Boskoop (apple) (1856) 1.2.4
      • Karmijn de Sonnaville (apple) (1949) 1.2.5
      • Elstar (apple) (1950s) 1.2.6
      • Groasis Waterboxx (2010) 1.2.7
    • Cartography and geography 1.3
      • Method for determining longitude using a clock (1530) 1.3.1
      • Triangulation as a surveying method (foundations of modern surveying) (1533 & 1615) 1.3.2
      • Mercator projection (1569) 1.3.3
      • First true (modern) atlas (1570) 1.3.4
      • First printed atlas of nautical chart (1584) 1.3.5
      • Concept of atlas (1595) 1.3.6
      • First systematic charting of the far southern skies (southern constellations) (1595-97) 1.3.7
      • Continental drift hypothesis (1596) 1.3.8
    • Chemicals and materials 1.4
      • Bow dye (1630) 1.4.1
      • Dyneema (1979) 1.4.2
    • Communication and multimedia 1.5
      • Compact cassette (1962) 1.5.1
      • Laserdisc (1969) 1.5.2
      • Compact disc (1979) 1.5.3
      • Bluetooth (1990s) 1.5.4
      • Wi-fi (1990s) 1.5.5
      • DVD (1995) 1.5.6
      • Ambilight (2002) 1.5.7
      • Blu-ray (2006) 1.5.8
    • Computer science and information technology 1.6
      • Dijkstra's algorithm (1956) 1.6.1
      • Foundations of distributed computing (1960s) 1.6.2
      • Foundations of concurrent programming (1960s) 1.6.3
      • Shunting-yard algorithm (1960) 1.6.4
      • Schoonschip (early computer algebra system) (1963) 1.6.5
      • Mutual exclusion (mutex) (1965) 1.6.6
      • Semaphore (programming) (1965) 1.6.7
      • Sleeping barber problem (1965) 1.6.8
      • Banker's algorithm (deadlock prevention algorithm) (1965) 1.6.9
      • Dining philosophers problem (1965) 1.6.10
      • Dekker's algorithm (1965) 1.6.11
      • THE multiprogramming system (1968) 1.6.12
      • Van Wijngaarden grammar (1968) 1.6.13
      • Structured programming (1968) 1.6.14
      • EPROM (1971) 1.6.15
      • Self-stabilization (1974) 1.6.16
      • Predicate transformer semantics (1975) 1.6.17
      • Guarded Command Language (1975) 1.6.18
      • Van Emde Boas tree (VEB tree) (1975) 1.6.19
      • ABC (programming language) (1980s) 1.6.20
      • Dijkstra-Scholten algorithm (1980) 1.6.21
      • Smoothsort (1981) 1.6.22
      • Amsterdam Compiler Kit (1983) 1.6.23
      • Eight-to-fourteen modulation (1985) 1.6.24
      • MINIX (1987) 1.6.25
      • Amoeba (operating system) (1989) 1.6.26
      • Python (programming language) (1989) 1.6.27
      • Vim (text editor) (1991) 1.6.28
      • Blender (1995) 1.6.29
      • EFMPlus (1995) 1.6.30
    • Economics 1.7
      • Institutional foundations of modern corporation (first multinational, joint-stock, public limited company) (1602) 1.7.1
      • First megacorporation (1602) 1.7.2
      • Dutch auction (1600s) 1.7.3
      • First modern art market (1600s) 1.7.4
      • Concept of corporate governance (1600s) 1.7.5
      • Modern concept of foreign direct investment (1600s) 1.7.6
      • First modern market-oriented economy (1600s) 1.7.7
      • First capitalist nation-state (foundations of modern capitalism) (1600s) 1.7.8
      • First modern economic miracle (1585–1714) 1.7.9
      • Dynamic macroeconomic model (1936) 1.7.10
      • Fairtrade certification (1988) 1.7.11
    • Finance 1.8
      • Concept of bourse (1200s) 1.8.1
      • Foundations of stock market (first official, fully-fledged stock exchange) (1602) 1.8.2
      • First fully functioning (fully-fledged) financial market (1600s) 1.8.3
      • Foundations of corporate finance (1600s) 1.8.4
      • Initial public offering (1602) 1.8.5
      • Institutional foundations of investment banking (1600s) 1.8.6
      • Institutional foundations of central banking (first central bank) (1609) 1.8.7
      • Short selling (1609) 1.8.8
      • Concept of dividend policy (1610) 1.8.9
      • First European banknote (1661) 1.8.10
      • First book ever on stock trading (1688) 1.8.11
      • Concept of technical analysis (1688) 1.8.12
      • Concept of behavioral finance (1688) 1.8.13
      • First modern model of a financial centre (1600s) 1.8.14
      • Foundations of modern financial system (1600s) 1.8.15
      • Concept of investment fund (1774) 1.8.16
      • Mutual fund (1774) 1.8.17
    • Foods and drinks 1.9
      • Gibbing (1300s) 1.9.1
      • Doughnut (1600s) 1.9.2
      • Gin (jenever) (1650) 1.9.3
      • Stroopwafel (1780s) 1.9.4
      • Cocoa powder (foundations of modern chocolate industry) (1828) 1.9.5
      • Dutch-process chocolate (1828) 1.9.6
    • Law and jurisprudence 1.10
      • Doctrine of the Freedom of the Seas (foundations of the Law of the Sea/UNCLOS) (1609) 1.10.1
      • Secularized natural law (foundations of modern international law) (1625) 1.10.2
      • Grotian conception of international society (1625) 1.10.3
      • Cannon shot rule (1702) 1.10.4
      • Permanent Court of Arbitration (1899) 1.10.5
      • International Opium Convention (1912) 1.10.6
      • Marriage equality (legalization of same-sex marriage) (2001) 1.10.7
    • Measurement 1.11
      • Pendulum clock (first high-precision clock) (1656) 1.11.1
      • Concept of the standardization of the temperature scale (1665) 1.11.2
      • Spiral-hairspring watch (first high-precision watch) (1675) 1.11.3
      • Mercury thermometer (first practical, accurate thermometer) (1714) 1.11.4
      • Fahrenheit scale (first standardized temperature scale) (1724) 1.11.5
      • Snellen chart (1862) 1.11.6
      • String galvanometer (1902) 1.11.7
      • Schilt photometer (1922) 1.11.8
    • Medicine 1.12
      • Clinical electrocardiography (first diagnostic electrocardiogram) (1902) 1.12.1
      • Einthoven's triangle (1902) 1.12.2
      • First European blood bank (1940) 1.12.3
      • Rotating drum dialysis machine (first practical artificial kidney) (1943) 1.12.4
      • Artificial heart (1957) 1.12.5
    • Military 1.13
      • Modern model of sea power (1585–1688) 1.13.1
      • House of Orange-Nassau's military reforms (1590s–1600s) 1.13.2
      • Norden bombsight (1920s) 1.13.3
      • Submarine snorkel (1939) 1.13.4
      • Goalkeeper CIWS (1975) 1.13.5
    • Musical instruments 1.14
      • Metronome (1812) 1.14.1
      • Fokker organ (1950) 1.14.2
      • Kraakdoos (1960s) 1.14.3
      • Moodswinger (2006) 1.14.4
      • Springtime (guitar) (2008) 1.14.5
    • Philosophy and social sciences 1.15
      • Neostoicism (1580s) 1.15.1
      • Modern rationalism (1630s–1670s) 1.15.2
      • Modern pantheism (1670s) 1.15.3
      • Early liberalism (foundations of liberalism) (1600s) 1.15.4
      • Cartesianism (1630s–1640s) 1.15.5
      • Spinozism (1660s–1670s) 1.15.6
      • Affect (philosophy) (1670s) 1.15.7
      • Mandeville's paradox (1714) 1.15.8
      • Mathematical intuitionism (1907–1908) 1.15.9
    • Religion and ethics 1.16
      • Devotio Moderna (1370s–1390s) 1.16.1
      • Mennonites (1536) 1.16.2
      • Dutch Reformed Church (1571) 1.16.3
      • Arminianism (1620) 1.16.4
      • First synagogue to be established in the (Americas) New World (1636) 1.16.5
      • Jansenism (1640s) 1.16.6
      • First Jewish congregation to be established in (the United States) North America (1654) 1.16.7
    • Scientific instruments 1.17
      • Telescope (optical telescope) (1608) 1.17.1
      • Huygens eyepiece (first compound eyepiece) (1670s) 1.17.2
      • Cycloid pendulum (1673) 1.17.3
      • Pyrometer (1739) 1.17.4
      • Leyden jar (first practical capacitor) (1745–1746) 1.17.5
      • Eisinga Planetarium (1781) 1.17.6
      • Kipp's apparatus (1860) 1.17.7
      • Phase contrast microscope (1933) 1.17.8
      • Magnetic horn (1961) 1.17.9
    • Sports and games 1.18
      • Kolf (forerunner of modern golf) (1200s) 1.18.1
      • Figure skating (prototype) (1400s–1600s) 1.18.2
      • Speed skating (1400s–1600s) 1.18.3
      • Yachting (sport sailing) (1600s) 1.18.4
      • International Skating Union (1892) 1.18.5
      • Korfball (1902) 1.18.6
      • Cruyff Turn (1974) 1.18.7
      • Total Football (1970s) 1.18.8
      • Tiki-taka (1990s) 1.18.9
    • Technology and engineering 1.19
      • First pound lock in Europe (1373) 1.19.1
      • Thermostat (automatic temperature regulator) (1620s) 1.19.2
      • Feedback control system (1620s) 1.19.3
      • Magic lantern (first practical image projector; the forerunner of modern slide projector) (1659) 1.19.4
      • Fire hose (1673) 1.19.5
      • Gunpowder engine (first practical rudimentary internal combustion piston engine) (1678-80) 1.19.6
      • Hollander beater (1680s) 1.19.7
      • Gas lighting (1783) 1.19.8
      • Meat slicer (1898) 1.19.9
      • Pentode (1926) 1.19.10
      • Philishave (1939) 1.19.11
      • Gyrator (1948) 1.19.12
      • Traffic enforcement camera (1958) 1.19.13
      • Variomatic (1958) 1.19.14
      • Red light camera (1965) 1.19.15
      • Stochastic cooling (1968) 1.19.16
      • Clap skate (1980) 1.19.17
    • Transportation 1.20
      • Ice skate improvements (1300s–1400s) 1.20.1
      • Herring Buss (1400s) 1.20.2
      • Yacht (1580s) 1.20.3
      • Fluyt (1500s) 1.20.4
      • Wind-powered sawmill (1592) 1.20.5
      • Schooner (prototype) (1600s) 1.20.6
      • Land yacht (1600) 1.20.7
      • First verified practical (navigable) submarine (1620) 1.20.8
      • First ever car equipped with a six-cylinder engine, along with four-wheel drive (1903) 1.20.9
    • Others 1.21
      • First practical national anthem (Het Wilhelmus) (1574) 1.21.1
  • Discoveries 2
    • Archaeology 2.1
      • Java Man (Homo erectus erectus) (1891) 2.1.1
    • Astronomy 2.2
      • Columba (constellation) (1592) 2.2.1
      • Novaya Zemlya effect (1597) 2.2.2
      • 12 southern constellations (1597–1598) 2.2.3
      • Camelopardalis (constellation) (1612–1613) 2.2.4
      • Monoceros (constellation) (1612–1613) 2.2.5
      • Rings of Saturn (1655) 2.2.6
      • Titan (Saturn's moon) (1655) 2.2.7
      • Kapteyn's Star (1897) 2.2.8
      • Discovery of evidence for galactic rotation (1904) 2.2.9
      • Galactic halo (1924) 2.2.10
      • Oort constants (1927) 2.2.11
      • Evidence of dark matter (1932) 2.2.12
      • Discovery of methane in the atmosphere of Titan (1944) 2.2.13
      • Discovery of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of Mars (1947) 2.2.14
      • Miranda (Uranus's moon) (1948) 2.2.15
      • Nereid (Neptune's moon) (1949) 2.2.16
      • Oort cloud (1950) 2.2.17
      • Kuiper belt (1951) 2.2.18
    • Biology 2.3
      • Foundations of modern reproductive biology (1660s –1670s) 2.3.1
      • Function of the Fallopian tube (1660s) 2.3.2
      • Development of ovarian follicle (1672) 2.3.3
      • Foundations of microbiology (discovery of microorganisms) (1670s) 2.3.4
      • Photosynthesis (1779) 2.3.5
      • Plant respiration (1779) 2.3.6
      • Foundations of virology (1898) 2.3.7
      • Chemistry of photosynthesis (1931) 2.3.8
      • Foundations of modern ethology (Tinbergen's four questions) (1930s) 2.3.9
      • Vroman effect (1975) 2.3.10
    • Chemistry 2.4
      • Concept of gas (1600s) 2.4.1
      • Van 't Hoff equation (1884) 2.4.2
      • Van 't Hoff factor (1884) 2.4.3
      • Lobry de Bruyn–van Ekenstein transformation (1885) 2.4.4
      • Prins reaction (1919) 2.4.5
      • Hafnium (1923) 2.4.6
      • Crystal bar process (1925) 2.4.7
      • Koopmans' theorem (1934) 2.4.8
    • Genetics 2.5
      • Concept of pangene/gene (1889) 2.5.1
      • Rediscovery the laws of inheritance (1900) 2.5.2
    • Geology 2.6
      • Bushveld Igneous Complex (1897) 2.6.1
    • Mathematics 2.7
      • Analytic geometry (1637) 2.7.1
      • Cartesian coordinate system (1637) 2.7.2
      • Differential geometry of curves (concepts of the involute and evolute of a curve) (1673) 2.7.3
      • Korteweg–de Vries equation (1895) 2.7.4
      • Proof of the Brouwer fixed-point theorem (1911) 2.7.5
      • Proof of the hairy ball theorem (1912) 2.7.6
      • Debye functions (1912) 2.7.7
      • Kramers–Kronig relations (1927) 2.7.8
      • Heyting algebra (formalized intuitionistic logic) (1930) 2.7.9
      • Zernike polynomials (1934) 2.7.10
      • Minnaert function (1941) 2.7.11
    • Mechanics 2.8
      • Proof of the law of equilibrium on an inclined plane (1586) 2.8.1
      • Centripetal force (1659) 2.8.2
      • Centrifugal force (1659) 2.8.3
      • Formula for the period of mathematical pendulum (1659) 2.8.4
      • Tautochrone curve (isochrone curve) (1659) 2.8.5
      • Coupled oscillation (spontaneous synchronization) (1665) 2.8.6
    • Medicine 2.9
      • Foundations of modern (human) anatomy (1543) 2.9.1
      • Crystals in gouty tophi (1679) 2.9.2
      • Boerhaave syndrome (1724) 2.9.3
      • Factor V Leiden (1994) 2.9.4
    • Microbiology 2.10
      • Blood cells (1658) 2.10.1
      • Red blood cell (1658) 2.10.2
      • Micro-organisms (1670s) 2.10.3
      • Biological nitrogen fixation (1885) 2.10.4
      • Rhizobium (1888) 2.10.5
      • Spirillum (first isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria) (1895) 2.10.6
      • Concept of virus (1898) 2.10.7
      • Azotobacter (1901) 2.10.8
      • Enrichment culture (1904) 2.10.9
    • Physics 2.11
      • 31 equal temperament (1661) 2.11.1
      • Foundations of classical mechanics (1673) 2.11.2
      • Foundations of physical optics / wave optics (wave theory of light) (1678) 2.11.3
      • Polarization of light (1678) 2.11.4
      • Huygens' principle (concepts of the wavefront and wavelet) (1690) 2.11.5
      • Bernoulli's principle (1738) 2.11.6
      • Brownian motion (1785) 2.11.7
      • Buys Ballot's law (1857) 2.11.8
      • Foundations of molecular physics (1873) 2.11.9
      • Van der Waals equation of state (1873) 2.11.10
      • Van der Waals forces (1873) 2.11.11
      • Van der Waals radius (1873) 2.11.12
      • Law of corresponding states (1880) 2.11.13
      • Lorentz ether theory (1892) 2.11.14
      • Lorentz force law (1892) 2.11.15
      • Abraham–Lorentz force (1895) 2.11.16
      • Lorentz transformation (1895) 2.11.17
      • Lorentz contraction (1895) 2.11.18
      • Lorentz factor (1895) 2.11.19
      • Zeeman effect (1896) 2.11.20
      • Liquid helium (liquefaction of helium) (1908) 2.11.21
      • Superconductivity (1911) 2.11.22
      • Einstein–de Haas effect (1910s) 2.11.23
      • Debye model (1912) 2.11.24
      • De Sitter precession (1916) 2.11.25
      • De Sitter space and anti-de Sitter space (1920s) 2.11.26
      • Van der Pol oscillator (1920) 2.11.27
      • Kramers' opacity law (1923) 2.11.28
      • Electron spin (1925) 2.11.29
      • Solidification of helium (1926) 2.11.30
      • Ehrenfest theorem (1927) 2.11.31
      • De Haas–van Alphen effect (1930) 2.11.32
      • Shubnikov–de Haas effect (1930) 2.11.33
      • Kramers degeneracy theorem (1930) 2.11.34
      • Minnaert resonance frequency (1933) 2.11.35
      • Casimir effect (1948) 2.11.36
      • Tellegen's theorem (1952) 2.11.37
      • Stochastic cooling (1970's) 2.11.38
      • Renormalization of gauge theories (1971) 2.11.39
      • Holographic principle (1993) 2.11.40
  • Explorations 3
    • Voyages of discovery 3.1
      • Orange Islands (1594) 3.1.1
      • Svalbard (first documented/undisputed sighting of, landing on and charting of the Svalbard Archipelago) (1596) 3.1.2
      • First documented winter surviving in the High Arctic (1596-1597) 3.1.3
      • First undisputed sighting of the Falkland Islands/Sebald Islands (1600) 3.1.4
      • Pennefather River, Northern Australia (first documented/undisputed sighting of, landing on and charting of the mainland Australia) (1606) 3.1.5
      • First charting of Manhattan, New York (1609) 3.1.6
      • Hudson Valley (1609) 3.1.7
      • Brouwer Route (1610–1611) 3.1.8
      • Jan Mayen Island (first verified discovery of Jan Mayen island) (1614) 3.1.9
      • Hell Gate, Long Island Sound, Connecticut River and Fisher's Island (1614) 3.1.10
      • Staten Island (Argentina), Cape Horn, Tonga, Hoorn Islands (1615) 3.1.11
      • Dirk Hartog Island (first documented/undisputed sighting of, landing on and charting of the Western Australia coastline) (1616) 3.1.12
      • Houtman Abrolhos (Western Australia) (1619) 3.1.13
      • Carstensz Glacier, Carstensz Pyramid/Puncak Jaya (1623) 3.1.14
      • Gulf of Carpentaria (Northern Australia) (1623) 3.1.15
      • Staaten River (Cape York Peninsula, Northern Australia) (1623) 3.1.16
      • Arnhem Land and Groote Eylandt (Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Australia) (1623) 3.1.17
      • Hermite Islands (1624) 3.1.18
      • First documented/undisputed sighting of, landing on and charting of the Southern Australia coast (1627) 3.1.19
      • Western Australia (1629) 3.1.20
      • Tasmania (first documented/undisputed sighting and charting of the Tasmanian mainland and the surrounding islands) (1642) 3.1.21
      • New Zealand and Fiji (first documented/undisputed sighting and charting of New Zealand) (1642) 3.1.22
      • Tongatapu and Haʻapai (Tonga) (1643) 3.1.23
      • Sakhalin (Cape Patience) (1643) 3.1.24
      • Kuril Islands (1643) 3.1.25
      • Rottnest Island and Swan River (Western Australian coast) (1696) 3.1.26
      • Easter Island and Samoa (first documented sighting of, landing on and charting of Easter Island) (1722) 3.1.27
      • Orange River (1779) 3.1.28
    • Scientific explorations 3.2
      • First systematic mapping of southern celestial hemisphere (1595–1597) 3.2.1
      • First major scientific expedition to Brazil (1637–1644) 3.2.2
      • First ethnographic descriptions of New Netherland and North American Indians (1641–1653) 3.2.3
    • Others 3.3
      • First non-Asian first-hand account of Korea (1653–1666) 3.3.1
  • See also 4
  • Bibliography 5
  • Notes 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Inventions and innovations

Arts and architecture

Movements and styles

De Stijl (Neo-Plasticism) (1917)

The De Stijl school proposed simplicity and abstraction, both in architecture and painting, by using only straight horizontal and vertical lines and rectangular forms. Furthermore, their formal vocabulary was limited to the primary colours, red, yellow, and blue and the three primary values, black, white and grey. De Stijl's principal members were painters Theo van Doesburg (1883–1931), Piet Mondrian (1872–1944), Vilmos Huszár (1884–1960), and Bart van der Leck (1876–1958) and architects Gerrit Rietveld (1888–1964), Robert van 't Hoff (1888–1979) and J.J.P. Oud (1890–1963).


Brabantine Gothic architecture (1300s)

Brabantine Gothic, occasionally called Brabantian Gothic, is a significant variant of Gothic architecture that is typical for the Low Countries. It surfaced in the first half of the 14th century at Saint Rumbold's Cathedral in the City of Mechelen. The Brabantine Gothic style originated with the advent of the Duchy of Brabant and spread across the Burgundian Netherlands.

Netherlandish gabled architecture (1400s-1600s)
Hillerød, Denmark) was built as a royal residence for King Christian IV of Denmark. The majority of the present castle was built between 1600-1620 in Dutch Renaissance style with red brick façade, sweeping gables, and sandstone decorations.
Børsen, Copenhagen's old stock exchange, was designed by Lorentz and Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger and is the oldest stock exchange in Denmark.
Dutch Renaissance gabled façade of the House of Blackheads (Riga's Old Town). The original building was erected during the first third of the 14th century for the Brotherhood of Blackheads, a guild for unmarried German merchants in Riga. The Dutch Renaissance/Mannerist style (with typically Dutch gables and red Dutch brick façades) blossomed more fully in Nordic countries and Hanseatic cities than in its homeland.
The Great Armoury in Gdańsk/Danzig, Poland. It was built in typically Dutch Mannerist style with a stepped-gable façade of red Dutch brick and sandstone decorations.
The Green Gate (Brama Zielona) is one of the most notable tourist attractions in Gdańsk, Poland. It was built between 1568-1571 in the Netherlandic/Dutch Mannerist style with a typically Dutch gable façade.
The Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in the center of Banda Aceh city, Aceh Province, Indonesia. The mosque was built (1879) in Dutch East Indies architectural style with the combination of occidental and oriental features. The mosque's stepped gables (trapgevel in Dutch) are reminiscent of Dutch Renaissance architectural style.

The Børsen, Riga's House of the Blackheads and Gdańsk's Green Gate were built in Dutch-Flemish Renaissance style with sweeping gables, sandstone decorations and copper-covered roofs. Later Dutch gables with flowing curves became absorbed into Baroque architecture. Examples of Dutch-gabled buildings can be found in historic cities across Europe such as Potsdam (Dutch Quarter), Friedrichstadt, Gdańsk and Gothenburg. The style spread beyond Europe, for example Barbados is well known for Dutch gables on its historic buildings. Dutch settlers in South Africa brought with them building styles from the Netherlands: Dutch gables, then adjusted to the Western Cape region where the style became known as Cape Dutch architecture. In the Americas and Northern Europe, the West End Collegiate Church (New York City, 1892), the Chicago Varnish Company Building (Chicago, 1895), Pont Street Dutch-style buildings (London, 1800s), Helsingør Station (Helsingør, 1891), and Gdańsk University of Technology's Main Building (Gdańsk, 1904) are typical examples of the Dutch Renaissance Revival (Neo-Renaissance) architecture in the late 19th century.

Netherlandish Mannerist architecture (Antwerp Mannerism) (1500s)

Antwerp Mannerism is the name given to the style of a largely anonymous group of painters from Antwerp in the beginning of the 16th century. The style bore no direct relation to Renaissance or Italian Mannerism, but the name suggests a peculiarity that was a reaction to the classic style of the early Netherlandish painting. Antwerp Mannerism may also be used to describe the style of architecture, which is loosely Mannerist, developed in Antwerp by about 1540, which was then influential all over Northern Europe. The Green Gate (Brama Zielona) in Gdańsk, Poland, is a building which is inspired by the Antwerp City Hall. It was built between 1568 and 1571 by Regnier van Amsterdam and Hans Kramer to serve as the formal residence of the Polish monarchs when visiting Gdańsk.

Cape Dutch architecture (1650s)

Cape Dutch architecture is an architectural style found in the Western Cape of South Africa. The style was prominent in the early days (17th century) of the Cape Colony, and the name derives from the fact that the initial settlers of the Cape were primarily Dutch. The style has roots in medieval Netherlands, Germany, France and Indonesia. Houses in this style have a distinctive and recognisable design, with a prominent feature being the grand, ornately rounded gables, reminiscent of features in townhouses of Amsterdam built in the Dutch style.

Amsterdam School (Dutch Expressionist architecture) (1910s)

The Amsterdam School (Dutch: Amsterdamse School) flourished from 1910 through about 1930 in the Netherlands. The Amsterdam School movement is part of international Expressionist architecture, sometimes linked to German Brick Expressionism.

Rietveld Schröder House (De Stijl architecture) (1924)
The exterior of the Rietveld Schröder House. The Rietveld Schröder House (Rietveld Schröderhuis) is considered one of the icons of the Modern architecture. With its radical approach to design and the use of space, the Rietveld Schröderhuis occupies a seminal position in the development of architecture in the modern age.

The Rietveld Schröder House or Schröder House (Rietveld Schröderhuis in Dutch) in Utrecht was built in 1924 by Dutch architect Gerrit Rietveld. It became a listed monument in 1976 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. The Rietveld Schröder House constitutes both inside and outside a radical break with tradition, offering little distinction between interior and exterior space. The rectilinear lines and planes flow from outside to inside, with the same colour palette and surfaces. Inside is a dynamic, changeable open zone rather than a static accumulation of rooms. The house is one of the best known examples of De Stijl architecture and arguably the only true De Stijl building.[59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70]

Van Nelle Factory (1925–1931)

The Van Nelle factory was built between 1925 and 1931. Its most striking feature is its huge glass façades. The factory was designed on the premise that a modern, transparent and healthy working environment in green surroundings would be good both for production and for workers' welfare. The complex is the result of the radical application of a number of cultural and technical concepts dating from the early twentieth century. This led to a new, functional approach to architecture that enjoyed mass appeal right from the start. The factory had a huge impact on the development of modern architecture in Europe and elsewhere. However, it is not just its architectural style, but rather its response to the social challenges of the day which makes the Van Nelle factory special. Its glass façade, with its large openable windows and advanced ventilation system, is quite unique, even though similar factories are to be found elsewhere.[71] The Van Nelle Factory is a Dutch national monument (Rijksmonument) and since 2014 has the status of UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Justification of Outstanding Universal Value was presented in 2013 to the UNESCO World Heritage Committee.

The factory complex, a collection of interconnected buildings, is one of the highlights of twentieth-century industrial architecture. Soon after it was built, prominent architects described the factory as ‘the most beautiful spectacle of our modern age that I know’ (Le Corbusier, 1932) and ‘a poem in steel and glass’ (Robertson and Yerbury, 1930).[72][73][74] A delicate grid of glass and concrete, the two parts of the Van Nelle complex are connected by dynamic, angular bridges. It influenced factory design worldwide and now houses creative industries and art fairs.[75][76]


Dutch door (1600s)
A Dutch door with the top half open, in South Africa

The Dutch door (also known as stable door or half door) is a type of door divided horizontally in such a fashion that the bottom half may remain shut while the top half opens. The initial purpose of this door was to keep animals out of farmhouses, while keeping children inside, yet allowing light and air to filter through the open top. This type of door was common in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century and appears in Dutch paintings of the period. They were commonly found in Dutch areas of New York and New Jersey (before the American Revolution) and in South Africa.[77]

Red and Blue Chair (1917)
A Rietveld joint, also called a Cartesian node in furniture-making, is an overlapping joint of three battens in the three orthogonal directions. It was a prominent feature in the Red and Blue Chair that was designed by Gerrit Rietveld in 1917. Rietveld joints are inextricably linked with the early 20th century Dutch artistic movement called De Stijl (of which Gerrit Rietveld was a member).

The Red and Blue Chair was designed in 1917 by Gerrit Rietveld. It represents one of the first explorations by the De Stijl art movement in three dimensions. It features several Rietveld joints.

Zig-Zag Chair (1934)

The Zig-Zag Chair was designed by Rietveld in 1934. It is a minimalist design without legs, made by 4 flat wooden tiles that are merged in a Z-shape using Dovetail joints. It was designed for the Rietveld Schröder House in Utrecht.

Visual arts

Foundations of modern oil painting (1400s)
Signature of Jan van Eyck. Jan Van Eyck is often credited as the first master of oil painting.

Although oil paint was first used for Buddhist paintings by Indian and Chinese painters sometime between the fifth and tenth centuries, it did not gain notoriety until the 15th century. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe. Early Netherlandish painting (Jan van Eyck in particular) in the 15th century was the first to make oil the default painting medium, and to explore the use of layers and glazes, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, and only then Italy.[78][79][80][81] Early works were still panel paintings on wood, but around the end of the 15th century canvas became more popular, as it was cheaper, easier to transport, and allowed larger works.

Glaze (painting technique) (1400s)

Glazing is a technique employed by painters since the invention of modern oil painting. Early Netherlandish painters in the 15th century were the first to make oil the usual painting medium, and explore the use of layers and glazes, followed by the rest of Northern Europe, and only then Italy.[78]

Proto-Realism (1400s–1600s)

Two aspects of realism were rooted in at least two centuries of Dutch tradition: conspicuous textural imitation and a penchant for ordinary and exaggeratedly comic scenes. Two hundred years before the rise of literary realism, Dutch painters had already made an art of the everyday – pictures that served as a compelling model for the later novelists. By the mid-1800s, 17th-century Dutch painting figured virtually everywhere in the British and French fiction we esteem today as the vanguard of realism.

Proto-Surrealism (1470s–1510s)

Hieronymus Bosch is considered one of the prime examples of Pre-Surrealism. The surrealists relied most on his insights. In the 20th century, Bosch's paintings (e.g. The Garden of Earthly Delights, The Haywain, The Temptation of St. Anthony and The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Last Things) were cited by the Surrealists as precursors to their own visions.

Modern still-life painting (1500s–1600s)

Still-life painting as an independent genre or specialty first flourished in the Netherlands in the last quarter of the 16th century, and the English term derives from stilleven: still life, which is a calque, while Romance languages (as well as Greek, Polish, Russian and Turkish) tend to use terms meaning dead nature.

Naturalistic landscape painting (1500s–1600s)
The Windmill at Wijk by Jacob van Ruisdael (1670). It is a commonplace of art history that the genre of "naturalistic landscape painting" first emerged in Holland in the seventeenth century. The word "landscape" entered the modern English language as landskip (variously spelt), an anglicization of the Dutch landschap, around the start of the 17th century. The 17th-century Dutch landscape art had considerable influences on the British landscape art, American Hudson River School, and French Barbizon School in subsequent centuries.

The term "landscape" derives from the Dutch word landschap, which originally meant "region, tract of land" but acquired the artistic connotation, "a picture depicting scenery on land" in the early 1500s. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the tradition of depicting pure landscapes declined and the landscape was seen only as a setting for religious and figural scenes. This tradition continued until the 16th century when artists began to view the landscape as a subject in its own right. The Dutch Golden Age painting of the 17th century saw the dramatic growth of landscape painting, in which many artists specialized, and the development of extremely subtle realist techniques for depicting light and weather.

Genre painting (1500s)

The Flemish Renaissance painter Pieter Brueghel the Elder chose peasants and their activities as the subject of many paintings. Genre painting flourished in Northern Europe in his wake. Adriaen van Ostade, David Teniers, Aelbert Cuyp, Jan Steen, Johannes Vermeer and Pieter de Hooch were among many painters specializing in genre subjects in the Netherlands during the 17th century. The generally small scale of these artists' paintings was appropriate for their display in the homes of middle class purchasers.

Marine painting (1600s)
The genre of marine painting as a distinct category separate from landscape is attributed to Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom from early in the seventeenth century.

Marine painting began in keeping with medieval Hendrick Cornelisz Vroom, Cornelius Claesz, Abraham Storck, Jan Porcellis, Simon de Vlieger, Willem van de Velde the Elder, Willem van de Velde the Younger and Ludolf Bakhuizen developed new methods for painting, often from a horizontal point of view, with a lower horizon and more focus on realism than symmetry.[82][83]

Vanitas (1600s)

The term vanitas is most often associated with still life paintings that were popular in seventeenth-century Dutch art, produced by the artists such as Pieter Claesz. Common vanitas symbols included skulls (a reminder of the certainty of death); rotten fruit (decay); bubbles, (brevity of life and suddenness of death); smoke, watches, and hourglasses, (the brevity of life); and musical instruments (the brevity and ephemeral nature of life). Fruit, flowers and butterflies can be interpreted in the same way, while a peeled lemon, as well as the typical accompanying seafood was, like life, visually attractive but with a bitter flavor.

Civil group portraiture (1600s)

Group portraits were produced in great numbers during the Baroque period, particularly in the Netherlands. Unlike in the rest of Europe, Dutch artists received no commissions from the Calvinist Church which had forbidden such images or from the aristocracy which was virtually non-existent. Instead, commissions came from civic and businesses associations. Dutch painter Frans Hals used fluid brush strokes of vivid color to enliven his group portraits, including those of the civil guard to which he belonged. Rembrandt benefitted greatly from such commissions and from the general appreciation of art by bourgeois clients, who supported portraiture as well as still-life and landscape painting. Notably, the world's first significant art and dealer markets flourished in Holland at that time.

Tronie (1600s)
Girl with a Pearl Earring (1665), Vermeer's masterpiece is often considered as a “tronie”.

In the 17th century, Dutch painters (especially Frans Hals, Rembrandt, Jan Lievens and Johannes Vermeer) began to create uncommissioned paintings called tronies that focused on the features and/or expressions of people who were not intended to be identifiable. They were conceived more for art's sake than to satisfy conventions. The tronie was a distinctive type of painting, combining elements of the portrait, history, and genre painting. This was usually a half-length of a single figure which concentrated on capturing an unusual mood or expression. The actual identity of the model was not supposed to be important, but they might represent a historical figure and be in exotic or historic costume. In contrast to portraits, "tronies" were painted for the open market. They differ from figurative paintings and religious figures in that they are not restricted to a moral or narrative context. It is, rather, much more an exploration of the spectrum of human physiognomy and expression and the reflection of conceptions of character that are intrinsic to psychology’s pre-history.

Rembrandt lighting (1600s)
The typical Rembrandt lighting setup. Rembrandt's treatment of light and dark in his portraiture created a style of lighting known today as Rembrandt lighting. Rembrandt lighting technique is used by many modern photographers and cinematographers.

Rembrandt lighting is a lighting technique that is used in studio portrait photography. It can be achieved using one light and a reflector, or two lights, and is popular because it is capable of producing images which appear both natural and compelling with a minimum of equipment. Rembrandt lighting is characterized by an illuminated triangle under the eye of the subject, on the less illuminated side of the face. It is named for the Dutch painter Rembrandt, who often used this type of lighting in his portrait paintings.

Mezzotint (1642)

The first known mezzotint was done in Amsterdam in 1642 by Utrecht-born German artist Ludwig von Siegen. He lived in Amsterdam from 1641 to about 1644, when he was supposedly influenced by Rembrandt.[84][85]

Aquatint (1650s)

The painter and printmaker Jan van de Velde is often credited to be the inventor of the aquatint technique, in Amsterdam around 1650.[85]

Pronkstilleven (1650s)

Pronkstilleven (pronk still life or ostentatious still life) is a type of banquet piece whose distinguishing feature is a quality of ostentation and splendor. These still lifes usually depict one or more especially precious objects. Although the term is a post-17th century invention, this type is characteristic of the second half of the seventeenth century. It was developed in the 1640s in Antwerp from where it spread quickly to the Dutch Republic. Flemish artists such as Frans Snyders and Adriaen van Utrecht started to paint still lifes that emphasized abundance by depicting a diversity of objects, fruits, flowers and dead game, often together with living people and animals. The style was soon adopted by artists from the Dutch Republic.[86] A leading Dutch representative was Jan Davidsz. de Heem, who spent a long period of his active career in Antwerp and was one of the founders of the style in Holland.[87] [88] Other leading representatives in the Dutch Republic were Abraham van Beyeren, Willem Claeszoon Heda and Willem Kalf.[86]

Proto-Expressionism (1880s)

Vincent van Gogh's work is most often associated with Post-Impressionism, but his innovative style had a vast influence on 20th-century art and established what would later be known as Expressionism, also greatly influencing fauvism and early abstractionism. His impact on German and Austrian Expressionists was especially profound. "Van Gogh was father to us all," the German Expressionist painter Max Pechstein proclaimed in 1901, when Van Gogh's vibrant oils were first shown in Germany and triggered the artistic reformation, a decade after his suicide in obscurity in France. In his final letter to Theo, Van Gogh stated that, as he did not have any children, he viewed his paintings as his progeny. Reflecting on this, the British art historian Simon Schama concluded that he "did have a child of course, Expressionism, and many, many heirs."

M. C. Escher's graphic arts (1920s–1960s)

Dutch graphic artist Maurits Cornelis Escher, usually referred to as M. C. Escher, is known for his often mathematically inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints. These feature impossible constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture and tessellations. His special way of thinking and rich graphic work has had a continuous influence in science and art, as well as permeating popular culture. His ideas have been used in fields as diverse as psychology, philosophy, logic, crystallography and topology. His art is based on mathematical principles like tessellations, spherical geometry, the Möbius strip, unusual perspectives, visual paradoxes and illusions, different kinds of symmetries and impossible objects. Gödel, Escher, Bach by Douglas Hofstadter discusses the ideas of self-reference and strange loops, drawing on a wide range of artistic and scientific work, including Escher's art and the music of J. S. Bach, to illustrate ideas behind Gödel's incompleteness theorems.

Miffy (Nijntje) (1955)

Miffy (Nijntje) is a small female rabbit in a series of picture books drawn and written by Dutch artist Dick Bruna.


Franco-Flemish School (Netherlandish School) (1400s-1500s)

In music, the Franco-Flemish School or more precisely the Netherlandish School refers to the style of polyphonic vocal music composition in the Burgundian Netherlands in the 15th and early 16th centuries, and to the composers who wrote it.

Venetian School (Venetian polychoral style) (1500s)

The Venetian School of polychoral music was founded by the Netherlandish composer Adrian Willaert.

Hardcore (electronic dance music genre) (1990s)

Hardcore or hardcore techno is a subgenre of electronic dance music originating in Europe from the emergent raves in the 1990s. It was initially designed at Rotterdam in Netherlands, derived from techno.[89]

Hardstyle (electronic dance music genre) (1990s-2000s)

Hardstyle is an electronic dance genre mixing influences from hardtechno and hardcore. Hardstyle was influenced by gabber. Hardstyle has its origins in the Netherlands where artists like DJ Zany, Lady Dana, DJ Isaac, DJ Pavo, DJ Luna and The Prophet, who produced hardcore, started experimenting while playing their hardcore records.


Holstein Friesian cattle (100s BC)

A typical Holstein-Friesian cow. Holstein cattle, a breed that now dominates the global dairy industry, are most quickly recognized by their distinctive color markings and outstanding milk production.

Holsteins or Holstein-Friesians are a breed of cattle known today as the world's highest-production dairy animals. Originating in Europe, Holstein-Friesians were bred in the two north Holland provinces of North Holland and Friesland, and Schleswig-Holstein in what became Germany. The animals were the regional cattle of the Frisians and the Saxons. The Dutch breeders bred and oversaw the development of the breed with the goal of obtaining animals that could best use grass, the area's most abundant resource. Its color pattern came from artificial selection by the breeders.[90] The origins of the breed can be traced to the black cows and white cows of the Batavians and Frisians - migrant tribes who settled the coastal Rhine region more than two thousand years ago. Over time, these two kinds of cows were selectively bred together with the aim of developing an animal that would make the best use of limited land by yielding generous quantities of both milk and meat. The result was the efficient, high-producing black-and-white dairy cow we know today as the Holstein Friesian.

Brussels sprout (1200s)

Forerunners to modern Brussels sprouts were likely cultivated in ancient Rome. Brussels sprouts as we now know them were grown possibly as early as the 13th century in the Low Countries (may have originated in Brussels). The first written reference dates to 1587. During the 16th century, they enjoyed a popularity in the Southern Netherlands that eventually spread throughout the cooler parts of Northern Europe.

Orange-coloured carrot (1500s)

Orange-coloured carrots. Before the 18th century, carrots from Asia were usually purple, while those in Europe were either white or red. Dutch farmers bred a variety that was orange. The long orange Dutch carrot, first described in 1721, is the ancestor of the orange horn carrot, one of the most common types found in supermarkets today. It takes its name from the town of Hoorn, in the Netherlands.
Carrots can be selectively bred to produce different colours.

Through history, carrots weren’t always orange. They were black, purple, white, brown, red and yellow. Probably orange too, but this was not the dominant colour. Orange-coloured carrots appeared in the Netherlands in the 16th century.[91] Dutch farmers in Hoorn bred the color. They succeeded by cross-breeding pale yellow with red carrots. It is more likely that Dutch horticulturists actually found an orange rooted mutant variety and then worked on its development through selective breeding to make the plant consistent. Through successive hybridisation the orange colour intensified. Improved strains resulted in three main varieties red, yellow and deep gold. This was developed to become the dominant species across the world, a sweet orange. Before the Dutch bred the sweet, orange-coloured carrot, the carrot had a less sweet (bitter) taste than the ones we know today. The colour choice may have been made to gain favour with the House of Orange, who led the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Empire and later became the Dutch Royal family.[92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103] Beta-Carotene, found in orange carrots is converted into vitamin A in the body by all animals except cats.

Belle de Boskoop (apple) (1856)

Belle de Boskoop is an apple cultivar which, as its name suggests, originated in Boskoop, where it began as a chance seedling in 1856. There are many variants: Boskoop red, yellow or green. This rustic apple is firm, tart and fragrant. Greenish-gray tinged with red, the apple stands up well to cooking. Generally Boskoop varieties are very high in acid content and can contain more than four times the vitamin C of 'Granny Smith' or 'Golden Delicious'.[104]

Karmijn de Sonnaville (apple) (1949)

Karmijn de Sonnaville is a variety of apple bred by Piet de Sonnaville, working in Wageningen in 1949. It is a cross of Cox's Orange Pippin and Jonathan, and was first grown commercially beginning in 1971. It is high both in sugars (including some sucrose) and acidity. It is a triploid, and hence needs good pollination, and can be difficult to grow. It also suffers from fruit russet, which can be severe. In Manhart’s book, “apples for the 21st century”, Karmijn de Sonnaville is tipped as a possible success for the future. Karmijn de Sonnaville is not widely grown in large quantities, but in Ireland, at The Apple Farm, 8 acres (32,000 m2) it is grown for fresh sale and juice-making, for which the variety is well suited.

Elstar (apple) (1950s)

Elstar apple is an apple cultivar that was first developed in the Netherlands in the 1950s by crossing Golden Delicious and Ingrid Marie apples. It quickly became popular, especially in Europe and was first introduced to America in 1972.[105] It remains popular in Continental Europe. The Elstar is a medium-sized apple whose skin is mostly red with yellow showing. The flesh is white, and has a soft, crispy texture. It may be used for cooking and is especially good for making apple sauce. In general, however, it is used in desserts due to its sweet flavour.

Groasis Waterboxx (2010)

The Groasis Waterboxx is a device designed to help grow trees in dry areas. It was developed by former flower exporter Pieter Hoff, and won Popular Science's "Green Tech Best of What's New" Innovation of the year award for 2010.

Cartography and geography

Method for determining longitude using a clock (1530)

The Dutch-Frisian geographer Gemma Frisius was the first to propose the use of a chronometer to determine longitude in 1530. In his book On the Principles of Astronomy and Cosmography (1530), Frisius explains for the first time how to use a very accurate clock to determine longitude.[106] The problem was that in Frisius’ day, no clock was sufficiently precise to use his method. In 1761, the British clock-builder John Harrison constructed the first marine chronometer, which allowed the method developed by Frisius.

Triangulation as a surveying method (foundations of modern surveying) (1533 & 1615)

Triangulation had first emerged as a map-making method in the mid sixteenth century when the Dutch-Frisian mathematician Gemma Frisius set out the idea in his Libellus de locorum describendorum ratione (Booklet concerning a way of describing places).[107][108][109][110][111][112] Dutch cartographer Jacob van Deventer was among the first to make systematic use of triangulation, the technique whose theory was described by Gemma Frisius in his 1533 book.

The modern systematic use of triangulation networks stems from the work of the Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snell (born Willebrord Snel van Royen), who in 1615 surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Bergen op Zoom, approximately 70 miles (110 kilometres), using a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all.[113][114][115] The two towns were separated by one degree on the meridian, so from his measurement he was able to calculate a value for the circumference of the earth – a feat celebrated in the title of his book Eratosthenes Batavus (The Dutch Eratosthenes), published in 1617. Snell's methods were taken up by Jean Picard who in 1669–70 surveyed one degree of latitude along the Paris Meridian using a chain of thirteen triangles stretching north from Paris to the clocktower of Sourdon, near Amiens.

Mercator projection (1569)

The 1569 Mercator map of the world (Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata).

The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. It became the standard map projection for nautical purposes because of its ability to represent lines of constant course, known as rhumb lines or loxodromes, as straight segments which conserve the angles with the meridians.[116]

First true (modern) atlas (1570)

World map Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Ortelius (1570). The period of late 16th and much of the 17th century (approximately 1570-1672) has been called the Golden Age of Dutch Cartography. The cartographers/publishers of Antwerp and Amsterdam, especially, were leaders in supplying maps and charts for all of Western Europe.

Flemish geographer and cartographer Abraham Ortelius generally recognized as the creator of the world's first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World). Ortelius's Theatrum Orbis Terrarum is considered the first true atlas in the modern sense: a collection of uniform map sheets and sustaining text bound to form a book for which copper printing plates were specifically engraved. It is sometimes referred to as the summary of sixteenth-century cartography.[117][118][119][120]

First printed atlas of nautical charts (1584)

Portugal by Waghenaer (1584). The publication of Waghenaer's De Spieghel der Zeevaerdt (1584) is widely considered as one of the most important developments in the history of nautical cartography.

The first printed atlas of nautical charts (De Spieghel der Zeevaerdt or The Mirror of Navigation / The Mariner's Mirror) was produced by Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer in Leiden. This atlas was the first attempt to systematically codify nautical maps. This chart-book combined an atlas of nautical charts and sailing directions with instructions for navigation on the western and north-western coastal waters of Europe. It was the first of its kind in the history of maritime cartography, and was an immediate success. The English translation of Waghenaer's work was published in 1588 and became so popular that any volume of sea charts soon became known as a "waggoner", the Anglicized form of Waghenaer's surname.[121][122][123][124][125][126][127]

Concept of atlas (1595)

Gerardus Mercator was the first to coin the word atlas to describe a bound collection of maps through his own collection entitled "Atlas sive Cosmographicae meditationes de fabrica mvndi et fabricati figvra". He coined this name after the Greek god who held the earth in his arms.[120][128]

First systematic charting of the far southern skies (southern constellations) (1595-97)

Equirectangular plot of declination vs right ascension of the modern constellations with a dotted line denoting the ecliptic. Constellations are colour-coded by family and year established. (detailed view)

In the golden age of Dutch cartography and exploration (approximately 1570–1722), the Dutch-speaking peoples made the seminal contributions to the natural history, cartography, geography and ethnography. Flanders-based cartographers such as Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius helped lay the foundations for the modern cartography. In the area of celestial cartography, the Dutch Republic's explorers and cartographers like Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, Frederick de Houtman, Petrus Plancius and Jodocus Hondius were the pioneers in first systematic charting/mapping of largely unknown southern hemisphere skies in the late 16th century.

The constellations around the South Pole were not observable from north of the equator, by Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese or Arabs. The modern constellations in this region were defined during the Age of Exploration, notably by Dutch navigators Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser and Frederick de Houtman at the end of sixteenth century. These twelve Dutch-created southern constellations represented flora and fauna of the East Indies and Madagascar. They were depicted by Johann Bayer in his star atlas Uranometria of 1603.[129] Several more were created by Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in his star catalogue, published in 1756.[130] By the end of the Ming Dynasty, Xu Guangqi introduced 23 asterisms of the southern sky based on the knowledge of western star charts.[131] These asterisms have since been incorporated into the traditional Chinese star maps. Among the IAU's 88 modern constellations, there are 15 Dutch-created constellations (including Apus, Camelopardalis, Chamaeleon, Columba, Dorado, Grus, Hydrus, Indus, Monoceros, Musca, Pavo, Phoenix, Triangulum Australe, Tucana and Volans).

Continental drift hypothesis (1596)

The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596. The concept was independently and more fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912. Because Wegener's publications were widely available in German and English and because he adduced geological support for the idea, he is credited by most geologists as the first to recognize the possibility of continental drift. During the 1960s geophysical and geological evidence for seafloor spreading at mid-oceanic ridges established continental drift as the standard theory or continental origin and an ongoing global mechanism.

Chemicals and materials

Bow dye (1630)

While making a coloured liquid for a thermometer, Cornelis Drebbel dropped a flask of Aqua regia on a tin window sill, and discovered that stannous chloride makes the color of carmine much brighter and more durable. Though Drebbel himself never made much from his work, his daughters Anna and Catharina and his sons-in-law Abraham and Johannes Sibertus Kuffler set up a successful dye works. One was set up in 1643 in Bow, London, and the resulting color was called bow dye.

Dyneema (1979)

Dutch chemical company DSM invented and patented the Dyneema in 1979. Dyneema fibres have been in commercial production since 1990 at their plant at Heerlen. These fibers are manufactured by means of a gel-spinning process that combines extreme strength with incredible softness. Dyneema fibres, based on ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), is used in many applications in markets such as life protection, shipping, fishing, offshore, sailing, medical and textiles.

Communication and multimedia

Compact cassette (1962)

Compact Cassette

In 1962 Philips invented the compact audio cassette medium for audio storage, introducing it in Europe in August 1963 (at the Berlin Radio Show) and in the United States (under the Norelco brand) in November 1964, with the trademark name Compact Cassette.[132][133][134][135][136]

Laserdisc (1969)

Laserdisc technology, using a transparent disc,[137] was invented by David Paul Gregg in 1958 (and patented in 1961 and 1990).[138] By 1969, Philips developed a videodisc in reflective mode, which has great advantages over the transparent mode. MCA and Philips decided to join forces. They first publicly demonstrated the videodisc in 1972. Laserdisc entered the market in Atlanta, on 15 December 1978, two years after the VHS VCR and four years before the CD, which is based on Laserdisc technology. Philips produced the players and MCA made the discs.

Compact disc (1979)

Compact Disc

The compact disc was jointly developed by Philips (Joop Sinjou) and Sony (Toshitada Doi). In the early 1970s, Philips' researchers started experiments with "audio-only" optical discs, and at the end of the 1970s, Philips, Sony, and other companies presented prototypes of digital audio discs.

Bluetooth (1990s)

Bluetooth, a low-energy, peer-to-peer wireless technology was originally developed by Dutch electrical engineer Jaap Haartsen and Swedish engineer Sven Mattisson in the 1990s, working at Ericsson in Lund, Sweden. It became a global standard of short distance wireless connection.

Wi-fi (1990s)

In 1991, NCR Corporation/AT&T Corporation invented the precursor to 802.11 in Nieuwegein. Dutch electrical engineer Vic Hayes chaired IEEE 802.11 committee for 10 years, which was set up in 1990 to establish a wireless networking standard. He has been called the father of Wi-Fi (the brand name for products using IEEE 802.11 standards) for his work on IEEE 802.11 (802.11a & 802.11b) standard in 1997.

DVD (1995)

The DVD optical disc storage format was invented and developed by Philips and Sony in 1995.

Ambilight (2002)

Ambilight, short for "ambient lighting", is a lighting system for televisions developed by Philips in 2002.

Blu-ray (2006)

Philips and Sony in 1997 and 2006 respectively, launched the Blu-ray video recording/playback standard.

Computer science and information technology

Dijkstra's algorithm (1956)

Dijkstra's algorithm, conceived by Dutch computer scientist Edsger Dijkstra in 1956 and published in 1959, is a graph search algorithm that solves the single-source shortest path problem for a graph with non-negative edge path costs, producing a shortest path tree. Dijkstra's algorithm is so powerful that it not only finds the shortest path from a chosen source to a given destination, it finds all of the shortest paths from the source to all destinations. This algorithm is often used in routing and as a subroutine in other graph algorithms.

Dijkstra's algorithm is considered as one of the most popular algorithms in computer science. It is also widely used in the fields of artificial intelligence, operational research/operations research, network routing, network analysis, and transportation engineering.

Foundations of distributed computing (1960s)

Through his fundamental contributions Edsger Dijkstra helped shape the field of computer science. His groundbreaking contributions ranged from the engineering side of computer science to the theoretical one and covered several areas including compiler construction, operating systems, distributed systems, sequential and concurrent programming, software engineering, and graph algorithms. Many of his papers, often just a few pages long, are the source of whole new research areas. Several concepts that are now completely standard in computer science were first identified by Dijkstra and/or bear names coined by him.[139][140]

Edsger Dijkstra's foundational work on concurrency, semaphores, mutual exclusion, deadlock, finding shortest paths in graphs, fault-tolerance, self-stabilization, among many other contributions comprises many of the pillars upon which the field of distributed computing is built. The Edsger W. Dijkstra Prize in Distributed Computing (sponsored jointly by the ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing and the EATCS International Symposium on Distributed Computing) is given for outstanding papers on the principles of distributed computing, whose significance and impact on the theory and/or practice of distributed computing has been evident for at least a decade.

Foundations of concurrent programming (1960s)

The academic study of concurrent programming (concurrent algorithms in particular) started in the 1960s, with Edsger Dijkstra (1965) credited with being the first paper in this field, identifying and solving mutual exclusion.[141] A pioneer in the field of concurrent computing, Per Brinch Hansen considers Dijkstra's Cooperating Sequential Processes (1965) to be the first classic paper in concurrent programming. As Brinch Hansen notes: ‘Here Dijkstra lays the conceptual foundation for abstract concurrent programming.’[142]

Shunting-yard algorithm (1960)

In computer science, the shunting-yard algorithm is a method for parsing mathematical expressions specified in infix notation. It can be used to produce output in Reverse Polish notation (RPN) or as an abstract syntax tree (AST). The algorithm was invented by Edsger Dijkstra and named the "shunting yard" algorithm because its operation resembles that of a railroad shunting yard. Dijkstra first described the Shunting Yard Algorithm in the Mathematisch Centrum report.

Schoonschip (early computer algebra system) (1963)

In 1963/64, during an extended stay at SLAC, Dutch theoretical physicist Martinus Veltman designed the computer program Schoonschip for symbolic manipulation of mathematical equations, which is now considered the very first computer algebra system.

Mutual exclusion (mutex) (1965)

In computer science, mutual exclusion refers to the requirement of ensuring that no two concurrent processes are in their critical section at the same time; it is a basic requirement in concurrency control, to prevent race conditions. The requirement of mutual exclusion was first identified and solved by Edsger W. Dijkstra in his seminal 1965 paper titled Solution of a problem in concurrent programming control,[143][144] and is credited as the first topic in the study of concurrent algorithms.[141]

Semaphore (programming) (1965)

The semaphore concept was invented by Dijkstra in 1965 and the concept has found widespread use in a variety of operating systems.

Sleeping barber problem (1965)

In computer science, the sleeping barber problem is a classic inter-process communication and synchronization problem between multiple operating system processes. The problem is analogous to that of keeping a barber working when there are customers, resting when there are none and doing so in an orderly manner. The Sleeping Barber Problem was introduced by Edsger Dijkstra in 1965.[145]

Banker's algorithm (deadlock prevention algorithm) (1965)

The Banker's algorithm is a resource allocation and deadlock avoidance algorithm developed by Edsger Dijkstra that tests for safety by simulating the allocation of predetermined maximum possible amounts of all resources, and then makes an "s-state" check to test for possible deadlock conditions for all other pending activities, before deciding whether allocation should be allowed to continue. The algorithm was developed in the design process for the THE operating system and originally described (in Dutch) in EWD108.[146] The name is by analogy with the way that bankers account for liquidity constraints.

Dining philosophers problem (1965)

In computer science, the dining philosophers problem is an example problem often used in concurrent algorithm design to illustrate synchronization issues and techniques for resolving them. It was originally formulated in 1965 by Edsger Dijkstra as a student exam exercise, presented in terms of computers competing for access to tape drive peripherals. Soon after, Tony Hoare gave the problem its present formulation.[147][148][149]

Dekker's algorithm (1965)

Dekker's algorithm is the first known correct solution to the mutual exclusion problem in concurrent programming. Dijkstra attributed the solution to Dutch mathematician Theodorus Dekker in his manuscript on cooperating sequential processes. It allows two threads to share a single-use resource without conflict, using only shared memory for communication. Dekker's algorithm is the first published software-only, two-process mutual exclusion algorithm.

THE multiprogramming system (1968)

The THE multiprogramming system was a computer operating system designed by a team led by Edsger W. Dijkstra, described in monographs in 1965-66[150] and published in 1968.[151]

Van Wijngaarden grammar (1968)

Van Wijngaarden grammar (also vW-grammar or W-grammar) is a two-level grammar that provides a technique to define potentially infinite context-free grammars in a finite number of rules. The formalism was invented by Adriaan van Wijngaarden to rigorously define some syntactic restrictions that previously had to be formulated in natural language, despite their formal content. Typical applications are the treatment of gender and number in natural language syntax and the well-definedness of identifiers in programming languages. The technique was used and developed in the definition of the programming language ALGOL 68. It is an example of the larger class of affix grammars.

Structured programming (1968)

In 1968, computer programming was in a state of crisis. Dijkstra was one of a small group of academics and industrial programmers who advocated a new programming style to improve the quality of programs. Dijkstra coined the phrase "structured programming" and during the 1970s this became the new programming orthodoxy.

EPROM (1971)

An EPROM or erasable programmable read only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off. Development of the EPROM memory cell started with investigation of faulty integrated circuits where the gate connections of transistors had broken. Stored charge on these isolated gates changed their properties. The EPROM was invented by the Amsterdam-born Israeli electrical engineer Dov Frohman in 1971, who was awarded US patent 3660819[152] in 1972.

Self-stabilization (1974)

Self-stabilization is a concept of fault-tolerance in distributed computing. A distributed system that is self-stabilizing will end up in a correct state no matter what state it is initialized with. That correct state is reached after a finite number of execution steps. Many years after the seminal paper of Edsger Dijkstra in 1974, this concept remains important as it presents an important foundation for self-managing computer systems and fault-tolerant systems. Self-stabilization became its own area of study in distributed systems research, and Dijkstra set the stage for the next generation of computer scientists such as Leslie Lamport, Nancy Lynch, and Shlomi Dolev. As a result, Dijkstra's paper received the 2002 ACM PODC Influential-Paper Award (later renamed as Dijkstra Prize or Edsger W. Dijkstra Prize in Distributed Computing since 2003).[153]

Predicate transformer semantics (1975)

Predicate transformer semantics were introduced by Dijkstra in his seminal paper "Guarded commands, nondeterminacy and formal derivation of programs".

Guarded Command Language (1975)

The Guarded Command Language (GCL) is a language defined by Edsger Dijkstra for predicate transformer semantics.[154] It combines programming concepts in a compact way, before the program is written in some practical programming language.

Van Emde Boas tree (VEB tree) (1975)

A Van Emde Boas tree (or Van Emde Boas priority queue, also known as a vEB tree, is a tree data structure which implements an associative array with m-bit integer keys. The vEB tree was invented by a team led by Dutch computer scientist Peter van Emde Boas in 1975.[155]

ABC (programming language) (1980s)

ABC is an imperative general-purpose programming language and programming environment developed at CWI, Netherlands by Leo Geurts, Lambert Meertens, and Steven Pemberton. It is interactive, structured, high-level, and intended to be used instead of BASIC, Pascal, or AWK. It is not meant to be a systems-programming language but is intended for teaching or prototyping.

The language had a major influence on the design of the Python programming language (as a counterexample); Guido van Rossum, who developed Python, previously worked for several years on the ABC system in the early 1980s.[156][157]

Dijkstra-Scholten algorithm (1980)

The Dijkstra–Scholten algorithm (named after Edsger W. Dijkstra and Carel S. Scholten) is an algorithm for detecting termination in a distributed system.[158][159] The algorithm was proposed by Dijkstra and Scholten in 1980.[160]

Smoothsort (1981)

Smoothsort[161] is a comparison-based sorting algorithm. It is a variation of heapsort developed by Edsger Dijkstra in 1981. Like heapsort, smoothsort's upper bound is O(n log n). The advantage of smoothsort is that it comes closer to O(n) time if the input is already sorted to some degree, whereas heapsort averages O(n log n) regardless of the initial sorted state.

Amsterdam Compiler Kit (1983)

The Amsterdam Compiler Kit (ACK) is a fast, lightweight and retargetable compiler suite and toolchain developed by Andrew Tanenbaum and Ceriel Jacobs at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. It is MINIX's native toolchain. The ACK was originally closed-source software (that allowed binaries to be distributed for MINIX as a special case), but in April 2003 it was released under an open source BSD license. It has frontends for programming languages C, Pascal, Modula-2, Occam, and BASIC. The ACK's notability stems from the fact that in the early 1980s it was one of the first portable compilation systems designed to support multiple source languages and target platforms.[162][163]

Eight-to-fourteen modulation (1985)

EFM (Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation) was invented by Dutch electrical engineer Kees A. Schouhamer Immink in 1985. EFM is a data encoding technique – formally, a channel code – used by CDs, laserdiscs and pre-Hi-MD MiniDiscs.

MINIX (1987)

MINIX (from "mini-Unix") is a Unix-like computer operating system based on a microkernel architecture. Early versions of MINIX were created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum for educational purposes. Starting with MINIX 3, the primary aim of development shifted from education to the creation of a highly reliable and self-healing microkernel OS. MINIX is now developed as open-source software. MINIX was first released in 1987, with its complete source code made available to universities for study in courses and research. It has been free and open source software since it was re-licensed under the BSD license in April 2000. Tanenbaum created MINIX at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam to exemplify the principles conveyed in his textbook, Operating Systems: Design and Implementation (1987), that Linus Torvalds described as "the book that launched me to new heights".

The design principles Tanenbaum applied to MINIX greatly influenced the design decisions Linus Torvalds applied in the creation of the Linux kernel. Torvalds used and appreciated MINIX, but his design deviated from the MINIX architecture in significant ways, most notably by employing a monolithic kernel instead of a microkernel. This was famously disapproved of by Tanenbaum in the Tanenbaum–Torvalds debate. Early Linux kernel development was done on a MINIX host system, which led to Linux inheriting various features from MINIX, such as the MINIX file system. When Linus Torvalds first started writing his Linux operating system kernel (1991), he was working on a machine running MINIX, so the initial releases based a lot of functionality on MINIX subsystems.[164] Until the April 1992 introduction of the extended file system, Linux used the MINIX file system.[165]

Amoeba (operating system) (1989)

Amoeba is a distributed operating system developed by Andrew S. Tanenbaum and others at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. The aim of the Amoeba project was to build a timesharing system that makes an entire network of computers appear to the user as a single machine. The Python programming language was originally developed for this platform.[166]

Python (programming language) (1989)

Python is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language.[167][168] Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability, and its syntax allows programmers to express concepts in fewer lines of code than would be possible in languages such as C++ or Java.[169][170] The language provides constructs intended to enable clear programs on both a small and large scale. Python supports multiple programming paradigms, including object-oriented, imperative and functional programming or procedural styles. It features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management and has a large and comprehensive standard library.

Python was conceived in the late 1980s and its implementation was started in December 1989 by Guido van Rossum at CWI in the Netherlands as a successor to the ABC language (itself inspired by SETL) capable of exception handling and interfacing with the Amoeba operating system. Van Rossum is Python's principal author, and his continuing central role in deciding the direction of Python is reflected in the title given to him by the Python community, benevolent dictator for life (BDFL).

Since 2008, Python has consistently ranked in the top eight most popular programming languages as measured by the TIOBE Programming Community Index. It is the third most popular language whose grammatical syntax is not predominantly based on C, e.g. C++, C#, Objective-C, Java. Python does borrow heavily, however, from the expression and statement syntax of C, making it easier for programmers to transition between languages.

An empirical study found that, for a programming problem involving string manipulation and search in a dictionary, scripting languages such as Python were more productive than conventional languages such as C and Java. Memory consumption was often "better than Java and not much worse than C or C++". Large organizations that make use of Python include Google, Yahoo!, CERN, NASA, and some smaller ones like ILM, and ITA.

Vim (text editor) (1991)

Vim is a text editor written by the Dutch free software programmer Bram Moolenaar and first released publicly in 1991. Based on the Vi editor common to Unix-like systems, Vim carefully separated the user interface from editing functions. This allowed it to be used both from a command line interface and as a standalone application in a graphical user interface.

Blender (1995)

Big Buck Bunny, a short computer animated comedy film by the Blender Institute, part of the Blender Foundation. Like the foundation's previous film Elephants Dream, the film was made using Blender.

Blender is a professional free and open-source 3D computer graphics software product used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and video games. Blender's features include 3D modeling, UV unwrapping, texturing, raster graphics editing, rigging and skinning, fluid and smoke simulation, particle simulation, soft body simulation, sculpting, animating, match moving, camera tracking, rendering, video editing and compositing. Alongside the modelling features it also has an integrated game engine. Blender has been successfully used in the media industry in several parts of the world including Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Russia, Sweden, and the United States.

The Dutch animation studio Neo Geo and Not a Number Technologies (NaN) developed Blender as an in-house application, with the primary author being Ton Roosendaal. The name Blender was inspired by a song by Yello, from the album Baby.[171] Roosendaal founded NaN in June 1998 to further develop and distribute the program. They initially distributed the program as shareware until NaN went bankrupt in 2002.

The creditors agreed to release Blender under the GNU General Public License, for a one-time payment of €100,000 (US$100,670 at the time). On July 18, 2002, Roosendaal started a Blender funding campaign to collect donations, and on September 7, 2002, announced that they had collected enough funds and would release the Blender source code. Today, Blender is free, open-source software and is—apart from the Blender Institute's two half-time and two full-time employees—developed by the community.[172]

The Blender Foundation initially reserved the right to use dual licensing, so that, in addition to GNU GPL, Blender would have been available also under the Blender License that did not require disclosing source code but required payments to the Blender Foundation. However, they never exercised this option and suspended it indefinitely in 2005.[173] Currently, Blender is solely available under GNU GPL.

EFMPlus (1995)

EFMPlus is the channel code used in DVDs and SACDs, a more efficient successor to EFM used in CDs. It was created by Dutch electrical engineer Kees A. Schouhamer Immink, who also designed EFM. It is 6% less efficient than Toshiba's SD code, which resulted in a capacity of 4.7 gigabytes instead of SD's original 5 GB. The advantage of EFMPlus is its superior resilience against disc damage such as scratches and fingerprints.


Institutional foundations of modern corporation (first multinational, joint-stock, public limited company) (1602)

A bond from the Dutch East India Company (VOC), dating from 7 November 1623. The VOC was the first company in history to actually issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. The VOC was also the first company to use a fully-fledged capital market (including the bond market and the stock market) as a crucial channel to raise medium-term and long-term funds.

The Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC), founded in 1602, was the world’s first multinational, joint-stock,[174] limited liability corporation[175][176][177][178][179][180][181][182] - as well as its first government-backed trading cartel.[183][184][185][186] It was the first company to issue shares of stock and what evolved into corporate bonds. The VOC was also the first company to actually issue stocks and bonds through a stock exchange.[187][188][189][190] In 1602, the VOC issued shares that were made tradable on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. This invention enhanced the ability of joint-stock companies to attract capital from investors as they could now easily dispose their shares. The company was known throughout the world as the VOC thanks to its logo featuring those initials, which became the first global corporate brand. The company's monogram also became the first global logo.[191]

The seventeenth-century Dutch merchants laid the foundations for the birth and development of modern corporations that now operate in many countries around the world.[192][193] The Dutch merchants were also the pioneers in laying the basis for modern corporate governance.[194] It was the VOC that invented the idea in 1606 of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company.[195] The VOC is generally viewed as the first modern corporation.[196][197] With its legal personhood, permanent capital with transferable shares, separation of ownership and management, and limited liability for both shareholders and managers (or The Heeren XVII, who served as the board of directors of the company), the Dutch East India Company (VOC) is generally considered a major institutional breakthrough.[198] Motivated by international trade and the risks of venture capital, the VOC pioneered two of the most important riskmanagement innovations known, the implicit limited liability of shareholders and a secondary market for equity shares on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.[177][199][200][201][202][203][204][205] The VOC marked a commercial breakthrough. It conducted semipermanent business ventures, instead of contracting with different shareholders for each undertaking. Other firms soon followed suit.[206] The VOC's success inspired imitation across Europe—from Russia to Portugal.[193] Unlike the competing British East India Company founded in 1600, the VOC allowed anyone to purchase stock in the trading at the open-air Amsterdam Bourse.[207][208] Within a few decades, the VOC proved itself to be the most powerful trading corporation in the seventeenth-century world and the model for the large-scale business enterprises that now dominate the global economy.[209][210] As Timothy Brook commented: "The Dutch East India Company—the VOC, as it is known—is to corporate capitalism what Benjamin Franklin's kite is to electronics: the beginning of something momentous that could not have been predicted at the time."[211] The VOC's institutional innovations made large-scale trade feasible for the first time in history.[212] These innovations allowed a single company to mobilize financial resources from a large number of investors and create ventures at a scale that had previously only been possible for monarchs.[213] The key to the success of the VOC was that its ownership had been opened up to the general public. The VOC, for the very first time in history, enabled investors from all strata of the population to invest in a company that intended to continue to exist for many years. This enabled the vast sum of 6.5 million guilders to be raised. During its golden age, the VOC was the pioneering model for the modern corporations in corporate governance, entrepreneurship, performance, and profitability.

The joint-stock company, with a permanent capital base (fixed capital stock).[214][215][216][217][218][219][220] In 1602, the world's first official stock exchange (Amsterdam Stock Exchange or Amsterdam Bourse) was established by the VOC for dealings in its printed stocks and bonds. In the same year, The VOC undertook the world's first recorded IPO and, therefore, became the first public company to issue stock. It also played an integral role in modern history's first market crash. In 2010, a history student from Utrecht University, found the world’s oldest known ‘share’ during his thesis research in the Westfries Archief in Hoorn. It dates from 1606 and was issued by the VOC chamber of Enkhuizen.

The VOC is generally considered to be the world's first truly multinational corporation since it was the first transnational enterprise to issue stock. Some historians such as Timothy Brook and Russell Shorto consider the VOC as the first pioneering corporation in the first wave of globalization.[221][222] The VOC was the first multinational corporation to operate officially in different continents such as Europe, Asia and Africa. While the VOC mainly operated in what later became the Dutch East Indies (modern Indonesia), the company also had important operations elsewhere. It employed people from different continents and origins in the same functions and working environments. Although it was a Dutch company its employees included not only people from the Netherlands, but also many from Germany and from other countries as well. Besides the diverse north-west European workforce recruited by the VOC in the Dutch Republic, the VOC made extensive use of local Asian labour markets. As a result, the personnel of the various VOC offices in Asia consisted of European and Asian employees. Asian or Eurasian workers might be employed as sailors, soldiers, writers, carpenters, smiths, or as simple unskilled workers.[223] At the height of its existence the VOC had 25,000 employees worked in Asia and 11,000 were en route.[224] Also, while most of its shareholders were Dutch, about a quarter of the initial shareholders were Zuid-Nederlanders (people from an area that includes modern Belgium and Luxembourg) and there were also a few dozen Germans.[225]

Founded in 1602, the VOC - the first company to be ever listed on an official stock exchange (the world’s first publicly traded company on the world’s first official stock exchange) - started off as a spice trader. In the same year, the VOC undertook the world's first recorded IPO. "Going public" enabled the company to quickly raise the vast sum of 6.5 million guilders. The VOC's institutional innovations helped lay the foundations for modern corporations (large-scale business enterprises or multinational corporations) and capital markets that now dominate the world economy.
17th-century etching of the Oost-Indisch Huis (Dutch for "East India House"), the headquarters of the United East India Company (VOC) in Amsterdam. Considered by many to be the first truly (modern) transnational corporation,[226] while the VOC established its administrative center in Batavia (present-day Jakarta), the company also had important operations elsewhere.
The Fort Batavia, seen from West Kali Besar (Andries Beeckman, c. 1656). It was in Batavia on the island of Java, that the VOC established its administrative center, with a Governor-General in charge from 1610 onwards.
The ship Vryburg (built by the V.O.C. in 1748 and sailed under the Dutch flag) on a Chinese porcelain plate, commissioned 1756.
VOC monogram formerly above the entrance to the Castle of Good Hope. The abbreviation “VOC” stands for Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie in Dutch, literally meaning “United East Indian Company” or “United East India Company”. The VOC's monogram, possibly in fact the first globally-recognized corporate logo.[209]
This Kraak porcelain dish (in a museum in Malacca) was emblazoned with the V.O.C. monogram

The VOC is usually considered the world's first publicly traded company.[182][227][228] The company was the first institutionalized trading company to have many of the attributes of the present public limited company.[176][229] In the first decades of the 17th century, the VOC was also the first recorded company ever to pay regular dividends, which averaged an annual 18% for almost 200 years (1602-1799).

The VOC was the first wholly recognized limited liability company.[177][230][231][232][233][234][235] The VOC had two types of shareholders: the participanten, who could be seen as non-managing members, and the 76 bewindhebbers (later reduced to 60) who acted as managing directors. This was the usual set-up for Dutch joint-stock companies at the time. The innovation in the case of the VOC was, that the liability of not just the participanten, but also of the bewindhebbers was limited to the paid-in capital (usually, bewindhebbers had unlimited liability). The VOC therefore was a limited liability company. Also, the capital would be permanent during the lifetime of the company. As a consequence, investors that wished to liquidate their interest in the interim could only do this by selling their share to others on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange.[236] Confusion of confusions, a 1688 dialogue by the Sephardi Jew Joseph de la Vega analyzed the workings of this one-stock exchange.

In terms of creating a corporate identity for example, the VOC had its own logo, which it placed on all kinds of objects—official documents bore the VOC monogram seal, its packaged crates of goods were branded with the same, its property—cannons to pewter to porcelain, all were variously monogrammed.[237] The VOC's monogram became the best-known company trademark of the early modern period, possibly in fact the first globally recognized corporate logo.[209]

First megacorporation (1602)

A coin (duit) minted in 1744 by the VOC.

The Dutch East India Company was arguably the first megacorporation, possessing quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, coin money and establish colonies. Many economic and political historians consider the Dutch East India Company as the most valuable, powerful and influential corporation in the world history.

The VOC existed for almost 200 years from its founding in 1602, when the States-General of the Netherlands granted it a 21-year monopoly over Dutch operations in Asia until its demise in 1796. During those two centuries (between 1602 and 1796), the VOC sent almost a million Europeans to work in the Asia trade on 4,785 ships, and netted for their efforts more than 2.5 million tons of Asian trade goods. By contrast, the rest of Europe combined sent only 882,412 people from 1500 to 1795, and the fleet of the English (later British) East India Company, the VOC's nearest competitor, was a distant second to its total traffic with 2,690 ships and a mere one-fifth the tonnage of goods carried by the VOC. The VOC enjoyed huge profits from its spice monopoly through most of the 17th century.[238]

Considered to be the largest corporation in history,[185] the VOC was even larger than some countries. By 1669, the VOC was the richest private company the world had ever seen, with over 150 merchant ships, 40 warships, 50,000 employees, a private army of 10,000 soldiers, and a dividend payment of 40% on the original investment.[239][240][241][242]

The VOC had considerable influences on the history of some countries and territories such as New Netherland, Indonesia, Australia, South Africa, Taiwan and Japan. The VOC trade post on Dejima, an artificial island off the coast of Nagasaki, was for more than two hundred years the only place where Europeans were permitted to trade with Japan. Rangaku (literally "Dutch Learning", and by extension "Western Learning") is a body of knowledge developed by Japan through its contacts with the Dutch enclave of Dejima, which allowed Japan to keep abreast of Western technology and medicine in the period when the country was closed to foreigners, 1641–1853, because of the Tokugawa shogunate’s policy of national isolation (sakoku).[243][244]

In terms of world history of geography and exploration, the VOC can be credited with putting most of Australia's coast (then Nova Hollandia and other names) on the world map, between 1606 and 1756.[245] The VOC's exploratory voyages such as those led by Willem Janszoon (Duyfken), Henry Hudson (Halve Maen) and Abel Tasman revealed vast new territories to Europeans.

Dutch auction (1600s)

A Dutch auction is also known as an open descending price auction. Named after the famous auctions of Dutch tulip bulbs in the 17th century, it is based on a pricing system devised by Nobel Prize–winning economist William Vickrey. In the traditional Dutch auction, the auctioneer begins with a high asking price which is lowered until some participant is willing to accept the auctioneer's price. The winning participant pays the last announced price. Dutch auction is also sometimes used to describe online auctions where several identical goods are sold simultaneously to an equal number of high bidders. In addition to cut flower sales in the Netherlands, Dutch auctions have also been used for perishable commodities such as fish and tobacco.

First modern art market (1600s)

The Dutch Republic was the birthplace of the first modern art market (open art market or free art market). The seventeenth-century Dutch were the pioneering arts marketers, successfully combining art and commerce together as we would recognise it today.[246] Until the 17th century, commissioning works of art was largely the preserve of the church, monarchs and aristocrats. The emergence of a powerful and wealthy middle class in Holland, though, produced a radical change in patronage as the new Dutch bourgeoisie bought art. For the first time, the direction of art was shaped by relatively broadly-based demand rather than religious dogma or royal whim, and the result was a market which today's dealers and collectors would find familiar. With the creation of the first large-scale open art market, prosperous Dutch merchants, artisans, and civil servants bought paintings and prints in unprecedented numbers. Foreign visitors were astonished that even modest members of Dutch society such as farmers and bakers owned multiple works of art. Dutch 17th-century art saw the rise of new subjects, as landscapes, still lifes, and scenes of daily life replaced formerly dominant religious images and scenes from classical mythology.[247]

Concept of corporate governance (1600s)

The seventeenth-century Dutch businessmen were the pioneers in laying the basis for modern corporate governance. Isaac Le Maire, an Amsterdam businessman and a sizeable shareholder of the VOC, became the first recorded investor to actually consider the corporate governance's problems. In 1609, he complained of the VOC's shoddy corporate governance. On January 24, 1609, Le Maire filed a petition against the VOC, marking the first recorded expression of shareholder activism. In what is the first recorded corporate governance dispute, Le Maire formally charged that the directors (the VOC's board of directors – the Heeren XVII) sought to “retain another’s money for longer or use it ways other than the latter wishes” and petitioned for the liquidation of the VOC in accordance with standard business practice.[248][249][250] Initially the largest single shareholder in the VOC and a bewindhebber sitting on the board of governors, Le Maire apparently attempted to divert the firm’s profits to himself by undertaking 14 expeditions under his own accounts instead of those of the company. Since his large shareholdings were not accompanied by greater voting power, Le Maire was soon ousted by other governors in 1605 on charges of embezzlement, and was forced to sign an agreement not to compete with the VOC. Having retained stock in the company following this incident, in 1609 Le Maire would become the author of what is celebrated as “the first recorded expression of investor advocacy” in history.[251][252][253]

The first shareholder revolt happened in 1622, among Dutch East India Company (VOC) investors who complained that the company account books had been “smeared with bacon” so that they might be “eaten by dogs.” The investors demanded a “reeckeninge,” a proper financial audit.[254] The 1622 campaign by the shareholders of the VOC is a testimony of genesis of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) in which shareholders staged protests by distributing pamphlets and complaining about management self enrichment and secrecy.[255]

Modern concept of foreign direct investment (1600s)

The construction in 1619 of a train-oil factory on Smeerenburg in the Spitsbergen islands by the Noordsche Compagnie, and the acquisition in 1626 of Manhattan Island by the Dutch West India Company are referred to as the earliest cases of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) in Dutch and world history. Throughout the seventeenth century, the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the Dutch West India Company (GWIC/WIC) also began to create trading settlements around the globe. Their trading activities generated enormous wealth, making the Dutch Republic one of the most prosperous countries of that time. The Dutch Republic's extensive arms trade occasioned an episode in the industrial development of early-modern Sweden, where arms merchants like Louis de Geer and the Trip brothers, invested in iron mines and iron works, another early example of outward foreign direct investment.

First modern market-oriented economy (1600s)

It was in the Dutch Republic that some important industries (economic sectors) such as shipbuilding, shipping, printing and publishing were developed on a large-scale export-driven model for the first time in history. The ship building district of Zaan, near Amsterdam, became the first industrialized area in the world,[256] with around 900 industrial windmills at the end of the 17th century, but there were industrialized towns and cities on a smaller scale also. Other industries that saw significant growth were papermaking, sugar refining, printing, the linen industry (with spin-offs in vegetable oils, like flax and rape oil), and industries that used the cheap peat fuel, like brewing and ceramics (brickworks, pottery and clay-pipe making).

The Dutch shipbuilding industry was of modern dimensions, inclining strongly toward standardised, repetitive methods. It was highly mechanized and used many labor-saving devices-wind-powered sawmills, powered feeders for saw, block and tackles, great cranes to move heavy timbers-all of which increased productivity.[257] Dutch shipbuilding benefited from various design innovations which increased carrying capacity and cut costs.[83][258][259][260][261][262] Dutch warships were the best in the world and their merchant fleet was equally outstanding. The size of the Dutch merchant fleet in the 1670s probably exceeded the combined fleets of England, France, Spain, Portugal, and Germany. The Dutch Republic dominated herring fishing in the North Sea, cod fishing off Iceland and whaling at Spitzbergen in the Arctic.[8] By the last quarter of the seventeenth century, Dutch shipping dominated the world's carrying trade, growing tenfold between 1500 and 1700 (Wallerstein 1980:46)[263] “By seventeenth century standards,” Richard Unger affirms, Dutch shipbuilding “was a massive industry and larger than any shipbuilding industry which had preceded it.”[264] During his undercover visit to the Dutch Republic as part of the Grand Embassy mission (1697-1698), Peter the Great wanted to learn more about the Dutch shipbuilding industry. He studied shipbuilding and carpentry in Zaandam and Amsterdam. Through the agency of Nicolaas Witsen, cartographer, mayor of Amsterdam and expert on Russia, he worked at the Dutch East India Company (VOC) shipyard. In order to modernise the Imperial Russia, Peter introduced these Dutch crafts and skills in his home country and in particular in the newly founded capital of his Russian empire Saint Petersburg.[265][266][267]

In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the Dutch-speaking peoples came to dominate not only the print trade (having replaced the Italians), but also the map making and map printing industry by virtue of their own travels, trade ventures, and widespread commercial networks. The Dutch initiated what we would call today the free flow of geographical information. The Ducth publishing centers of Antwerp and Amsterdam would eclipse the former centers of cartographic activity. During the seventeenth century, the Dutch publishing industry was arguably the largest and most sophisticated in Europe. The Netherlands had developed into the 'publishing house of Europe', thanks to an extensive trade in printed matter that chiefly comprised the mass reprinting of foreign publications. The privilege system played an essential role in this large-scale publication of printed matter. While the system had long been maintained in France as a tool for censorship, in the Netherlands it tended to be exploited by the publishers as an effective instrument for monopolising the market. The Dutch publishing industry flourished in the liberal political climate, where progressive ideas could appear in print without a problem.[268][269][270] By the middle of the seventeenth century the United Provinces had become the undisputed centre of the European book trade, producing a larger assortment of books and other printed material than anywhere else in Europe. Dutch publishing was successful internationally in two ways. Firstly, the Dutch monopolised the trade in publications. Secondly, the Dutch printed a large part of the total European book production. Many exiles and freethinkers chose to move to the United Provinces. The Dutch Republic became a mass producer of illegal pamphlets and forbidden books.[271][272]

First capitalist nation-state (foundations of modern capitalism) (1600s)

The shipyard of the United East India Company in Amsterdam (1726 engraving by Joseph Mulder). The shipbuilding district of Zaan, near Amsterdam, became one of the world's earliest known industrialized areas, with around 900 wind-powered sawmill at the end of the 17th century. In the 1590s the Dutch shipbuilders began to develop wind-driven sawmilling technology. By the early seventeenth century Dutch shipyards were producing a large number of ships to a standard design, allowing extensive division of labour, specialization which further reduced unit costs.[273]
A Satire of Tulip Mania by Jan Brueghel the Younger (ca. 1640) depicts speculators as brainless monkeys in contemporary upper-class dress. Generally considered to be the first recorded speculative bubble (or economic bubble), the Tulip Mania of 1636-1637 was an episode in which contract prices for bulbs of the recently introduced tulip reached extraordinarily high levels and then suddenly collapsed. The term "Tulip Mania" is now often used metaphorically to refer to any large economic bubble (when asset prices deviate from intrinsic values).

Economic historians consider the Netherlands as the first predominantly biofertilizers, food additives, and some biopolymers. The first representative of the genus, Azotobacter chroococcum, was discovered and described in 1901 by the Dutch microbiologist and botanist Martinus Beijerinck.

Enrichment culture (1904)

Beijerinck is credited with developing the first enrichment culture, a fundamental method of studying microbes from the environment.


31 equal temperament (1661)

Division of the Teyler's Museum in Haarlem in 1951.

Foundations of classical mechanics (1673)

Through his fundamental contributions Christiaan Huygens helped shape and lay the foundations of classical mechanics. His works cover all the fields of mechanics, from the invention of technical devices applicable to different machines to a purely rational knowledge of motion.[788] Huygens published his results in a classic of the 17th-century mechanics, Horologium Oscillatorium (1673), that is regarded as one of the three most important work done in mechanics in the 17th century, the other two being Galileo Galilei’s Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (1638) and Isaac Newton's Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (1687). It is Huygens' major work on pendulums and horology. As Domenico Bertoloni Meli (2006) notes, Horologium Oscillatorium was “a masterful combination of sophisticated mathematics and mechanics mixed with a range of practical applications culminating with a new clock aimed at resolving the vexing problem of longitude.”[789]

Foundations of physical optics / wave optics (wave theory of light) (1678)

Huygens' groundbreaking research on the nature of light helped lay the foundations of modern optics (physical optics in particular).[790][791] Huygens is remembered especially for his wave theory of light, which he first communicated in 1678 to France's Royal Académie des sciences and which he published in 1690 in his Treatise on light. His argument that light consists of waves now known as the Huygens–Fresnel principle, two centuries later became instrumental in the understanding of wave–particle duality. The interference experiments of Thomas Young vindicated Huygens' s wave theory in 1801.[792][793]

Polarization of light (1678)

In 1678, Huygens discovered the polarization of light by double refraction in calcite.[794][795][796]

Huygens' principle (concepts of the wavefront and wavelet) (1690)

Huygens is now remembered mostly as the founder and the foremost champion of wave theory of light. His argument that light consists of waves, expounded in his Traité de la Lumiére (Treatise on light), now known as the Huygens–Fresnel principle, which two centuries later became instrumental in the understanding of wave–particle duality.

In his Treatise on light, Huygens showed how Snell's law of sines could be explained by, or derived from, the wave nature of light, using the Huygens–Fresnel principle.

Bernoulli's principle (1738)

Bernoulli's principle was discovered by Dutch-Swiss mathematician and physicist Daniel Bernoulli and named after him. It states that for an inviscid flow, an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

Brownian motion (1785)

In 1785, Ingenhousz described the irregular movement of coal dust on the surface of alcohol and therefore has a claim as discoverer of what came to be known as Brownian motion.

Buys Ballot's law (1857)

The law takes its name from Dutch meteorologist C. H. D. Buys Ballot, who published it in the Comptes Rendus, in November 1857. While William Ferrel first theorized this in 1856, Buys Ballot was the first to provide an empirical validation. The law states that in the Northern Hemisphere, if a person stands with his back to the wind, the low pressure area will be on his left, because wind travels counterclockwise around low pressure zones in that hemisphere. this is approximately true in the higher latitudes and is reversed in the Southern Hemisphere.

Foundations of molecular physics (1873)

Spearheaded by Mach and Ostwald, a strong philosophical current that denied the existence of molecules arose towards the end of the 19th century. The molecular existence was considered unproven and the molecular hypothesis unnecessary. At the time Van der Waals' thesis was written (1873), the molecular structure of fluids had not been accepted by most physicists, and liquid and vapor were often considered as chemically distinct. But Van der Waals's work affirmed the reality of molecules and allowed an assessment of their size and attractive strength. By comparing his equation of state with experimental data, Van der Waals was able to obtain estimates for the actual size of molecules and the strength of their mutual attraction.[797] The effect of Van der Waals's work on molecular science in the 20th century was direct and fundamental, as is well recognized and documented, due in large part to books by John Rowlinson (1988), and by Kipnis and Yavelov (1996). By introducing parameters characterizing molecular size and attraction in constructing his equation of state, Van der Waals set the tone for molecular physics (molecular dynamics in particular) of the 20th century. That molecular aspects such as size, shape, attraction, and multipolar interactions should form the basis for mathematical formulations of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is presently considered an axiom.[798]

Van der Waals equation of state (1873)

In 1873, J. D. van der Waals introduced the first equation of state derived by the assumption of a finite volume occupied by the constituent molecules.[799] The Van der Waals equation is generally regarded as the first somewhat realistic equation of state (beyond the ideal gas law). Van der Waals noted the non-ideality of gases and attributed it to the existence of molecular or atomic interactions. His new formula revolutionized the study of equations of state, and was most famously continued via the Redlich-Kwong equation of state (1949) and the Soave modification of Redlich-Kwong. While the Van der Waals equation is definitely superior to the ideal gas law and does predict the formation of a liquid phase, the agreement with experimental data is limited for conditions where the liquid forms. Except at higher pressures, the real gases do not obey Van der Waals equation in all ranges of pressures and temperatures. Despite its limitations, the equation has historical importance, because it was the first attempt to model the behaviour of real gases.

Van der Waals forces (1873)

The Van der Waals force between atoms, molecules and surfaces is a part of everyday life in many different ways. Geckos can stick to walls and ceilings because of Van der Waals forces.

The van der Waals forces are named after the scientist who first described them in 1873. Johannes Diderik van der Waals noted the non-ideality of gases and attributed it to the existence of molecular or atomic interactions. They are forces that develop between the atoms inside molecules and keep them together.[800] The Van der Waals forces between molecules, much weaker than chemical bonds but present universally, play a fundamental role in fields as diverse as supramolecular chemistry, structural biology, polymer science, nanotechnology, surface science, and condensed matter physics. Elucidation of the nature of the Van der Waals forces between molecules has remained a scientific effort from Van der Waals's days to the present.

Van der Waals radius (1873)

The Van der Waals radius, rw, of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. It is named after Johannes Diderik van der Waals, winner of the 1910 Nobel Prize in Physics, as he was the first to recognise that atoms were not simply points and to demonstrate the physical consequences of their size through the van der Waals equation of state.

Law of corresponding states (1880)

The law of corresponding states was first suggested and formulated by van der Waals in 1880. This showed that the van der Waals equation of state can be expressed as a simple function of the critical pressure, critical volume and critical temperature. This general form is applicable to all substances. The compound-specific constants a and b in the original equation are replaced by universal (compound-independent) quantities. It was this law that served as a guide during experiments which ultimately led to the liquefaction of hydrogen by James Dewar in 1898 and of helium by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in 1908.

Lorentz ether theory (1892)

Lorentz ether theory has its roots in Hendrik Lorentz's "theory of electrons", which was the final point in the development of the classical aether theories at the end of the 19th and at the beginning of the 20th century. Lorentz's initial theory created in 1892 and 1895 was based on a completely motionless aether. Many aspects of Lorentz's theory were incorporated into special relativity with the works of Albert Einstein and Hermann Minkowski.

Lorentz force law (1892)

Lorentz force F on a charged particle (of charge q) in motion (instantaneous velocity v). The E field and B field vary in space and time.

In 1892, Hendrik Lorentz derived the modern form of the formula for the electromagnetic force which includes the contributions to the total force from both the electric and the magnetic fields.[801][802][803] In many textbook treatments of classical electromagnetism, the Lorentz force law is used as the definition of the electric and magnetic fields E and B.[804][805][806] To be specific, the Lorentz force is understood to be the following empirical statement:

The electromagnetic force F on a test charge at a given point and time is a certain function of its charge q and velocity v, which can be parameterized by exactly two vectors E and B, in the functional form:

Abraham–Lorentz force (1895)

In the physics of electromagnetism, the Abraham–Lorentz force (also Lorentz-Abraham force) is the recoil force on an accelerating charged particle caused by the particle emitting electromagnetic radiation. It is also called the radiation reaction force or the self force.

Lorentz transformation (1895)

In physics, the Lorentz transformation (or Lorentz transformations) is named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz. It was the result of attempts by Lorentz and others to explain how the speed of light was observed to be independent of the reference frame, and to understand the symmetries of the laws of electromagnetism. The Lorentz transformation is in accordance with special relativity, but was derived before special relativity. Early approximations of the transformation were published by Lorentz in 1895. In 1905, Poincaré was the first to recognize that the transformation has the properties of a mathematical group, and named it after Lorentz.

Lorentz contraction (1895)

In physics, speed of light.

Lorentz factor (1895)

The Lorentz factor or Lorentz term is the factor by which time, length, and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving. It is an expression which appears in several equations in special relativity, and it arises from deriving the Lorentz transformations. The name originates from its earlier appearance in Lorentzian electrodynamics – named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz.[807]

Zeeman effect (1896)

Discoverer of the Zeeman effect, Pieter Zeeman with Albert Einstein and Paul Ehrenfest in his laboratory in Amsterdam (circa 1920).

The Zeeman effect, named after the Dutch physicist Pieter Zeeman, is the effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field. It is analogous to the Stark effect, the splitting of a spectral line into several components in the presence of an electric field. Also similar to the Stark effect, transitions between different components have, in general, different intensities, with some being entirely forbidden (in the dipole approximation), as governed by the selection rules.

Since the distance between the Zeeman sub-levels is a function of the magnetic field, this effect can be used to measure the magnetic field, e.g. that of the Sun and other stars or in laboratory plasmas. The Zeeman effect is very important in applications such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. It may also be utilized to improve accuracy in atomic absorption spectroscopy.

A theory about the magnetic sense of birds assumes that a protein in the retina is changed due to the Zeeman effect.[808]

When the spectral lines are absorption lines, the effect is called inverse Zeeman effect.

Liquid helium (liquefaction of helium) (1908)

Liquid helium in a cup.

Helium was first liquefied (liquid helium) on 10 July 1908, by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes. With the production of liquid helium, it was said that “the coldest place on Earth” was in Leiden.[809][810][811]

Superconductivity (1911)

Paul Ehrenfest, Hendrik Lorentz and Niels Bohr visit Heike Kamerlingh Onnes in the cryogenic lab (where Onnes discovered the phenomenon of superconductivity in 1911).

Superconductivity, the ability of certain materials to conduct electricity with little or no resistance, was discovered by Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes.[812][813][814][815]

Einstein–de Haas effect (1910s)

The Einstein–de Haas effect or the Richardson effect (after Owen Willans Richardson), is a physical phenomenon delineated by Albert Einstein and Wander Johannes de Haas in the mid 1910s, that exposes a relationship between magnetism, angular momentum, and the spin of elementary particles.

Debye model (1912)

In thermodynamics and solid state physics, the Debye model is a method developed by Peter Debye in 1912 for estimating the phonon contribution to the specific heat (heat capacity) in a solid.[816] It treats the vibrations of the atomic lattice (heat) as phonons in a box, in contrast to the Einstein model, which treats the solid as many individual, non-interacting quantum harmonic oscillators. The Debye model correctly predicts the low temperature dependence of the heat capacity.

De Sitter precession (1916)

The geodetic effect (also known as geodetic precession, de Sitter precession or de Sitter effect) represents the effect of the curvature of spacetime, predicted by general relativity, on a vector carried along with an orbiting body. The geodetic effect was first predicted by Willem de Sitter in 1916, who provided relativistic corrections to the Earth–Moon system's motion.

De Sitter space and anti-de Sitter space (1920s)

In mathematics and physics, a de Sitter space is the analog in Minkowski space, or spacetime, of a sphere in ordinary, Euclidean space. The n-dimensional de Sitter space, denoted dSn, is the Lorentzian manifold analog of an n-sphere (with its canonical Riemannian metric); it is maximally symmetric, has constant positive curvature, and is simply connected for n at least 3. The de Sitter space, as well as the anti-de Sitter space is named after Willem de Sitter (1872–1934), professor of astronomy at Leiden University and director of the Leiden Observatory. Willem de Sitter and Albert Einstein worked in the 1920s in Leiden closely together on the spacetime structure of our universe. De Sitter space was discovered by Willem de Sitter, and, at the same time, independently by Tullio Levi-Civita.

Van der Pol oscillator (1920)

In dynamical systems, a Van der Pol oscillator is a non-conservative oscillator with non-linear damping. It was originally proposed by Dutch physicist Balthasar van der Pol while he was working at Philips in 1920. Van der Pol studied a differential equation that describes the circuit of a vacuum tube. It has been used to model other phenomenon such as human heartbeats by colleague Jan van der Mark.

Kramers' opacity law (1923)

Kramers' opacity law describes the opacity of a medium in terms of the ambient density and temperature, assuming that the opacity is dominated by bound-free absorption (the absorption of light during ionization of a bound electron) or free-free absorption (the absorption of light when scattering a free ion, also called bremsstrahlung).[817] It is often used to model radiative transfer, particularly in stellar atmospheres.[818] The relation is named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Kramers, who first derived the form in 1923.[819]

Electron spin (1925)

In 1925, Dutch physicists Samuel Goudsmit co-discovered the concept of electron spin, which posits an intrinsic angular momentum for all electrons.

Solidification of helium (1926)

In 1926, Onnes' student, Dutch physicist Willem Hendrik Keesom, invented a method to freeze liquid helium and was the first person who was able to solidify the noble gas.

Ehrenfest theorem (1927)

The Ehrenfest theorem, named after the Austrian-born Dutch-Jew theoretical physicist Paul Ehrenfest at Leiden University.

De Haas–van Alphen effect (1930)

The de Haas–van Alphen effect, often abbreviated to dHvA, is a quantum mechanical effect in which the magnetic moment of a pure metal crystal oscillates as the intensity of an applied magnetic field B is increased. It was discovered in 1930 by Wander Johannes de Haas and his student P. M. van Alphen.

Shubnikov–de Haas effect (1930)

The Shubnikov–de Haas effect (ShdH) is named after Dutch physicist Wander Johannes de Haas and Russian physicist Lev Shubnikov.

Kramers degeneracy theorem (1930)

In quantum mechanics, the Kramers degeneracy theorem states that for every energy eigenstate of a time-reversal symmetric system with half-integer total spin, there is at least one more eigenstate with the same energy. It was first discovered in 1930 by H. A. Kramers[820] as a consequence of the Breit equation.

Minnaert resonance frequency (1933)

In 1933, Marcel Minnaert published a solution for the acoustic resonance frequency of a single bubble in water, the so-called Minnaert resonance. The Minnaert resonance or Minnaert frequency[821] is the acoustic resonance frequency of a single bubble in an infinite domain of water (neglecting the effects of surface tension and viscous attenuation).

Casimir effect (1948)

In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect and the Casimir–Polder force are physical forces arising from a quantized field. Dutch physicists Hendrik Casimir and Dirk Polder at Philips Research Labs proposed the existence of a force between two polarizable atoms and between such an atom and a conducting plate in 1947. After a conversation with Niels Bohr who suggested it had something to do with zero-point energy, Casimir alone formulated the theory predicting a force between neutral conducting plates in 1948; the former is called the Casimir–Polder force while the latter is the Casimir effect in the narrow sense.

Tellegen's theorem (1952)

Tellegen's theorem is one of the most powerful theorems in network theory. Most of the energy distribution theorems and extremum principles in network theory can be derived from it. It was published in 1952 by Bernard Tellegen. Fundamentally, Tellegen's theorem gives a simple relation between magnitudes that satisfy Kirchhoff's laws of electrical circuit theory.

Stochastic cooling (1970's)

In the early 1970s Simon van der Meer, a Dutch particle physicist at CERN, discovered this technique to concentrate proton and anti-proton beams, leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles. He won the 1984 Nobel Prize in Physics together with Carlo Rubbia.

Renormalization of gauge theories (1971)

In 1971, Gerardus 't Hooft, who was completing his PhD under the supervision of Dutch theoretical physicist Martinus Veltman, renormalized Yang–Mills theory. They showed that if the symmetries of Yang–Mills theory were to be realized in the spontaneously broken mode, referred to as the Higgs mechanism, then Yang–Mills theory can be renormalized.[822][823] Renormalization of Yang–Mills theory is considered as a major achievement of twentieth century physics.

Holographic principle (1993)

The holographic principle is a property of string theories and a supposed property of quantum gravity that states that the description of a volume of space can be thought of as encoded on a boundary to the region—preferably a light-like boundary like a gravitational horizon. In 1993, Dutch theoretical physicist Gerard 't Hooft proposed what is now known as the holographic principle. It was given a precise string-theory interpretation by Leonard Susskind[824] who combined his ideas with previous ones of 't Hooft and Charles Thorn.[824][825]


Voyages of discovery

Orange Islands (1594)

Map of Willem Barentsz' first voyage

During his first journey in 1594, Dutch explorer Willem Barentsz discovered the Orange Islands.

Svalbard (first documented/undisputed sighting of, landing on and charting of the Svalbard Archipelago) (1596)

Map of Willem Barentsz third voyage
Crew of Willem Barentsz fighting a polar bear

On 10 June 1596, Barentsz and Dutchman Jacob van Heemskerk discovered Bear Island,[826][827][828] a week before their discovery of Spitsbergen Island.[826][827][828]

Portion of 1599 map of Arctic exploration by Willem Barentsz. Spitsbergen, here mapped for the first time, is indicated as "Het Nieuwe Land" (Dutch for "the New Land"), center-left.
Willem Barentsz made the first indisputable discovery of Svalbard in 1596, in an attempt to find the Northern Sea Route. The three voyages of Willem Barents are remembered today chiefly for the first documented wintering in the High Arctic.
Objects found in Het Behouden Huys (The Saved House) on Novaya Zemlya.

The first undisputedly to have discovered the archipelago is an expedition led by the Dutch mariner Willem Barentsz, who was looking for the Northern Sea Route to China.[829] He first spotted Bjørnøya on 10 June 1596[830] and the northwestern tip of Spitsbergen on 17 June.[829] The sighting of the archipelago was included in the accounts and maps made by the expedition and Spitsbergen was quickly included by cartographers. The name Spitsbergen, meaning "pointed mountains" (from the Dutch spits – pointed, bergen – mountains), was at first applied to both the main island and the Svalbard archipelago as a whole.[826][828]

There is no conclusive evidence of the first human activity on Svalbard. Swedish archeologist Hans Christiansson found flint and slate objects he identified as Stone Age tools dating from ca. 3000 BC,[831] but there is little support among his peers as no dwelling place has been found.[832] During the 19th century, Norwegian historians proposed that Norse seamen had found Svalbard in 1194. This is based on annals that found Svalbarði four days sailing from Iceland. Although it forms the basis for the modern name of the archipelago, there is no scientific consensus that supports the hypothesis. Russian historians have proposed that Russian Pomors may have visited the island as early as the 15th century.[833] This line was largely pursued by Soviet scholars, but again, no conclusive evidence has been found.[834]

First documented winter surviving in the High Arctic (1596-1597)

Willem Barentsz' ship among the Arctic ice
Het Behouden Huys on Novaya Zemlya

The Russians knew of Novaya Zemlya from the 11th century, when hunters from Novgorod visited the area.[835] For western Europeans, the search for the Northern Sea Route in the 16th century led to its exploration.[835] The first visit from a west European was by Hugh Willoughby in 1553, and he met Russian ships from the already established hunting trade.[835] Dutch explorer Willem Barentsz reached the west coast of Novaya Zemlya in 1594, and in a subsequent expedition of 1596 rounded the Northern point and wintered on the Northeast coast.[836] Willem Barents, Jacob van Heemskerck and their crew were blocked by the pack ice in the Kara Sea and forced to winter on the east coast of Novaya Zemlya. The wintering of the shipwrecked crew in the 'Saved House' was the first successful wintering of Europeans in the High Arctic. Twelve of the 17 men managed to survive the polar winter (De Veer, 1917). Barentsz died during the expedition, and may have been buried on the northern island.[837]

First undisputed sighting of the Falkland Islands/Sebald Islands (1600)

In 1600 the Dutch navigator Sebald de Weert made the first undisputed sighting of the Falkland Islands. It was on his homeward leg back to the Netherlands after having left the Straits of Magellan that Sebald De Weert noticed some unnamed and uncharted islands, at least islands that did not exist on his nautical charts. There he attempted to stop and replenish but was unable to land due to harsh conditions. The islands Sebald de Weert charted were a small group off the northwest coast of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) and are in fact part of the Falklands. De Weert then named these islands the “Sebald de Weert Islands” and the Falklands as a whole were known as the Sebald Islands until well into the 18th century.

Pennefather River, Northern Australia (first documented/undisputed sighting of, landing on and charting of the mainland Australia) (1606)

Duyfken replica under sail. The first documented and undisputed European sighting of and landing on Australia was in late February or early March 1606, by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon aboard the Duyfken. Australia is more than three times the size of Greenland, the world's largest island. Australia is sometimes dubbed "The Island Continent", and sometimes accorded the role of "Earth’s largest island but smallest continent".
Hollandia Nova, 1659 map prepared by Joan Blaeu based on voyages by Abel Tasman and Willem Jansz, this image shows a French edition of 1663.
European exploration of Australia until 1812. Australia, the last inhabited continent to be discovered authentically in 1606, was never a Dutch possession, yet they were the first to map its coastline indisputably. During the 17th century, the Dutch explorers and cartographers have charted/mapped almost three-fourths of the Australian coastline, except the east coast which still remained a mystery until it was discovered by James Cook in 1770.

The Dutch ship, Duyfken, led by Willem Janszoon, made the first documented European landing in Australia in 1606.[838] Although a theory of Portuguese discovery in the 1520s exists, it lacks definitive evidence.[839][840][841] Precedence of discovery has also been claimed for China,[842] France,[843] Spain,[844] India,[845] and even Phoenicia.[846]

The Janszoon voyage of 1605-6 led to the first undisputed sighting of Australia by a European was made on 26 February 1606. Dutch vessel Duyfken, captained by Janszoon, followed the coast of New Guinea, missed Torres Strait, and explored perhaps 350 kilometres (220 mi) of western side of Cape York, in the Gulf of Carpentaria, believing the land was still part of New Guinea. The Dutch made one landing, but were promptly attacked by Maoris and subsequently abandoned further exploration.[847][848][849][850][851][852]

The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, and made landfall on 26 February at the Pennefather River near the modern town of Weipa on Cape York.[853] The Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent "New Holland" during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement.[853]

First charting of Manhattan, New York (1609)

A replica of Henry Hudson's 17th-century Halve Maen passes modern-day lower Manhattan where the original ship would have sailed while investigating New York Harbor.

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Indians. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the king Francis I of France – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped.

Hudson Valley (1609)

At the time of the arrival of the first Europeans in the 17th century, the Hudson Valley was inhabited primarily by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican and Munsee Native American people, known collectively as River Indians. The first Dutch settlement was in the 1610s at Fort Nassau, a trading post (factorij) south of modern-day Albany, that traded European goods for beaver pelts. Fort Nassau was later replaced by Fort Orange. During the rest of the 17th century, the Hudson Valley formed the heart of the New Netherland colony operations, with the New Amsterdam settlement on Manhattan serving as a post for supplies and defense of the upriver operations.

Brouwer Route (1610–1611)

The Brouwer Route was a route for sailing from the Cape of Good Hope to Java. The Route took ships south from the Cape into the Roaring Forties, then east across the Indian Ocean, before turning northwest for Java. Thus it took advantage of the strong westerly winds for which the Roaring Forties are named, greatly increasing travel speed. It was devised by Dutch sea explorer Hendrik Brouwer in 1611, and found to halve the duration of the journey from Europe to Java, compared to the previous Arab and Portuguese monsoon route, which involved following the coast of East Africa northwards, sailing through the Mozambique Channel and then across the Indian Ocean, sometimes via India. The Brouwer Route played a major role in the discovery of the west coast of Australia.

Jan Mayen Island (first verified discovery of Jan Mayen island) (1614)

After unconfirmed reports of Dutch discovery as early as 1611, the island was named after Dutchman Jan Jacobszoon May van Schellinkhout, who visited the island in July 1614. As locations of these islands were kept secret by the whalers, Jan Mayen got its current name only in 1620.[854]

Hell Gate, Long Island Sound, Connecticut River and Fisher's Island (1614)

Block's map of his 1614 voyage, with the first appearance of the term "New Netherland"

The name "Hell Gate" is a corruption of Dutch phrase Hellegat, which could mean either "hell's hole" or "bright gate/passage". It was originally applied to the entirety of the East River. The strait was described in the journals of Dutch explorer Adriaen Block, who is the first European known to have navigated the strait, during his 1614 voyage aboard the Onrust.

The first European to record the existence of Long Island Sound and the Connecticut River was Dutch explorer Adriaen Block, who entered it from the East River in 1614.

Fishers Island was called Munnawtawkit by the Native American Pequot nation. Block named it Visher's Island in 1614, after one of his companions. For the next 25 years, it remained a wilderness, visited occasionally by Dutch traders.

Staten Island (Argentina), Cape Horn, Tonga, Hoorn Islands (1615)

On 25 December 1615, Dutch explorers Jacob le Maire and Willem Schouten aboard the Eendracht, discovered Staten Island, close to Cape Horn.

The voyage of Willem Schouten and Jacob le Maire in 1615–1616

On 29 January 1616, they sighted land they called Cape Horn, after the city of Hoorn. Aboard the Eendracht was the crew of the recently wrecked ship called Hoorn.

Arrival of Abel Tasman in Tongatapu, 1643, drawing by Isaack Gilsemans

They discovered Tonga on 21 April 1616 and the Hoorn Islands on 28 April 1616.

They discovered New Ireland around May–July 1616.

They discovered the Schouten Islands (also known as Biak Islands or Geelvink Islands) on 24 July 1616.

The Schouten Islands (also known as Eastern Schouten Islands or Le Maire Islands) of Papua New Guinea, were named after Schouten, who visited them in 1616.

Dirk Hartog Island (first documented/undisputed sighting of, landing on and charting of the Western Australia coastline) (1616)

Map of Shark Bay area showing Dirk Hartog Island and Cape Inscription

Hendrik Brouwer's discovery that sailing east from the Cape of Good Hope until land was sighted, and then sailing north along the west coast of Australia was a much quicker route than around the coast of the Indian Ocean made Dutch landfalls on the west coast inevitable. The first such landfall was in 1616, when Dirk Hartog landed at Cape Inscription on what is now known as Dirk Hartog Island, off the coast of Western Australia, and left behind an inscription on a pewter plate. In 1697 the Dutch captain Willem de Vlamingh landed on the island and discovered Hartog's plate. He replaced it with one of his own, which included a copy of Hartog's inscription, and took the original plate home to Amsterdam, where it is still kept in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.

Houtman Abrolhos (Western Australia) (1619)

The first sighting of the Houtman Abrolhos by Europeans was by Dutch VOC ships Dordrecht and Amsterdam in 1619, three years after Hartog made the first authenticated sighting of what is now Western Australia, 13 years after the first authenticated voyage to Australia, that of the Duyfke] in 1606. Discovery of the islands was credited to Frederick de Houtman, Captain-General of the Dordrecht, as it was Houtman who later wrote of the discovery in a letter to Company directors.

Carstensz Glacier, Carstensz Pyramid/Puncak Jaya (1623)

The first person to spot Carstensz Pyramid (or Puncak Jaya) is reported to be the Dutch navigator and explorer Jan Carstensz in 1623, for whom the mountain is named. Carstensz was the first (non-native) to sight the glaciers on the peak of the mountain on a rare clear day. The sighting went unverified for over two centuries, and Carstensz was ridiculed in Europe when he said he had seen snow and glaciers near the equator. The snowfield of Puncak Jaya was reached as early as 1909 by a Dutch explorer, Hendrik Albert Lorentz with six of his indigenous Dayak Kenyah porters recruited from the Apo Kayan in Borneo. The now highest Carstensz Pyramid summit was not climbed until 1962, by an expedition led by the Austrian mountaineer Heinrich Harrer with three other expedition members – the New Zealand mountaineer Philip Temple, the Australian rock climber Russell Kippax, and the Dutch patrol officer Albertus (Bert) Huizenga.

Gulf of Carpentaria (Northern Australia) (1623)

The first known European explorer to visit the region was Dutch Willem Janszoon (also known as Willem Jansz) on his 1605–6 voyage. His fellow countryman, Jan Carstenszoon (also known as Jan Carstensz), visited in 1623 and named the gulf in honour of Pieter de Carpentier, at that time the Governor-General of Dutch East Indies. Abel Tasman explored the coast in 1644.

Staaten River (Cape York Peninsula, Northern Australia) (1623)

The Staaten River is a river in the Cape York Peninsula, Australia that rises more than 200 kilometres (120 mi) to the west of Cairns and empties into the Gulf of Carpentaria. The river was first named by Carstenszoon in 1623.

Arnhem Land and Groote Eylandt (Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Australia) (1623)

In 1623 Dutch East India Company captain Willem van Colster sailed into the Gulf of Carpentaria. Cape Arnhem is named after his ship, the Arnhem, which itself was named after the city of Arnhem.

Groote Eylandt was first sighted the Arnhem. Only in 1644, when Abel Tasman arrived, was the island given a European name, Dutch for "Large Island" in an archaic spelling. The modern Dutch spelling is Groot Eiland.

Hermite Islands (1624)

In February 1624, Dutch admiral Jacques l'Hermite discovered the Hermite Islands at Cape Horn.

First documented/undisputed sighting of, landing on and charting of the Southern Australia coast (1627)

In 1627, Dutch explorers François Thijssen and Pieter Nuyts discovered the south coast of Australia and charted about 1,800 kilometres (1,100 mi) of it between Cape Leeuwin and the Nuyts Archipelago.[855][856] François Thijssen, captain of the ship 't Gulden Zeepaert (The Golden Seahorse), sailed to the east as far as Ceduna in South Australia. The first known ship to have visited the area is the Leeuwin ("Lioness"), a Dutch vessel that charted some of the nearby coastline in 1622. The log of the Leeuwin has been lost, so very little is known of the voyage. However, the land discovered by the Leeuwin was recorded on a 1627 map by Hessel Gerritsz: Caert van't Landt van d'Eendracht ("Chart of the Land of Eendracht"), which appears to show the coast between present-day Hamelin Bay and Point D’Entrecasteaux. Part of Thijssen's map shows the islands St Francis and St Peter, now known collectively with their respective groups as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen's observations were included as soon as 1628 by the VOC cartographer Hessel Gerritsz in a chart of the Indies and New Holland. This voyage defined most of the southern coast of Australia and discouraged the notion that "New Holland", as it was then known, was linked to Antarctica.

St Francis Island (originally in Dutch: Eyland St. François) is an island on the south coast of South Australia near Ceduna. It is now part of the Nuyts Archipelago Wilderness Protection Area. It was one of the first parts of South Australia to be discovered and named by Europeans, along with St Peter Island. Thijssen named it after his patron saint, St. Francis.

St Peter Island is an island on the south coast of South Australia near Ceduna to the south of Denial Bay. It is the second largest island in South Australia at about 13 km long. It was named in 1627 by Thijssen after Pieter Nuyts' patron saint.

Western Australia (1629)

The Weibbe Hayes Stone Fort, remnants of improvised defensive walls and stone shelters built by Wiebbe Hayes and his men on the West Wallabi Island, are Australia's oldest known European structures, more than 150 years before expeditions to the Australian continent by James Cook and Arthur Phillip.

Tasmania (first documented/undisputed sighting and charting of the Tasmanian mainland and the surrounding islands) (1642)

Tasman's routes of the first and second voyage

Tasmania was inhabited by an indigenous population, the Tasmanian Aborigines, and evidence indicates their presence in the territory, later to become an island, at least 35,000 years ago. The Aboriginal population at the time of British settlement in 1803 has been estimated at approximately 5,000 or more [857]

In 1642, Abel Tasman sailed from Mauritius and on 24 November, sighted Tasmania. He named Tasmania Van Diemen's Land, after Anthony van Diemen, the Dutch East India Company's Governor General, who had commissioned his voyage.[858][859][860] It was officially renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856.[861]

Map of the Maatsuyker Islands

Maatsuyker Islands, a group of small islands that are the southernmost point of the Australian continent. were discovered and named by Tasman in 1642 after a Dutch official. The main islands of the group are De Witt Island (354 m), Maatsuyker Island (296 m), Flat Witch Island, Flat Top Island, Round Top Island, Walker Island, Needle Rocks and Mewstone.

Maria Island was discovered and named in 1642 by Tasman after Maria van Diemen (née van Aelst), wife of Anthony. The island was known as Maria's Isle in the early 19th century.

Tasman's journal entry for 29 November 1642 records that he observed a rock which was similar to a rock named Pedra Branca off China, presumably referring to the Pedra Branca in the South China Sea.

Schouten Island is a 28 square kilometres (11 sq mi) island in eastern Tasmania, Australia. It lies 1.6 kilometres south of Freycinet Peninsula and is a part of Freycinet National Park. In 1642, while surveying the south-west coast of Tasmania, Tasman named the island after Joost Schouten, a member of the Council of the Dutch East India Company.

Tasman also reached Storm Bay, a large bay in the south-east of Tasmania, Australia. It is the entrance to the Derwent River estuary and the port of Hobart, the capital city of Tasmania. It is bordered by Bruny Island to the west and the Tasman Peninsula to the east.

New Zealand and Fiji (first documented/undisputed sighting and charting of New Zealand) (1642)

Murderers' Bay, drawing by Isaack Gilsemans, 1642
Detail from a 1657 map by Jan Janssonius, showing the western coastline of Nova Zeelandia.
Tasman voyage of 1642-43 was the known (documented) first to sail across the Tasman Sea and explore its islands.

In 1642, during the same expedition, Abel Tasman discovered New Zealand. The first Europeans known to reach New Zealand were the crew of Dutch explorer Abel Tasman who arrived in his ships Heemskerck and Zeehaen. Tasman anchored at the northern end of the South Island in Golden Bay (he named it Murderers' Bay) in December 1642 and sailed northward to Tonga following a clash with local Māori. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands' west coasts. Tasman called them Staten Landt, after the States General of the Netherlands, and that name appeared on his first maps of the country. In 1645 Dutch cartographers changed the name to Nova Zeelandia in Latin, from Nieuw Zeeland, after the Dutch province of Zeeland. It was subsequently Anglicised as New Zealand by British naval captain James Cook

Various claims have been made that New Zealand was reached by other non-Polynesian voyagers before Tasman, but these are not widely accepted. Peter Trickett, for example, argues in Beyond Capricorn that the Portuguese explorer Cristóvão de Mendonça reached New Zealand in the 1520s, and the Tamil bell[862] discovered by missionary William Colenso has given rise to a number of theories,[845] [863] but historians generally believe the bell 'is not in itself proof of early Tamil contact with New Zealand'.[864][865][866]

In 1643, still during the same expedition, Tasman discovered Fiji.

Tongatapu and Haʻapai (Tonga) (1643)

Tasman discovered Tongatapu and Haʻapai in 1643 commanding two ships, the Heemskerck and the Zeehaen commissioned by the Dutch East India Company. The expedition's goals were to chart the unknown southern and eastern seas and to find a possible passage through the South Pacific and Indian Ocean providing a faster route to Chile.

Sakhalin (Cape Patience) (1643)

The first European known to visit Sakhalin was Martin Gerritz de Vries, who mapped Cape Patience and Cape Aniva on the island's east coast in 1643.

Kuril Islands (1643)

In the summer of 1643, the Castricum, under command of Martin Gerritz de Vries sailed by the southern Kuril Islands, visiting Kunashir, Iturup and Urup, which they named "Company Island" and claimed for the Netherlands.

Vries Strait or Miyabe Line is a strait between two main islands of the Kurils. It is located between the northeastern end of the island of Iturup and the southwestern headland of Urup Island, connecting the Sea of Okhotsk on the west with the Pacific Ocean on the east. The strait is named after de Vries, the first recorded European to explore the area.

The Gulf of Patience is a large body of water off the southeastern coast of Sakhalin, Russia, between the main body of Sakhalin Island in the west and Cape Patience in the east. It is part of the Sea of Okhotsk. The first Europeans to visit the bay sailed on Castricum. They named the gulf in memory of the fog that had to clear for them to continue their expedition.

Rottnest Island and Swan River (Western Australian coast) (1696)

A Quokka family on Rottnest Island, Western Australia

The first Europeans known to land on the Rottnest Island were 13 Dutch sailors including Abraham Leeman from the Waeckende Boey who landed near Bathurst Point on 19 March 1658 while their ship was nearby. The ship had sailed from Batavia in search of survivors of the missing Vergulde Draeck which was later found wrecked 80 kilometres (50 mi) north near present-day Ledge Point. The island was given the name "Rotte nest" (meaning "rat nest" in the 17th century Dutch language) by Dutch captain Willem de Vlamingh who spent six days exploring the island from 29 December 1696, mistaking the quokkas for giant rats. De Vlamingh led a fleet of three ships, De Geelvink, De Nijptang and Weseltje and anchored on the northern side of the island, near The Basin.

Willem de Vlamingh's ships, with black swans, at the entrance to the Swan River, Western Australia, coloured engraving (1796), derived from an earlier drawing (now lost) from the de Vlamingh expeditions of 1696–97.
An adult black swan and cygnet. For some 1500 years, the black swan existed in the European imagination as a metaphor for that which could not exist. Dutch explorer Willem de Vlamingh made the first European record of sighting a black swan in 1697. The sighting was significant in Europe, where "all swans are white" had long been used as a standard example of a well-known truth.

On 10 January 1697, de Vlamingh ventured up the Swan River. He and his crew are believed to have been the first Europeans to do so. He named the Swan River (Zwaanenrivier in Dutch) after the large numbers of black swans that he observed there.

Easter Island and Samoa (first documented sighting of, landing on and charting of Easter Island) (1722)

Easter Island is world famous for its 887 extant monumental statues, called moai

On Easter Sunday, 5 April 1722, Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen discovered Easter Island. Easter Island is one of the most remote inhabited islands in the world.[867] The nearest inhabited land (50 residents) is Pitcairn Island 2,075 kilometres (1,289 mi) away, the nearest town with a population over 500 is Rikitea on island Mangareva 2,606 km (1,619 mi) away, and the nearest continental point lies in central Chile, 3,512 kilometres (2,182 mi) away.

The name "Easter Island" was given by the island's first recorded European visitor, the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen, who encountered it on Easter Sunday (5 April[868]) 1722, while searching for Davis or David's island. Roggeveen named it Paasch-Eyland (18th century Dutch for "Easter Island").[869] The island's official Spanish name, Isla de Pascua, also means "Easter Island".

The first-recorded European contact with the island took place on 5 April (Easter Sunday) 1722 when Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen visited for a week and estimated there were 2,000 to 3,000 inhabitants on the island. This was an estimate, not a census, and archaeologists estimate the population may have been as high as 10,000 to 12,000 a few decades earlier. His party reported "remarkable, tall, stone figures, a good 30 feet in height", the island had rich soil and a good climate and "all the country was under cultivation". Fossil-pollen analysis shows that the main trees on the island had gone 72 years earlier in 1650. The civilization of Easter Island was long believed to have degenerated drastically during the century before the arrival of the Dutch, as a result of overpopulation, deforestation and exploitation of an extremely isolated island with limited natural resources. The Dutch reported that a fight broke out in which they killed ten or twelve islanders.

Jacob Roggeveen's expedition of 1722 gives us our first description of the islanders. They were "of all shades of colour, yellow, white and brown" and they distended their ear lobes so greatly with large disks that when they took them out they could "hitch the rim of the lobe over the top of the ear".[870] Roggeveen also noted how some of the islanders were "generally large in stature". Islanders' tallness was also witnessed by the Spanish who visited the island in 1770, measuring heights of 196 and 199 cm.

On 13 June Roggeveen discovered the islands of Samoa.

Orange River (1779)

The Orange River was named by Colonel Robert Gordon, commander of the Dutch East India Company garrison at Cape Town, on a trip to the interior in 1779.

Scientific explorations

First systematic mapping of southern celestial hemisphere (1595–1597)

In 1595, Petrus Plancius, a key promoter to the East Indies expeditions, asked Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, the chief pilot on the Hollandia, to make observations to fill in the blank area around the south celestial pole on European maps of the southern sky. Plancius had instructed Keyser to map the skies in the southern hemisphere, which were largely uncharted at the time. Keyser died in Java the following year but his catalogue of 135 stars, probably measured up with the help of explorer-colleague Frederick de Houtman, was delivered to Plancius, and then those stars were arranged into 12 new southern constellations, letting them be inscribed on a 35-cm celestial globe that was prepared in late 1597 (or early 1598). This globe was produced in collaboration with the Amsterdam cartographer Jodocus Hondius.

Plancius's constellations (mostly referring to animals and subjects described in natural history books and travellers' journals of his day) are Apis the Bee (later changed to Musca by Lacaille), Apus the Bird of Paradise, Chamaeleon, Dorado the Goldfish (or Swordfish), Grus the Crane, Hydrus the Small Water Snake, Indus the Indian, Pavo the Peacock, Phoenix, Triangulum Australe the Southern Triangle, Tucana the Toucan, and Volans the Flying Fish. The acceptance of these new constellations was assured when Johann Bayer, a German astronomer, included them in his Uranometria of 1603, the leading star atlas of its day. These 12 southern constellations are still recognized today by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).[692][693][694][695][696][697][698]

First major scientific expedition to Brazil (1637–1644)

Within the thirty-year period the Joannes de Laet, Piso wrote the Historia Naturalis Brasiliae (1648), an important early western insight into Brazilian flora and fauna, also is the first scientific book about Brazil. Albert Eckhout, along with the landscape artist Frans Post, was one of two formally trained painters charged with recording the complexity of the local scene. The seven years Eckhout spent in Brazil constitute an invaluable contribution to the understanding of the European colonization of the New World. During his stay he created hundreds of oil sketches – mostly from life – of the local flora, fauna and people. These paintings by Eckhout and the landscapes by Post were among the Europeans' first, introductions to South America.

First ethnographic descriptions of New Netherland and North American Indians (1641–1653)

In 1641, Kiliaen van Rensselaer, the director of the Dutch West India Company, hired Adriaen van der Donck (1620–1655) to be his lawyer for his large, semi-independent estate, Rensselaerswijck, in New Netherland. Until 1645, van der Donck lived in the Upper Hudson River Valley, near Fort Orange (later Albany), where he learned about the Company's fur trade, the Mohawk and Mahican Indians who traded with Dutch, the agriculturist settlers, and the area's plants and animals. In 1649, after a serious disagreement with the new governor, Peter Stuyvesant, he returned to the Dutch Republic to petition Dutch government. In 1653, still in the Netherlands waiting for the government to decide his case, Adriaen van der Donck wrote a comprehensive description of the New Netherland's geography and native peoples based on material in his earlier Remonstrance. The book, Beschryvinge van Nieuw-Nederlant or A Description of New Netherland later published in 1655. This new book was well-crafted to the interests of his audience, consisting of an extensive description of American Indians and their customs, reports on the abundance of the area's agriculture and wealth of its natural resources.[874][875][876][877][878]


First non-Asian first-hand account of Korea (1653–1666)

Jan Weltevree (1595-?) is regarded as the first naturalized Westerner to Korea. Weltevree was a Dutch sailor who arrived on the shores of an island off Joseon’s west coast in 1627 in a shipwreck. The Joseon Dynasty at that time maintained an isolation policy, so the captured foreigner could not leave the country. Weltevree took the name Bak Yeon (also Pak Yeon). He became an important government official and aided King Hyojong with his keen knowledge of modern weaponry. His adventures were recorded in the report by Dutch East India Company accountant Hendrik Hamel.[879][880][881][882][883][884][885][886][887]

Dutch seafarer and VOC's bookkeeper Hendrick Hamel was the first westerner to experience first-hand and write about Korea in Joseon era (1392–1897). In 1653, Hamel and his men were shipwrecked on Jeju island, and they remained captives in Korea for more than a decade. The Joseon dynasty was often referred to as the "Hermit Kingdom" for its harsh isolationism and closed borders. The shipwrecked Dutchmen were given some freedom of movement, but were forbidden to leave the country. After thirteen years (1653–1666), Hamel and seven of his crewmates managed to escape to the VOC trading mission at Dejima (an artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki, Japan), and from there to the Netherlands. In 1666, three different publishers published his report (Journal van de Ongeluckige Voyage van 't Jacht de Sperwer or An account of the shipwreck of a Dutch vessel on the coast of the isle of Quelpaert together with the description of the kingdom of Corea), describing their improbable adventure and giving the first detailed and accurate description of Korea to the western world.[881][883][884][888][889][890]

See also


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  1. ^ Excluding the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
  2. ^ Excluding Aruba, Curaçao and St Maarten.
  3. ^ Excluding Tokelau, Niue and the Cook Islands.
  4. ^ Excluding Northern Ireland. The Scottish parliament has passed a bill that allows same-sex marriages to take place from October 2014.


  1. ^ Motley, John Lothrop (1855). “The Rise of the Dutch Republic”, Volume I, Preface. “The rise of the Dutch Republic must ever be regarded as one of the leading events of modern times. Without the birth of this great commonwealth, the various historical phenomena of the sixteenth and following centuries must have either not existed, or have presented themselves under essential modifications.”
  2. ^ Rybczynski, Witold (1987). Home: A Short History of an Idea. According to Witold Rybczynski’s Home: A Short History of an Idea, private spaces in households are a Dutch seventeenth-century invention, despite their commonplace nature today. He has argued that home as we now know it came from the Dutch canal house of the seventeenth century. That, he said, was the first time that people identified living quarters as being precisely the residence of a man, a woman and their children. “The feminization of the home in seventeenth century Holland was one of the most important events in the evolution of the domestic interior.” This evolution took place in part due to Dutch law being “explicit on contractual arrangements and on the civil rights of servants”. And, “for the first time, the person who was in intimate contact with housework was also in a position to influence the arrangement and disposition of the house.”
    Rybczynski (2007) discusses why we live in houses in the first place: “To understand why we live in houses, it is necessary to go back several hundred years to Europe. Rural people have always lived in houses, but the typical medieval town dwelling, which combined living space and workplace, was occupied by a mixture of extended families, servants, and employees. This changed in seventeenth-century Holland. The Netherlands was Europe’s first republic, and the world’s first middle-class nation. Prosperity allowed extensive home ownership, republicanism discouraged the widespread use of servants, a love of children promoted the nuclear family, and Calvinism encouraged thrift and other domestic virtues. These circumstances, coupled with a particular affection for the private family home, brought about a cultural revolution... The idea of urban houses spread to the British Isles thanks to England's strong commercial and cultural links with the Netherlands.”
  3. ^ Schama, Simon (1988). The Embarrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age
  4. ^ Prak, Maarten (2005). The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Golden Age, p. 2
  5. ^ Tabor, Philip (2005). "Striking Home: The Telematic Assault on Identity". Published in Jonathan Hill, editor, Occupying Architecture: Between the Architect and the User. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today: “As far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the seventeenth century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, and emptied their purses into domestic space.”
    According to Jonathan Hill (Immaterial Architecture, 2006), compared to the large scaled houses in England and the Renaissance, the 17th Century Dutch house was smaller, and was only inhabited by up to four to five members. This was due to their embracing "self-reliance", in contrast to the dependence on servants, and a design for a lifestyle centered on the family. It was important for the Dutch to separate work from domesticity, as the home became an escape and a place of comfort. This way of living and the home has been noted as highly similar to the contemporary family and their dwellings. House layouts also incorporated the idea of the corridor as well as the importance of function and privacy. By the end of the 17th Century, the house layout was soon transformed to become employment-free, enforcing these ideas for the future. This came in favour for the industrial revolution, gaining large-scale factory production and workers. The house layout of the Dutch and its functions are still relevant today.
  6. ^ Perry, Marvin; Jacob, Margaret; Jacob, James; Chase, Myrna; Von Laue, Theodore (2009). Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society: Since 1400, p. 391-392
  7. ^ a b Weber, Wolfgang (26 August 2002). "The end of consensus politics in the Netherlands (Part III: The historical roots of consensus politics)". World Socialist Web Site. Retrieved 12 May 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Molyneux, John (14 Feb 2004). "Rembrandt and revolution: Revolt that shaped a new kind of art". Socialist Worker. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  9. ^ including the Dutch-speaking Southern Netherlands prior to 1585
  10. ^ Taylor, Peter J. (2002). Dutch Hegemony and Contemporary Globalization. “The Dutch developed a social formula, which we have come to call modern capitalism, that proved to be transferable and ultimately deadly to all other social formulations.”
  11. ^ Dunthorne, Hugh (2004). The Dutch Republic: That mother nation of liberty, in The Enlightenment World, M. Fitzpatrick, P. Jones, C. Knellwolf and I. McCalman eds. London: Routledge, pp. 87-103
  12. ^ Usher, Robin (18 Jun 2005). "Mastering Holland". Retrieved 20 Nov 2014. 
  13. ^ Hamowy, Ronald (2008). The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, p. 130-131. “Although today we can easily find much to criticize about the Dutch Republic, it remains a crucial early experiment in toleration, limited government, and commercial capitalism... Dutch shipping, banking, commerce, and credit raised living standards for the rich and the poor alike and for the first time created that characteristically modern social phenomenon, a middle class... Libertarians value the Dutch Republic as a historical phenomenon not because it represented any sort of perfection, but above all because it demonstrated to several generations of intellectuals the practicality of allowing citizens greater liberties than were customarily accorded them, which in turn contributed to producing what we now know as classical liberalism.”
  14. ^ Timmermann, Jim (16 November 2009). "COLUMN — 400 years of Dutch in America". The Holland Sentinel. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  15. ^ Raico, Ralph (23 August 2010). "The Rise, Fall, and Renaissance of Classical Liberalism". Mises Daily. Retrieved 30 August 2014. As the modern age began, rulers started to shake free of age-old customary constraints on their power. Royal absolutism became the main tendency of the time. The kings of Europe raised a novel claim: they declared that they were appointed by God to be the fountainhead of all life and activity in society. Accordingly, they sought to direct religion, culture, politics, and, especially, the economic life of the people. To support their burgeoning bureaucracies and constant wars, the rulers required ever-increasing quantities of taxes, which they tried to squeeze out of their subjects in ways that were contrary to precedent and custom.
    The first people to  
  16. ^  
  17. ^ The Dutch Republic was the birthplace of the first modern art market, successfully combining art and commerce together as we would recognise it today. Until the 17th century, commissioning works of art was largely the preserve of the church, monarchs and aristocrats. The emergence of a powerful and wealthy middle class in Holland, though, produced a radical change in patronage as the new Dutch bourgeoisie bought art. For the first time, the direction of art was shaped by relatively broadly-based demand rather than religious dogma or royal whim, and the result was the birth of a large-scale open (free) art market which today's dealers and collectors would find familiar.
  18. ^ Jaffé, H. L. C. (1986). De Stijl 1917-1931: The Dutch Contribution to Modern Art
  19. ^ Muller, Sheila D. (1997). Dutch Art: An Encyclopedia
  20. ^  
  21. ^ Struik, Dirk J. (1981). The Land of Stevin and Huygens: A Sketch of Science and Technology in the Dutch Republic during the Golden Century (Studies in the History of Modern Science)
  22. ^ Porter, Roy; Teich, Mikulas (1992). The Scientific Revolution in National Context
  23. ^ Van Berkel, Klaas; Van Helden, Albert; Palm, Lodewijk (1998). A History of Science in the Netherlands: Survey, Themes and Reference
  24. ^ Jorink, Eric (2010). Reading the Book of Nature in the Dutch Golden Age, 1575-1715
  25. ^ Haven, Kendall (2005). 100 Greatest Science Inventions of All Time
  26. ^ Davids, Karel (2008). The Rise and Decline of Dutch Technological Leadership. Technology, Economy and Culture in the Netherlands, 1350-1800 (2 vols)
  27. ^ Curley, Robert (2009). The Britannica Guide to Inventions That Changed the Modern World
  28. ^ During their limited-liability joint-stock company, with a permanent capital base. The Dutch merchants were the pioneers in laying the basis for modern corporate governance. The VOC is often considered as the precursor of modern corporations, if not the first truly modern corporation. It was the VOC that invented the idea of investing in the company rather than in a specific venture governed by the company. With its pioneering features such as corporate identity (first globally-recognized corporate logo), entrepreneurial spirit, legal personhood, transnational (multinational) operational structure, high stable profitability, permanent capital (fixed capital stock), freely transferable shares and tradable securities, separation of ownership and management, and limited liability for both shareholders and managers, the VOC is generally considered a major institutional breakthrough and the model for the large-scale business enterprises that now dominate the global economy.
    The second major innovation was the creation of the world's first fully functioning exchange in Amsterdam where VOC stock and bonds could be traded in a secondary market. The VOC undertook the world's first recorded IPO in the same year. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange (Amsterdamsche Beurs in Dutch) was also the world's first fully-fledged stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they didn't develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market: corporate shareholders. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) became the first company to offer shares of stock. The dividend averaged around 18% of capital over the course of the company's 200-year existence. Dutch investors were the first to trade their shares at a regular stock exchange. The buying and selling of these shares of stock in the VOC became the basis of the first stock market. It was in the Dutch Republic that the early techniques of stock-market manipulation were developed. The Dutch pioneered stock futures, stock options, short selling, bear raids, debt-equity swaps, and other speculative instruments. Amsterdam businessman Joseph de la Vega's Confusion of Confusions (1688) was the earliest book about stock trading.
    The third major innovation was the establishment of the Bank of Amsterdam (Amsterdamsche Wisselbank in Dutch) in 1609, which led to the introduction of the concept of bank money. The Bank of Amsterdam was arguably the world's first central bank. The Wisselbank's innovations helped lay the foundations for the birth and development of the central banking system that now plays a vital role in the world's economy. It occupied a central position in the financial world of its day, providing an effective, efficient and trusted system for national and international payments, and introduced the first ever international reserve currency, the bank guilder. Lucien Gillard (2004) calls it the European guilder (le florin européen), and Adam Smith devotes many pages to explaining how the bank guilder works (Smith 1776: 446-455). The model of the Wisselbank as a state bank was adapted throughout Europe, including the Bank of Sweden (1668) and the Bank of England (1694).
  29. ^ Bornschier, Volker; Lengyel, Peter (1992). Waves, Formations and Values in the World System, p. 69. “The rise of capitalist national states (as opposed to city-states) was a European innovation, and the first of these was the Dutch Republic of the seventeenth century.”
  30. ^ Brenner, Reuven (1994). Labyrinths of Prosperity: Economic Follies, Democratic Remedies, p. 60
  31. ^ De Vries, Jan; Woude, Ad van der (1997). The First Modern Economy: Success, Failure, and Perseverance of the Dutch Economy, 1500–1815
  32. ^ Gordon, John Steele (1999). The Great Game: The Emergence of Wall Street as a World Power: 1653–2000. “The Dutch invented modern capitalism in the early seventeenth century. Although many of the basic concepts had first appeared in Italy during the Renaissance, the Dutch, especially the citizens of the city of Amsterdam, were the real innovators. They transformed banking, stock exchanges, credit, insurance, and limited-liability corporations into a coherent financial and commercial system.”
  33. ^ Gordon, Scott (1999). Controlling the State: Constitutionalism from Ancient Athens to Today, p. 172. “In addition to its role in the history of constitutionalism, the republic was important in the early development of the essential features of modern capitalism: private property, production for sale in general markets, and the dominance of the profit motive in the behavior of producers and traders.”
  34. ^ a b Sayle, Murray (5 April 2001). "Japan goes Dutch". London Riview of Books, Vol. 23 No. 7. Retrieved 18 May 2014. While Britain’s was the first economy to use fossil energy to produce goods for market, the most characteristic institutions of capitalism were not invented in Britain, but in the Low Countries. The first miracle economy was that of the Dutch Republic (1588-1795), and it, too, hit a mysterious dead end. All economic success contains the seeds of stagnation, it seems; the greater the boom, the harder it is to change course when it ends. 
  35. ^ Mead, Walter Russell (18 Apr 2009). "Walter Russell Mead On Why Lula Was Right (The Debt We Owe the Dutch: Blue-Eyed Bankers Have Given Us More Than the Current Financial Crisis)". Newsweek Magazine. Retrieved 11 June 2014. The modern financial system grows out of a series of innovations in 17th-century Netherlands, and the Dutch were, on the whole, as Lula describes them. From the Netherlands, what the English called Dutch finance... 
  36. ^ "The Keynes Conundrum by Reuven Brenner and David P. Goldman". First Things. 1 Oct 2010. Retrieved 11 June 2014. Western societies developed the institutions that support entrepreneurship only through a long and fitful process of trial and error. Stock and commodity exchanges, investment banks, mutual funds, deposit banking, securitization, and other markets have their roots in the Dutch innovations of the seventeenth century but reached maturity, in many cases, only during the past quarter of a century. 
  37. ^ Franklin, Jay D. (13 Aug 2012). "Amsterdam: Where It All Began". Index Funds Advisors. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  38. ^ Schilder, Gunther (1985). The Netherland Nautical Cartography from 1550 to 1650
  39. ^ Woodward, David, ed (1987). Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays, p. 147-174
  40. ^ Paine, Lincoln P. (2000). Ships of Discovery and Exploration
  41. ^ Day, Alan (2003). The A to Z of the Discovery and Exploration of Australia, p. xxxvii-xxxviii
  42. ^ The Dutch made significant contributions to the law of the sea, law of nations (public international law) and company law
  43. ^ a b c Russell, Bertrand (1945). A History of Western Philosophy
  44. ^ Van Bunge, Wiep (2001). From Stevin to Spinoza: an Essay on Philosophy in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic
  45. ^ Van Bunge, Wiep (2003). The Early Enlightenment in the Dutch Republic 1650–1750
  46. ^ "The triple helix in Dutch Life Sciences Health". Holland Trade. Retrieved 10 November 2014. 
  47. ^ Gottlieb, Mark (30 August 2006). "Continental Drifter -- Dutch Treat: An unlikely nation in an unlikely corner of Europe boasts a remarkable record of unlikely achievement.". IndustryWeek. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  48. ^ McCloskey, Deirdre (17 Mar 2011). "Chapter 9 of the Bourgeois Revaluation: The Dutch Preached Bourgeois Virtue". Retrieved 18 April 2014. The Dutch became in the High Middle Ages the tutors of the Northerners in trade and navigation. They taught the English how to say skipper, cruise, schooner, lighter, yacht, wiveling, yaw, yawl, sloop, tackle, hoy, boom, jib, bow, bowsprit, luff, reef, belay, avast, hoist, gangway, pump, buoy, dock, freight, smuggle, and keelhaul. In the last decade of the sixteenth century the busy Dutch invented a broad-bottomed ship ideal for commerce, the fluyt, or fly-boat, and the German Ocean became a new Mediterranean, a watery forum of the Germanic speakers — of the English, Scots, Norse, Danish, Low German, Frisian, Flemish, and above all the Dutch — who showed the world how to be bourgeois. 
  49. ^ including Southern Netherlands-based (Zuid-Nederlanders in Dutch) cartographers/geographers such as Gemma Frisius, Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius
  50. ^ Koeman, Cornelis; Schilder, Günter; van Egmond, Marco; van der Krogt, Peter; Zandvliet, Kees: The History of Cartography, Volume 3: Cartography in the European Renaissance (Part 2: Low Countries), pp. 1246–1462, David Woodward ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007)
  51. ^ that comprising mainland Australia, Tasmania and their surrounding islands
  52. ^ The first European known to visit Sakhalin was Martin Gerritz de Vries, who mapped Cape Patience and Cape Aniva on the island's east coast in 1643. The Dutch captain, however, was not aware of their being on an island, and 17th century maps usually showed these points—and often Hokkaido, too—as parts of the mainland.
  53. ^ McManamon, Francis; Cordell, Linda S.; Lightfoot, Kent; Milner, George (2009). Archaeology in America: An Encyclopedia (4 volumes), p. 26
  54. ^ As Peter J. Taylor (2002) notes: ‘The Dutch polity of the seventeenth century was famously unconcerned with territorial expansion: as long as the frontier operated effectively as a defensive shield no extra land was deemed necessary.’
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  174. ^ Embree, Ainslie Thomas; Gluck, Carol (1997). Asia in Western and World History: A Guide for Teaching. “Still more important was the joint-stock company, of which the Dutch East India Company was the outstanding example. The typical commercial organization of the Middle Ages had been the regulated company restricted to members of a guild of merchants who combined, ordinarily under government charter, to create a monopoly of trade with an area. English examples were the Russia or Levant companies. In contrast, the joint-stock company was open to all. Its profits were not necessarily shared out at the end of each voyage...”
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  183. ^ Sayle, Murray (5 April 2001). "Japan goes Dutch". London Riview of Books, Vol. 23 No. 7. Retrieved 18 May 2014. The Netherlands United East Indies Company (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or VOC), founded in 1602, was the world’s first multinational, joint-stock, limited liability corporation – as well as its first government-backed trading cartel. Our own East India Company, founded in 1600, remained a coffee-house clique until 1657, when it, too, began selling shares, not in individual voyages, but in John Company itself, by which time its Dutch rival was by far the biggest commercial enterprise the world had known. 
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  208. ^ Queen Máxima of the Netherlands (27 March 2014). "Toespraak van Koningin Máxima bij de Morningstar Investment Conference Europe in Amsterdam". Het Koninklijk Huis. Retrieved 10 October 2014. The charter of the Dutch East India Company stipulated that any Dutch citizen could buy shares in the company. Many did grasp this opportunity. And they were not only wealthy merchants! Among these first shareholders were corn dealers, grocers, bakers, brewers, tailors, seamstresses, sail makers, carpenters, cobblers and servants. One of the most modest participants was the Mayor of Amsterdam's maid. Her name was Grietje Dirksdochter.
    Grietje saw a tipping point in Dutch history. This new opening provided ordinary people like her not only with the opportunity of becoming a shareholder of a mere shipping company. It provided her with the opportunity of becoming a shareholder of the Dutch Golden Age. Of an exciting era of social development and economic growth. She was taking part in a new, dynamic economy.
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  210. ^ Shinkai, Tetsuya; Ohkawa, Takao; Okamura, Makoto; Harimaya, Kozo (5 December 2012). Why did the Dutch East India Co. outperform the British East India Co.? A theoretical explanation based on the objective of the firm and limited liability. (No 96, Discussion Paper Series, School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University). “The Dutch company sent a governor-general with full authority over all of the company's officers to Indonesia. The British East India Company was even more decentralized, however, and acted less as a trading company than as a guild. It allowed each of its members to trade on his account, owning only the ships in common with other members. Bernstein (2008) also describes the behavior of the employees of the British East India Company, the employee of the East India Company treated its ships as their own, transporting large amounts of trade goods for their accounts to and from Asia. From these historical facts, the objective of the Dutch East India Company was likely to maximize profits, whereas the British East India Company tried to maximize sales since the employee of it transported large amounts of trade goods not only for the company's but their own accounts to and from Asia.”
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  228. ^ Kaiser, Kevin; Young, S. David (2013). The Blue Line Imperative: What Managing for Value Really Means, p. 26. “There are other claimants to the title of first public company, including a twelfth-century water mill in France and a thirteenth-century company intended to control the English wool trade, Staple of London. Its shares, however, and the manner in which those shares were traded, did not truly allow public ownership by anyone who happened to be able to afford a share. The arrival of VOC shares was therefore momentous, because as Fernand Braudel pointed out, it opened up the ownership of companies and the ideas they generated, beyond the ranks of the aristocracy and the very rich, so that everyone could finally participate in the speculative freedom of transactions. By expanding ownership of its company pie for a certain price and a tentative return, the Dutch had done something historic: they had created a capital market.”
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  230. ^ Gourevitch, Peter A.; Shinn, James (2005). Political Power and Corporate Control: The New Global Politics of Corporate Governance, p. xiii
  231. ^ Wilson, Eric Michael (2008). The Savage Republic: De Indis of Hugo Grotius, Republicanism and Dutch Hegemony Within the Early Modern World-System (c.1600-1619), p. 215-217. “The defining characteristics of the modern corporation, all of which emerged during the Dutch cycle, include: limited liability for investors, free transferability of investor interests, legal personality and centralised management. Although some of these characteristics were present to a certain extent in the fourteenth-century Genose societas comperarum of the first cycle, the first wholly cognisable modern limited liability public company was the VOC. The organisational structures and corporate practices of the VOC were closely paralleled by the English East India Company and served as the direct model for all of the later mercantile trading companies of the second cycle, including those of Italy, France, Portugal, Denmark, and Brandenburg-Prussia.”
  232. ^ Bishop, Matthew; Green, Michael (2010). The Road from Ruin: A New Capitalism for a Big Society, p. 48
  233. ^ Daly, Jonathan (2014). The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization, p. 136
  234. ^ Soll, Jacob (2014). The Reckoning: Financial Accountability and the Rise and Fall of Nations, p. 79
  235. ^ Cater, Nick (14 Feb 2014). "Conversation with Daniel Hannan (Nick Cater in conversation with Daniel Hannan MEP)". The Centre for Independent Studies. Retrieved 12 September 2014.  
  236. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, p. 385
  237. ^ Lucas, Gavin (2006). An Archaeology of Colonial Identity: Power and Material Culture in the Dwars Valley, South Africa (Contributions To Global Historical Archaeology), p. 28
  238. ^ Van Boven, M. W. "Towards A New Age of Partnership (TANAP): An Ambitious World Heritage Project (UNESCO Memory of the World – reg.form, 2002)". VOC Archives Appendix 2, p.14. 
  239. ^ The share price had appreciated significantly, so in that respect the dividend was less impressive
  240. ^ Sarna, David E. Y. (2010). History of Greed: Financial Fraud from Tulip Mania to Bernie Madoff
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  243. ^ "Press Conference on the occasion of Their Majesties' visit to the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Sweden (2000)". The Imperial Household Agency. 8 May 2000. Retrieved 30 May 2014. Response by the  
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  245. ^ "The AOTM Landings List 1606 – 1814". history and heritage division of the  
  246. ^ North, Michael (1999). Art and Commerce in the Dutch Golden Age. Translated by Catherine Hill. (Yale University Press)
  247. ^ Bennett, Will (6 Jun 2006). "A very modern 17th-century art dealer". Telegraph. Retrieved 16 April 2014. 
  248. ^ Gelderblom, Oscar; De Jong, Abe; Jonker, Joost (2010). Putting Le Maire into Perspective: Business Organization and the Evolution of Corporate Governance in the Dutch Republic, 1590-1610, in J. Koppell, ed., Origins of Shareholder Advocacy. (New York: Palgrave Macmillian)
  249. ^ McRitchie, James l (6 October 2011). "Will UNFI Go Virtual-Only Again? Not if Shareowners Just Say No". Retrieved 28 December 2014. Four centuries ago, Isaac Le Maire’s submitted the first recorded expression of shareowner advocacy at a publicly traded corporation. 
  250. ^ Mueller, Dennis C. (ed.), (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Capitalism, p. 333. (New York: Oxford University Press)
  251. ^ Frentrop, P. (2009). The First Known Shareholder Activist: The Colorful Life and Times of Isaac le Maire (1559–1624), in Frentrop/Jonker/Davis 2009, 11–26
  252. ^ Frentrop, P.; Jonker, J; Davis, S. (ed.), (2009). Shareholder Rights at 400: Commemorating Isaac Le Maire and the First Recorded Expression of Investor Advocacy (The Hague: Remix Business Communications, 2009)
  253. ^ Hansmann, Henry; Pargendler, Mariana (2013). The Evolution of Shareholder Voting Rights: Separation of Ownership and Consumption. (Yale Law Journal, Vol. 123, pp. 100-165, 2014)
  254. ^ Soll, Jacob (27 April 2014). "No Accounting Skills? No Moral Reckoning". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2015. 
  255. ^ De Jongh, Matthijs (2010). Shareholder Activism at the Dutch East India Company 1622-1625, in Origins of Shareholder Advocacy (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011)
  256. ^ De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 301–302
  257. ^ Wallerstein, Immanuel (2011). The Modern World-System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600–1750, p. 43-44
  258. ^ Kotilane, J. T. (2005). Russia's Foreign Trade and Economic Expansion in the Seventeenth Century: Windows on the World (Northern World) (No. 13), p. 65
  259. ^ Goldfrank, Walter L.; Goodman, David; Szasz, Andrew (1999). Ecology and the World-System, p. 110-111
  260. ^ Hoving, A. J.; Wildeman, Diederick (2011). Nicolaes Witsen and Shipbuilding in the Dutch Golden Age (Ed Rachal Foundation Nautical Archaeology Series)
  261. ^ Griswold, Mac (2013). The Manor: Three Centuries at a Slave Plantation on Long Island, p. 56-57
  262. ^ a b Wiesner, Merry E. (2013). Early Modern Europe, 1450-1789, p. 220
  263. ^ Delgado, James P. (2009). Gold Rush Port: The Maritime Archaeology of San Francisco's Waterfront, p. 17
  264. ^ Virginia W. Lunsford (2005). Piracy and Privateering in the Golden Age Netherlands, p. 69
  265. ^ "Putin recalls Russian-Dutch historic links". Voice of Russia. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  266. ^ "Russia and the Netherlands: traditions, historical continuity and new prospects for partnership". Russian Presidential Executive Office. 6 April 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2014. In an interview with Dutch newspaper  
  267. ^ Siegal, Nina (22 May 2013). "A Slice of Russia in Amsterdam". Retrieved 18 April 2014. After his trip to what is now the Netherlands in 1697 to 1698, the young czar returned home singing the country’s praises and famously declared that he wanted to build a city in Amsterdam’s image. “If God gives me life time,” he was quoted as saying in 1703, “I shall make of Petersburg a second Amsterdam.” 
  268. ^ Verhoogt, Robert (2007). Art in Reproduction: Nineteenth-Century Prints after Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Jozef Israëls and Ary Scheffer, p. 165
  269. ^ Wuthnow, Robert (2009). Communities of Discourse: Ideology and Social Structure in the Reformation, the Enlightenment, and European Socialism, p. 265
  270. ^ Klaesson, Johan; Johansson, Borje; Karlsson, Charlie (2013). Metropolitan Regions: Knowledge Infrastructures of the Global Economy, p. 360
  271. ^ Reinders, Michel (2013). Printed Pandemonium: Popular Print and Politics in the Netherlands 1650-72 (Library of the Written Word), p. 37-38
  272. ^ Deen, Femke; Onnekink, David; Reinders, Michel (2010). Pamphlets and Politics in the Dutch Republic, p. 20
  273. ^ Zahedieh, Nuala (2010). The Capital and the Colonies: London and the Atlantic Economy 1660-1700 (Cambridge University Press), p. 152
  274. ^  
  275. ^ Gordon, John Steele l (19 Sep 2009). "Don't Bet Against New York". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 May 2014. The Dutch—who invented many aspects of modern capitalism and became immensely rich in the process—came to Manhattan to make money. And they didn't much care who else came to do the same. Indeed, they were so busy trading beaver pelts they didn't even get around to building a church for 17 years. 
  276. ^ a b Soll, Jacob (27 Apr 2014). "The Great Divide: No Accounting Skills? No Moral Reckoning". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 May 2014. If we want to know how to make our own country and companies more accountable, we would do well to study the Dutch. In 1602, they invented modern capitalism with the foundation of the first publicly traded company — the Dutch East India Company — and the first official stock market in Amsterdam. 
  277. ^ MacDonald, Scott B.; Gastmann, Albert L. (2001), p. 95
  278. ^ a b  
  279. ^ Molyneux, John (5 Nov 2005). "Rubens — his brush was the sword of counter revolution". Socialist Worker. Retrieved 6 May 2014. 
  280. ^ Brandon, Pepijn (1 October 2007). "The Dutch Revolt: A Social Analysis". International Socialism. Retrieved 14 May 2014. 
  281. ^ Shorto, Russell (27 September 2013). "The Ghosts of Amsterdam". New York Times. Retrieved 7 April 2014. But when I’m on the Nes I feel I’m about to run into a tall, handsome, wily man who in his day favored lace collars and a twisty little mustache. His name was Dirck van Os, and, while history has forgotten him, his house on this street (which, alas, no longer exists) could be considered the birthplace of capitalism.
    For four months in 1602, Amsterdammers streamed into his parlor to buy pieces of a new kind of corporation, one that allowed backers to sell their portion at a later date, at a higher (or lower) value. The Dutch East India Company transformed the world, and it made Amsterdam, briefly and improbably, the most powerful city in the world.
    But its biggest contribution to history may be in the fact that in this little alley van Os and his merchant colleagues gave birth to the concept of “shares of stock.” A few years later, a little farther down the street, came the first stock exchange. Things would never be the same.
  282. ^ Andrew Roberts in his book A History of the English-Speaking Peoples Since 1900 (2010), observed: “The English-speaking peoples did not invent the ideas that nonetheless made them great: the Romans invented the concept of Law, the Greeks one-freeman-one-vote democracy, the Dutch modern capitalism...”
  283. ^ Manning, Patrick; Gills, Barry K. (2013). Andre Gunder Frank and Global Development: Visions, Remembrances, and Explorations , p.107
  284. ^ Hall, Thomas D. (2000). A World-Systems Reader: New Perspectives on Gender, Urbanism, Cultures, Indigenous Peoples, and Ecology, p. 32
  285. ^ a b Kuzminski, Adrian (2013). The Ecology of Money: Debt, Growth, and Sustainability, p. 38
  286. ^ Brenner, Reuven (1994). Labyrinths of Prosperity: Economic Follies, Democratic Remedies, p. 60
  287. ^ Moore, Jason W. (2010a). “‘Amsterdam is Standing on Norway’ Part I: The Alchemy of Capital, Empire, and Nature in the Diaspora of Silver, 1545–1648,” Journal of Agrarian Change, 10, 1, p. 35–71
  288. ^ Moore, Jason W. (2010b). “‘Amsterdam is Standing on Norway’ Part II: The Global North Atlantic in the Ecological Revolution of the Long Seventeenth Century,” Journal of Agrarian Change, 10, 2, p. 188–227
  289. ^ Sombart, Werner (1930). The Quintessence of Capitalism: A Study of the History and Psychology of the Modern Business Man, p. 144. As Werner Sombart noted: “In all probability the United Provinces were the land in which the capitalist spirit for the first time attained its fullest maturity ; where this maturity related to all its aspects, which were equally developed; and where this development had never been done comprehensive before. Moreover, in the Netherlands an entire people became imbued with the capitalist spirit ; so much so, that in the 17th century Holland was universally regarded as the land of capitalism par exellence ; it was envied by all other nations, who put forth their keenest endeavours in their desire to emulate it...”
  290. ^ Brenner, Robert P. (2001). The Low Countries in the Transition to Capitalism. “The Dutch economy thus differentiated itself from the leading economies that preceded it (Flanders, Brabant, the city-states of northern Italy) in its capitalist modernity, manifested most tellingly in its advanced, capital-intensive agricul-tural sector. But it shared those economies’ imbrication in, and dependence upon, the pre-capitalist economy of Europe as a whole.”
  291. ^ Lefer, David (2013). The Founding Conservatives: How a Group of Unsung Heroes Saved the American Revolution. “Along with his army, William brought something even more formidable to England—a series of Dutch financial innovations that we now call capitalism. Capitalism needs to be understood as more than just making money. Commerce is as old as human history, as Lycurgus' s decision to ban it in the ninth century B.C. shows. Modern capitalism, on the other hand, was invented in the early seventeenth century as a way of pooling money to lit risk in large-scale investments. If there was on thing that distinguished this new financial system from anything that had come before, it was the sheer scale on which it operated. Capitalism was big and systematic in its approach to making money.”
  292. ^ Congleton, Roger D. (2007)
  293. ^ Van Zanden, J. L. (1993). The Rise and Decline of Holland's Economy: Merchant Capitalism and the Labour Market, p. 3
  294. ^ Van der Linden, Marcel (1997). Marx and Engels, Dutch Marxism and the “Model Capitalist Nation of the Seventeenth Century. (Science and Society, 61, p. 161-192)
  295. ^ Jan Lucassen (2007). Wages and Currency: Global Comparisons from Antiquity to the Twentieth Century (International and Comparative Social History), p. 7
  296. ^ Wilson, Eric Michael (2008). Savage Republic: De Indis of Hugo Grotius, Republicanism and Dutch Hegemony within the Early Modern World-System (c. 1600–1619), p. 151
  297. ^ Sprague, Ted (30 March 2011). "History of Capitalist Development in Indonesia: Part One - Dutch Colonisation". Retrieved 10 December 2014. 
  298. ^ Moore, Jason W. (2012). Dutch Capitalism and the Europe’s Great Frontier: The Baltic in the Ecological Revolution of the Long Seventeenth Century, in The Longue Duree and World-Systems Analysis, edited by Richard E. Lee, p. 65-97
  299. ^ Migchels, Anthony (5 June 2014). "Capitalism Is Jewish Usury". Real Currencies. Retrieved 12 June 2014. Modern Capitalism was first clearly visible in the Dutch Republic, where Italian Banking, expelled Iberian Jews, the Reformation, naval power and the acquisition of huge trade fortunes came together in the Amsterdam Empire, which would outshine its much bigger Spanish, British and even French competitors until the mid seventeenth century. Everything that defines modern Capitalism was either invented or came to fruition in Amsterdam. The first Stock Exchange, Multinationals (the East Indies Company, which would rule over Indonesia with unrestrained Corporatocracy for centuries), and most importantly, a Central Bank, the ‘Amsterdamsche Wisselbank’. And of course a huge pile of money, that would be the envy of Europe even long after its ‘glory’ had subsided. 
  300. ^ a b Gordon, John Steele (1999)
  301. ^ Brooke, Peter A. (2009). A Vision for Venture Capital: Realizing the Promise of Global Venture Capital and Private Equity, p. 59
  302. ^ Robertson, Jeffrey; Funnell, Warwick N. (2012). The Dutch East-India Company and Accounting for Social Capital at the Dawn of Modern Capitalism 1602-1623. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 37 (5). pp. 342-360
  303. ^ Cocks, Doug (2013). Global Overshoot: Contemplating the World's Converging Problems, p. 230
  304. ^ Brook, Timothy (2009)
  305. ^ Israel, Jonathan (1989). Dutch Primacy in World Trade, 1585–1740, p. 409
  306. ^ Arrighi, Giovanni; Silver, Beverly (1999). Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System (Contradictions of Modernity), p. 39
  307. ^ Lachmann, Richard (2000). Capitalists in Spite of Themselves: Elite Conflict and European Transitions in Early Modern Europe, p. 158
  308. ^ Taylor, Peter J. (2002). Dutch Hegemony and Contemporary Globalization (Paper prepared for Political Economy of World-Systems Conference, Riverside, California). This research bulletin has been published in Hegemonic Decline: Present and Past (Political Economy of the World-System Annuals), edited by Christopher Chase-Dunn and Jonathan Friedman (2005)
  309. ^ Wallerstein, Immanuel (2011). The Modern World-System II: Mercantilism and the Consolidation of the European World-Economy, 1600–1750, p. 36
  310. ^ Palumbo-Liu, David; Robbins, Bruce W.; Tanoukhi, Nirvana (2011). Immanuel Wallerstein and the Problem of the World: System, Scale, Culture, p. 28
  311. ^ Lee, Richard E. (2012). The Longue Duree and World-Systems Analysis, p. 65
  312. ^ Sobel, Andrew C. (2012). Birth of Hegemony: Crisis, Financial Revolution, and Emerging Global Networks, p. 54-88
  313. ^  
  314. ^ Kaletsky, Anatole (2010). Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis, p. 109. “In 1602, exploiting their advantage against the declining Spanish and Portuguese maritime powers, the citizens of Holland founded the Dutch East India Company, quickly gaining a monopoly over most of Europe's trade with Asia. This incredible commercial opportunity inspired and financially underpinned the creation in Holland of the first mercantile capitalist nation. This was arguably the most important event in the economic history of the world up to that point.”
  315. ^ Raico, Ralph (1994). The Theory of Economic Development and the European Miracle in The Collapse of Development Planning, edited by Peter J. Boettke, pp. 47-48
  316. ^ Brenner, Reuven (1994). Labyrinths of Prosperity: Economic Follies, Democratic Remedies, p. 51-65
  317. ^  
  318. ^ Sayle, Murray. "Japan goes Dutch". London Riview of Books, Vol. 23 No. 7, 5 April 2001. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  319. ^ Muhlberger, Steve. "Nipissing University -- History 2155 -- Early Modern Europe: The Dutch Miracle". Nipissing University. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  320. ^ Davids, Karel; Lucassen, Jan (1995). A Miracle Mirrored: The Dutch Republic in European Perspective, p. 370
  321. ^ Dingsdale, Alan (2002). Mapping Modernities, p. 8
  322. ^ Babones, Salvatore; Chase-Dunn, Christopher (2012). Routledge Handbook of World-Systems Analysis (Routledge International Handbooks), p. 181-182
  323. ^ Daly, Jonathan (2014). The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization, p. 228-229
  324. ^ Freist, Dagmar (17 Oct 2012). "The Dutch Century (Das niederländische Jahrhundert)". EGO. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  325. ^ Lucas, Sam (23 October 2013). "The Dutch Financial Golden Age". CorporateLiveWire. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  326. ^ Lucas, Sam (1 November 2013). "European Business Travel: Central Europe". CorporateLiveWire. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  327. ^ Brenner, Reuven (1994), p. 57
  328. ^ The preponderance of the Dutch population lived in two provinces, Holland and Zeeland. This area experienced a population explosion between 1500 and 1650, with a growth from 350,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants. Thereafter the growth leveled off, so that the population of the whole country remained at the 2 million level throughout the 18th century; De Vries and Van der Woude, pp. 51–52
  329. ^ At the beginning of the 17th century, England and Wales contained more than four million people. It was about 4 million in 1600 and it grew to about 5 1/2 million by 1700.
  330. ^ a b Gieseking, Jen Jack; Mangold, William; Katz, Cindi; Low, Setha; Saegert, Susan (2014). The People, Place, and Space Reader, p. 151
  331. ^ Steckel, Richard H.; Floud, Roderick (1997). Health and Welfare during Industrialization, p. 332
  332. ^ De Decker, Kris (29 Sep 2011). "Medieval smokestacks: fossil fuels in pre-industrial times". Low-tech Magazine. Retrieved 30 August 2014. 
  333. ^ Wilson, Charles (1968)
  334. ^ Soll, Jacob (2014). The Reckoning: Financial Accountability and the Rise and Fall of Nations, p. 79. As Jacob Soll notes, “of which 20 percent of its [the Dutch Republic's] landmass was below sea level and another 40 percent was exposed to tides and flooding.”
  335. ^ Kaletsky, Anatole (2010). Capitalism 4.0: The Birth of a New Economy in the Aftermath of Crisis, p. 109-110. “The bursting of the tulip bubble in 1637 did not end Dutch economic hegemony. Far from it. Tulipmania was followed by a century of Dutch leadership in almost every branch of global commerce, finance, and manufacturing.”
  336. ^ The business activities around the world by Dutch companies (such as Noordsche Compagnie, Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company) and Dutch merchants (like Louis de Geer) are referred to as the earliest cases of outward foreign direct investment (FDI) in history of world economy.
  337. ^ The Dutch merchants laid the foundations for modern capital markets with the birth of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange in 1602.
  338. ^ Israel, Jonathan Irvine (1990). Dutch Primacy in World Trade, 1585–1740
  339. ^ Cipolla, Carlo (2004). Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy, 1000-1700, p. 200-201. “Whether one looks at the agricultural, commercial, or manufacturing sector, one finds that the Dutch had a genius, if not an obsession, for reducing costs. They succeeded in selling anything to anybody anywhere in the world because they sold it more cheaply than anybody else, and their prices were competitively low because their costs of production were more compressed than elsewhere.”
    “In sacrificing quality for the sake of reducing price, the Dutch departed from a tradition that had prevailed in the Middle Ages and the early Renaissance and heralded a principle which was to prevail in modern times. The medieval merchant had normally tried to maximize profit per unit of production—thus his insistence on high quality. The Dutch, however, made a decisive move toward mass production. In an increasing number of activities they endeavoured to maximize their profit by maximizing the volume of sales... Even Dutch painters produced their masterpieces at low prices and in prolific quantities... Dutch success evoked admiration among some, envy among others, and great interest everywhere. Holland held all Europe fascinated, but more than anyone else their neighbors across the Channel, the English.”
  340. ^ Kraska, James (2011). Maritime Power and the Law of the Sea: Expeditionary Operations in World Politics, p. 50
  341. ^ Rybczynski, Witold (1987)
  342. ^ Bourse. Online Etymology Dictionary
  343. ^ "World's oldest share". The World’s Oldest Share. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  344. ^ "Dutch history student finds world's oldest share". Guinness World Records Limited 2014. 10 Sep 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  345. ^ "Student finds oldest Dutch share". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 10 Sep 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  346. ^ Dunkley, Jamie (11 Sep 2010). "Dutch student finds world's oldest share certificate". Retrieved 30 May 2014. 
  347. ^  
  348. ^ Goetzmann, William N.; Rouwenhorst, K. Geert (2005). The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations that Created Modern Capital Markets, p. 165
  349. ^ Leopold, Les (2009). The Looting of America: How Wall Street's Game of Fantasy Finance Destroyed Our Jobs, Pensions, and Prosperity—and What We Can Do about It, p. 31. “While Italy produced the first transferable government bonds, it didn't develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market: corporate shareholders. The Dutch East India Company, founded in 1602, became the first to offer shares... This buying and selling of shares in the Dutch East India Company became the basis of the first stock market.”
  350. ^ Shorto, Russell (2013). Amsterdam: A History of the World's Most Liberal City. “The truly revolutionary innovation of Amsterdam's stock market lay in the fact that it became the world's first market in the sale of company shares: a secondary securities market. If a company's shares of stock are frozen, its ownership is frozen and the business is a private affair. But if those shares, or derivatives based on them, can be resold, then you have a financial marketplace, which is a kind of living thing, constantly churning. It can then become a means of individual expression and power, allowing for anyone with a few extra coins to play a part in the great economic drama society.”
  351. ^ Brooks, John (1968). “The Fluctuation: The Little Crash in '62” in “Business Adventures: Twelve Classic Tales from the World of Wall Street”. (New York: Weybright & Talley). “What is truly extraordinary is the speed with which this pattern emerged full blown following the establishment, in 1611, of the world’s first important stock exchange — a roofless courtyard in Amsterdam — and the degree to which it persists (with variations, it is true) on the New York Stock Exchange in the nineteen-sixties. Present-day stock trading in the United States — a bewilderingly vast enterprise, involving millions of miles of private telegraph wires, computers that can read and copy the Manhattan Telephone Directory in three minutes, and over twenty million stockholder participants — would seem to be a far cry from a handful of seventeenth-century Dutchmen haggling in the rain. But the field marks are much the same. The first stock exchange was, inadvertently, a laboratory in which new human reactions were revealed. By the same token, the New York Stock Exchange is also a sociological test tube, forever contributing to the human species’ self-understanding. The behaviour of the pioneering Dutch stock traders is ably documented in a book entitled “Confusion of Confusions,” written by a plunger on the Amsterdam market named Joseph de la Vega; originally published in 1688, it was reprinted in English translation a few years ago by the Harvard Business School.”
  352. ^ Petram, Lodewijk (2014). The World's First Stock Exchange (Columbia Business School Publishing)
  353. ^ Reszat, Beate (2005). European Financial Systems in the Global Economy, p. 7
  354. ^ Braudel, Fernand (1982). Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: The Wheels of Commerce, p. 101. “All evidence points to the Mediterranean as the cradle of the stock market. But what was new in Amsterdam was the volume, the fluidity of the market and publicity it received, and the speculative freedom of transactions.”
  355. ^ Poitras, Geoffrey (2013). Commodity Risk Management: Theory and Application, p. 59-83. (New York: Routledge). “The use of the term ‘bourse’ (beurs) is indicative of the historical development, the term being taken from a square in Bruges, named for an inn on the square owned at one time by the van Beurs family, where the Florentines, Genoese and Venetians had their consular houses. This inn was a popular meeting place for foreign merchants. Though exchange trading of derivative securities was yet to come, some essential characteristics of exchange trading are discernible at the beginnings of the bourses: a self-regulating collection of merchants – both brokers and dealers – meeting for the mutual gain of enhanced liquidity... In 1531, Antwerp opened a new exchange building designed exclusively for trading of commodities and bills of exchange... Exchange trading in Amsterdam marks the beginning of the distinction between derivative securities for bulk commodities versus financial assets, in particular shares in joint stock companies... Amsterdam is the first instance in the history of exchange traded derivative securities where the distinction between financial assets and bulk commodities as deliverables assumes importance.”
  356. ^ MacDonald, Scott B.; Gastmann, Albert L. (2001). A History of Credit and Power in the Western World, p. 98
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  358. ^ Israel, Jonathan I. (1989). Dutch Primacy in World Trade, 1585-1740, p. 75
  359. ^ Law, Jonathan (2010). A Dictionary of Accounting, p. 399
  360. ^ Ban, Zoltan (2011). Sustainable Trade: Changing the Environment the Market Operates in, Through Standardized Global Trade Tariffs, p. 219
  361. ^ a b Westbrook, Ian (2014). Strategic Financial and Investor Communication: The Stock Price Story, p. 25
  362. ^ Stringham, Edward (2003). "The Extralegal Development of Securities Trading in Seventeenth Century Amsterdam". Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 43 (2): 321.  
  363. ^ Poitras, Geoffrey (2012). Handbook of Research on Stock Market Globalization (Edward Elgar Publishing Limited), p. 39. “By the end of the seventeenth century a small but relatively sophisticated stock market existed in Amsterdam, and certainly one of sufficient importantance as to be worthy of a description by a contemporary, Joseph de la Vega, in 1688. What emerges from that description is that the main stock traded remained the shares of the Dutch East India Company but the techniques in use included spot and future contracts; call, put and straddle options; margin trading, hedging and short-selling; and the ability to defer both payment and delivery. Such was the level of trust that existed in this market that buying and selling was done for a monthly settlement when the outstanding differences in the money owed were cleared through the debiting and crediting of accounts at the Bank of Amsterdam.”
  364. ^ Hassan, Fabien (2 April 2013). "Lessons from history I: Not so innovative financial innovations". Finance Watch. Retrieved 20 February 2015. 
  365. ^ Giroux, Gary (2013). Business Scandals, Corruption, and Reform: An Encyclopedia [2 volumes], p. 95
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  370. ^ Kuzminski, Adrian (2013). The Ecology of Money: Debt, Growth, and Sustainability, p. 39
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  528. ^ Mead, Walter Russell. "A Conversation with Walter Russell Mead". Random House Inc. Retrieved 14 September 2014. This global system, which I call the ‘maritime system’ because it is based on global trade and sea power, was actually invented by the Dutch almost 400 years ago. Think of this system as the software that runs the global economy. The Dutch introduced version 1.0 in about 1600. The British introduced version 2.0 in 1700 and the United States introduced version 3.0 during World War II. Ever since 1600 the country that sets up the operating system has been the world’s most important power, and that is how I get to the ten letters. The official name for the Netherlands is actually the United Provinces of the Netherlands and Britain is formally known as the United Kingdom. Using these initials gets you a summary of world leadership for 400 years: U.P. to U.K. to U.S. 
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External links

  • Daily Dutch Innovation
  • Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, Episode 6: Travellers' Tales (Documentary TV Series by Carl Sagan):
    • Part 1 (YouTube link)
    • Part 2 (YouTube link)
    • Part 3 (YouTube link)
    • Full (YouTube link)
  • Civilisation, chapter 8/13: The Light of Experience (Documentary TV Series by Kenneth Clark)

Azotobacter (1901)

In 1898 Beijerinck coined the term "virus" to indicate that the causal agent of tobacco mosaic disease was non-bacterial. Beijerinck discovered what is now known as the tobacco mosaic virus. He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing and he called it a contagium vivum fluidum (contagious living fluid). Beijerinck's discovery is considered to be the beginning of virology.[778][779][780][781][782][783][784][785][786][787]

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) symptoms on tobacco. TMV was the first virus to ever be discovered and crystallized. In 1898, Martinus Beijerinck coined the term of "virus" to indicate that the causal agent of tobacco mosaic disease was of non-bacterial nature. This discovery is considered to be the beginning of virology.

Concept of virus (1898)

Martinus Beijerinck discovered the phenomenon of bacterial sulfate reduction, a form of anaerobic respiration. He learned that bacteria could use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor, instead of oxygen. He isolated and described Spirillum desulfuricans (now called Desulfovibrio desulfuricans[777]), the first known sulfate-reducing bacterium.

Spirillum (first isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria) (1895)

Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology under the genus Rhizobium.

Rhizobium (1888)

Biological nitrogen fixation was discovered by Martinus Beijerinck in 1885.

Biological nitrogen fixation (1885)

Volvox (1700)- Volvox is a genus of chlorophytes, a type of green algae. It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells. They live in a variety of freshwater habitats, and were first reported by Van Leeuwenhoek in 1700.