World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

List of space travelers by nationality

Article Id: WHEBN0014308434
Reproduction Date:

Title: List of space travelers by nationality  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Human spaceflight, Comparison of Asian national space programs, List of female astronauts, Exploration, List of Ariane launches
Collection: Astronauts by Nationality, Lists of Astronauts, Lists of Astronauts by Nationality
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

List of space travelers by nationality

Countries whose citizens have flown in space as of March 2011.
Countries capable of manned spaceflight or actively developing the capability.

This is an alphabetical list of space travelers, people who have traveled in space, organized by nationality.

The criteria for determining who has achieved human spaceflight vary. The FAI defines spaceflight as any flight over 100 kilometres (62 mi). In the United States, professional, military, and commercial astronauts who travel above an altitude of 80 kilometres (50 mi) are awarded astronaut wings. The majority of people who have flown into space have done so by entering Earth orbit. This list includes persons meeting all three criteria, in separate subdivisions.

The flags indicate the space traveler's nationality at the time of their flight or flights. In cases of dual citizenship, the space traveler is listed under their primary residence. A secondary list appended to the entry for the Soviet Union. shows the birth countries of space travelers not born in Russia. A similar list after the entry for the United States shows the birth countries of space travelers who are or were citizens of the U.S. but were born elsewhere. Flags shown in the secondary lists are those in use at the time of the space travelers' birth.

Names in italic are space travelers who are not part of any national astronaut program or astronaut corps (Toyohiro Akiyama, Helen Sharman, the Space Adventures customers and the sub-orbital SpaceShipOne pilots).

Except for the SpaceShipOne pilots, all of the space travellers have been crew or participants aboard flights launched by China, the Soviet Union/Russia or the United States.


  • Statistics 1
  • Suborbital space fliers 2
    • United States 2.1
    • Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 2.2
  • Orbital space travelers 3
    • Afghanistan 3.1
    • Brazil 3.2
    • Bulgaria 3.3
    • Canada 3.4
    • China 3.5
    • Cuba 3.6
    • Czechoslovakia 3.7
    • European Space Agency members 3.8
      • Austria 3.8.1
      • Belgium 3.8.2
      • France 3.8.3
      • Germany 3.8.4
      • Italy 3.8.5
      • Netherlands 3.8.6
      • Poland 3.8.7
      • Romania 3.8.8
      • Spain 3.8.9
      • Sweden 3.8.10
      • Switzerland 3.8.11
      • United Kingdom 3.8.12
    • Hungary 3.9
    • India 3.10
    • Israel 3.11
    • Japan 3.12
    • Malaysia 3.13
    • Mexico 3.14
    • Mongolia 3.15
    • Russia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 3.16
      • A 3.16.1
      • B 3.16.2
      • D 3.16.3
      • F 3.16.4
      • G 3.16.5
      • I 3.16.6
      • K 3.16.7
      • L 3.16.8
      • M 3.16.9
      • N 3.16.10
      • O 3.16.11
      • P 3.16.12
      • R 3.16.13
      • S 3.16.14
      • T 3.16.15
      • U 3.16.16
      • V 3.16.17
      • Y 3.16.18
      • Z 3.16.19
      • Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia 3.16.20
        • Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. / Azerbaijan
        • Byelorussian S.S.R. / Belarus
        • Georgian S.S.R. / Georgia
        • Kazakh S.S.R. / Kazakhstan
        • Kirghiz S.S.R. / Kyrgyzstan
        • Latvian S.S.R. / Latvia
        • Turkmen S.S.R. / Turkmenistan
        • Ukrainian S.S.R. / Ukraine
        • Uzbek S.S.R. / Uzbekistan
    • Saudi Arabia 3.17
    • Slovakia 3.18
    • South Africa 3.19
    • South Korea 3.20
    • Syria 3.21
    • Ukraine 3.22
    • United States 3.23
      • Non-NASA space travelers 3.23.1
      • NASA astronauts 3.23.2
        • A
        • B
        • C
        • D
        • E
        • F
        • G
        • H
        • I
        • J
        • K
        • L
        • M
        • N
        • O
        • P
        • R
        • S
        • T
        • V
        • W
        • Y
        • Z
      • Americans born abroad 3.23.3
      • Naturalized Americans 3.23.4
    • Vietnam 3.24
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5


As of September 26, 2013, people from 35 countries have traveled in space.[1] 536 people have reached Earth orbit. 539 have reached the altitude of space according to the FAI definition of the boundary of space, and 545 people have reached the altitude of space according to the American definition. Only 24 people have traveled beyond low Earth orbit.

Of the 35 countries whose citizens have traveled into Earth orbit, 24 have only flown a single space traveler. Over 94% of all space travelers have been contributed by the following eight nations:

 United States
334 (62.31%)
117 (21.83%)
11 (2.05%)
10 (1.87%)
9 (1.68%)
9 (1.68%)
9 (1.68%)
7 (1.31%)
- Other countries
30 (5.60%)

1 Includes 61 Soviet cosmonauts and 11 cosmonauts who flew for both Russia and the Soviet Union.
2 Includes both national space programme activity and European Space Agency participation.
3 Includes astronauts from the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic.

Suborbital space fliers

United States

The following persons flew or were launched into the upper atmosphere, above 100 km, which counts as a space flight by FAI guidelines:

The following persons flew into the upper atmosphere between 80 and 100 km, which counts as space flight by United States guidelines:

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

The Soviet Union never launched a spaceflight intended as suborbital. The following persons were launched aboard Soyuz 18a, intended as orbital, but which was forced to abort before reaching orbit, after reaching suborbital space.[2]

Orbital space travelers





  1. Roberta Bondar, first Canadian woman in space. — STS-42
  2. Marc Garneau, first Canadian in space. — STS-41-G, STS-77, STS-97
  3. Chris Hadfield, first Canadian to walk in space. — STS-74, STS-100, Soyuz TMA-07M
  4. Guy Laliberté, space tourist — Soyuz TMA-16/14
  5. Steven MacLeanSTS-52, STS-115
  6. Julie PayetteSTS-96, STS-127
  7. Robert ThirskSTS-78, Soyuz TMA-15
  8. Bjarni Tryggvason, born in Iceland — STS-85
  9. Dafydd WilliamsSTS-90, STS-118


  1. Fei JunlongShenzhou 6
  2. Jing HaipengShenzhou 7, Shenzhou 9
  3. Liu BomingShenzhou 7
  4. Liu WangShenzhou 9
  5. Liu Yang, first Chinese woman in space — Shenzhou 9
  6. Nie HaishengShenzhou 6, Shenzhou 10
  7. Wang YapingShenzhou 10
  8. Yang Liwei, first Chinese national in space — Shenzhou 5
  9. Zhang XiaoguanShenzhou 10
  10. Zhai Zhigang, first Chinese national to walk in space — Shenzhou 7



European Space Agency members

Some of these astronauts participated in national space programme activity unrelated to their home country's contemporary or subsequent membership of the European Space Agency.












United Kingdom

Additionally, Michael Foale, born in England to a British father and American mother and a dual citizen of the United Kingdom and the United States, and was raised and educated in England; however, he is a member of NASA's Astronaut Corps and flew as an American.[4]








Russia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

The Soviet space program came under the control of the Russian Federation in December 1991; the new program, now called the Russian Federal Space Agency, retained continuity of equipment and personnel with the Soviet program. While all Soviet and RKA cosmonauts were born within the borders of the U.S.S.R., many were born outside the boundaries of Russia, and may be claimed by other Soviet successor states as nationals of those states. These cosmonauts are marked with an asterisk * and their place of birth is shown in an appended list. All, however, claimed Soviet or Russian citizenship at the time of their space flights.




















Soviet and Russian cosmonauts born outside Russia

All of the locations below were part of the former U.S.S.R. at the time of the cosmonauts' birth.

Azerbaidzhan S.S.R. / Azerbaijan
Byelorussian S.S.R. / Belarus
Kazakh S.S.R. / Kazakhstan
Kirghiz S.S.R. / Kyrgyzstan
Latvian S.S.R. / Latvia
Turkmen S.S.R. / Turkmenistan
Ukrainian S.S.R. / Ukraine
Uzbek S.S.R. / Uzbekistan

Saudi Arabia


South Africa

South Korea



United States

* Asterisked space travelers were born outside the United States

Non-NASA space travelers

NASA astronauts

^ still on active service

Nancy Sherlock – see Nancy Currie

Americans born abroad

Naturalized Americans


See also


  1. ^ Other WorldHeritage articles count Talgat Musabayev as a Kazakh and Anousheh Ansari as an Iranian-American dual citizen; they may also consider Russia and the Soviet Union, or East, West, and united Germany as distinct countries.
  2. ^ "Soyuz 18-1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  3. ^ EVA-22: Cassidy and Parmitano complete ISS spacewalk July 9, 2013
  4. ^ "Astronaut Michael Foale retires from Nasa". BBC News. 10 August 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.