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History of the Caucasus

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Title: History of the Caucasus  
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Subject: Caucasus, Western Asia, Khazar University Department of History and Archaeology, Eastern Europe, History of the Caucasus
Collection: Caucasus, Eastern Europe, History of the Caucasus, Western Asia
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History of the Caucasus

Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia, completed in 303 AD, UNESCO World Heritage Site, religious centre of the Armenia.
Palace of the Shirvanshahs in Azerbaijan, completed in 13th or 14th century AD, UNESCO World Heritage Site.

One can divide the history of the Armenia), in the sphere of influence of Persia, Anatolia and for a very brief time Assyria.

Up to including the early 19th century, the Southern Caucasus and a part of the Northern Caucasus (Dagestan) all formed part of the Persian Empire. In 1813 and 1828 by the Treaty of Gulistan and the Treaty of Turkmenchay respectively, the Persians were forced to irrevocably cede the Southern Caucasus and Dagestan to Imperial Russia.[1] Russia conquered and annexed the rest of the Northern Caucasus in the course of the 19th century in the Caucasian Wars (1817–1864).

The Northern Caucasus became the scene of intense fighting during the Second World War. Nazi Germany attempted to capture the Caucasus region from Soviet control in 1942 by a two-pronged attack towards both the western bank of the Volga (intending to seize the city of Stalingrad) and by a drive southeast towards Baku, a major center of oil production. The Nazis intended to establish a Reichskommissariat Kaukasus to control the Caucasian territories of the Soviet Union. Considerable parts of the northern Caucasus fell under German occupation, but the invasion eventually faltered as it failed to accomplish either goal, and Soviet soldiers drove the Germans back west following the Battle of Stalingrad (1942–1943).

Following the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994), the Ossetian-Ingush conflict (1989–1991), the War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), the First Chechen War (1994–1996), and the Second Chechen War (1999–2009).


  • Prehistory 1
    • Stone Age 1.1
    • Bronze Age 1.2
    • Iron Age 1.3
  • Classical Antiquity 2
  • Middle Ages 3
  • Modern history 4
  • See also 5
  • Further reading 6
  • References 7


Stone Age

Bronze Age

Iron Age

Classical Antiquity

Georgian (Iberian) flag in 4th–6th centuries
Georgian Kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia 600BC-150BC

Middle Ages

George IV of Georgia (1184–1223).

Modern history

Karte des Kaukasischen Isthmus. Entworfen und gezeichnet von J. Grassl, 1856.
Poster from Russian civil war period

See also

Further reading

  • Asmus, Ronald. A Little War that Shook the World : Georgia, Russia, and the Future of the West. NYU (2010). ISBN 978-0-230-61773-5
  • de Waal, Thomas. Black Garden. NYU (2003). ISBN 0-8147-1945-7
  • Gasimov, Zaur: "The Caucasus", European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: November 18, 2011.
  • Goltz, Thomas. Azerbaijan Diary : A Rogue Reporter's Adventures in an Oil-Rich, War-Torn, Post-Soviet Republic. M E Sharpe (1998). ISBN 0-7656-0244-X
  • Goltz, Thomas. Chechnya Diary : A War Correspondent's Story of Surviving the War in Chechnya. M E Sharpe (2003). ISBN 0-312-268-74-2
  • Goltz, Thomas. Georgia Diary : A Chronicle of War and Political Chaos in the Post-Soviet Caucasus. Thomas Dunne Books (2003). ISBN 0-7656-1710-2
  • Shapi, Kaziev. Caucasian highlanders (Повседневная жизнь горцев Cеверного Кавказа в XIX в.). Everyday life of the Caucasian highlanders. 19th century (In the co-authorship with I.Karpeev). "Molodaya Gvardiy" publishers. Moscow, 2003. ISBN 5-235-02585-7


  1. ^ Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-730 ABC-CLIO, 2 dec. 2014. ISBN 978-1598849486
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