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Cyber spying

Cyber spying, or cyber espionage, is the act or practice of obtaining secrets without the permission of the holder of the information (personal, sensitive, proprietary or of classified nature), from individuals, competitors, rivals, groups, governments and enemies for personal, economic, political or military advantage using methods on the Internet, networks or individual computers through the use of cracking techniques and malicious software including Trojan horses and spyware.[1][2] It may wholly be perpetrated online from computer desks of professionals on bases in far away countries or may involve infiltration at home by computer trained conventional spies and moles or in other cases may be the criminal handiwork of amateur malicious hackers and software programmers.[1]

Cyber spying typically involves the use of such access to secrets and classified information or control of individual computers or whole networks for a strategic advantage and for psychological, political and physical subversion activities and sabotage.[3] More recently, cyber spying involves analysis of public activity on social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter.[4]

Such operations, like non-cyber espionage, are typically illegal in the victim country while fully supported by the highest level of government in the aggressor country. The ethical situation likewise depends on one's viewpoint, particularly one's opinion of the governments involved.[3]

In response to reports of cyber spying by China against the United States, Amitai Etzioni of the Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies has suggested that China and the United States should agree to a policy of mutually assured restraint with respect to cyberspace. This would involve allowing both states to take the measures they deem necessary for their self-defense while simultaneously agreeing to refrain from taking offensive steps or engaging in cyber espionage; it would also entail vetting these commitments.[5]


  • See also 1
  • References 2
  • Sources 3
  • External links 4

See also


  1. ^ a b "Cyber Espionage". PC Magazine. 
  2. ^ "Cyberspying". Techopedia. 
  3. ^ a b Messmer, Ellen. "Cyber Espionage: A Growing Threat to Business". Retrieved Jan 21, 2008. 
  4. ^ Five ways the government spies on you
  5. ^ Etzioni, Amitai, "MAR: A Model for US-China Relations," The Diplomat, September 20, 2013, [1].


  • Bill Schiller, Asia Bureau (Apr 1, 2009), "Chinese ridicule U of T spy report - But government officials choose words carefully, never denying country engages in cyber-espionage",  
  • Kelly, Cathal (Mar 31, 2009), "Cyberspies' code a click away - Simple Google search quickly finds link to software for Ghost Rat program used to target governments",  
  • All about Chinese cyber spying, ( 
  • Cooper, Alex (March 30, 2009), "We can lead in cyber spy war, sleuth says; Toronto investigator helped expose hacking of embassies, NATO",  
  • Chinese-based cyber spy network exposes need for better security: Cdn researchers, Yahoo News Canada, March 30, 2009, retrieved 2009-03-31 
  • Steve Herman (30 March 2009), Exiled Tibetan Government Expresses Concern over Cyber-Spying Traced to China, New Delhi:, retrieved 2009-03-31 
  • "Chinese government accused of cyber spying",  
  • Patrick Goodenough, International Editor (March 30, 2009), China Rejects Cyber Spying Allegations; ‘Dalai Lama Propaganda’,, retrieved 2009-03-31 
  • Harvey, Mike (March 29, 2009), World's biggest cyber spy network' snoops on classified documents in 103 countries"'",  
  • Major cyber spy network uncovered,  
  • SciTech Cyber spy network 'smoking gun' for China: expert, CTV Canada, March 29, 2009, retrieved 2009-03-30 
  • Kim Covert (March 28, 2009), "Canadian researchers uncover vast Chinese cyber spy network",  
  • US warned of China 'cyber-spying',  
  • Mark Hosenball (June 2, 2008), "Intelligence - Cyber-Spying for Dummies",  
  • Walton, Gregory (April 2008). "Year of the Gh0st RAT". World Association of Newspapers. Retrieved 2009-04-01. 
  • German court limits cyber spying, BBC News, 27 February 2008 
  • Rowan Callick; Jane Macartney (December 7, 2007), "Chinese fury at cyber spy claims",  

External links

  • Congress to Investigate Google Charges Of Chinese Internet Spying (AHN)
  • Information Warfare Monitor - Tracking Cyberpower (University of Toronto, Canada/Munk Centre)
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