World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Boomzap Entertainment

Article Id: WHEBN0025699398
Reproduction Date:

Title: Boomzap Entertainment  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Awakening (game series), Antique Road Trip, GCA Games Convention Asia, Casual games, Puzzle video game
Collection: Casual Games, Companies Established in 2005, Video Game Development Companies
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Boomzap Entertainment

Boomzap Entertainment
Type Private
Industry Video game industry
Casual games
Founded Singapore and United States of America (2005 (2005))
Key people Allan Simonsen
Christopher Natsuume
Products Video games (Casual games)
Puzzle games
Hidden object games
Adventure games
Employees 75 (October 2014)
Website www.boomzap.com

Boomzap Entertainment is a casual games developer based in Singapore. It was formed in 2005 and has released 40 games to date that are ported on various platforms. Boomzap has developed for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Nintendo DS, Wii, iOS, and Android. Its games are available on casual games portals such as Big Fish Games, Reflexive Entertainment, Oberon Media, Yahoo!, WildTangent, GameHouse, Google Play, Amazon, iTunes, and others.

Boomzap is known in the game industry for being one of the few companies to use a pure virtual office environment.[1][2] Articles have been written on the subject in the Casual Games Association Magazine and Gamasutra regarding their prototyping methods.[3] A feature article on Gamasutra was released on April 1, 2010 that further elaborated Boomzap's "quick and dirty" production process for making games.[4]

Contents

  • Facts and Numbers 1
  • History 2
  • List of Games (in chronological order) 3
    • Jelly Boom 3.1
    • Magic Lanterns 3.2
    • Hoyle Enchanted Puzzles 3.3
    • Jewels of Cleopatra series 3.4
    • Zen Fashion 3.5
    • Orchard 3.6
    • Frogs In Love 3.7
    • Passport to Paradise 3.8
    • Pirates Plund-Arrr 3.9
    • Awakening series 3.10
    • Antique Road Trip series 3.11
    • Dana Knightstone series 3.12
    • Otherworld series 3.13
    • Zaptales: Interactive Fairy Tales 3.14
    • Botanica series 3.15
    • Brain Curve 3.16
    • Emberwing: Lost Legacy 3.17
    • Boomzap Casino Games 3.18
    • Boomzap Fight Club 3.19
      • Pillage People 3.19.1
      • Super Awesome Quest 3.19.2
    • Rescue Quest 3.20
  • Community and Industry Involvement 4
  • Awards and Recognitions 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Facts and Numbers

  • Founders: 2 (Allan Simonsen and Christopher Natsuume)
  • Games released to date: 40
  • Languages developed in: 11 (English, French, Italian, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Swedish, Korean, Japanese, Mandarin)
  • Platforms developed on: 5 (PC, Mac, Wii, iOS, Android)
  • Staff members: 75(including founders)
  • Countries developing in: 9 (Japan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Russia, Thailand, Ukraine, Pakistan, and the Philippines)

History

Boomzap was founded in 2005 by Christopher Natsuume and Allan Simonsen. Natsuume, the company's Creative Director was formerly lead producer for Far Cry at Crytek. Simonsen serves as the company's Technical Director and worked on the Spider-Man game for the Nokia N-Gage. Boomzap Entertainment is composed of two legal entities: Boomzap Inc. in the state of Washington, USA and Boomzap Pte. Ltd. in Singapore. Both companies are private corporations owned by Natsuume and Simonsen.

As of October 2014, the company employs 75 game developers working out of Japan, Singapore, Russia, Ukraine, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines.

List of Games (in chronological order)

Year Title Publisher Platform/s
2006 Jellyboom Big Fish Games, Boonty, Double Games Microsoft Windows
2006 Magic Lanterns Boomzap Entertainment Microsoft Windows
2006 Jewels of Cleopatra Encore, Inc. Microsoft Windows, iPhone, iPad
2008 Hoyle Enchanted Puzzles Encore, Inc. Microsoft Windows
2008 Zen Fashion Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows
2008 Jewels of Cleopatra 2: Aztec Mysteries Encore, Inc. Microsoft Windows
2009 Orchard Majesco Microsoft Windows
2009 Frogs in Love Big Fish Games, Oberon, PlayFirst, Pogo, WildGames Microsoft Windows
2009 Passport to Paradise Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows
2010 Pirates Plund-Arrr Majesco Wii
2010 Awakening: The Dreamless Castle Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2010 Antique Road Trip: USA Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad, Android
2010 Awakening: Moonfell Wood Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2010 Death at Fairing Point: A Dana Knightstone Novel Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2011 Antique Road Trip 2: Homecoming Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad, Android
2011 Awakening: The Goblin Kingdom Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2011 Death Under Tuscan Skies: A Dana Knightstone Novel Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2012 Otherworld: Spring of Shadows Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2012 ZapTales Boomzap Entertainment iPhone, iPad
2012 Awakening: The Skyward Castle Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2012 Botanica: Into the Unknown Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2012 Death Upon An Austrian Sonata: A Dana Knightstone Novel Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2013 Otherworld: Omens of Summer Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2013 Awakening: The Sunhook Spire Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2013 Brain Curve Boomzap Entertainment iPhone, iPad
2013 Antique Road Trip: American Dreamin' Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, iPad
2013 Otherworld: Shades of Fall Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, iPhone, iPad
2013 Death at Cape Porto: A Dana Knightstone Novel Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X
2013 Botanica: Earthbound Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X
2013 Awakening Kingdoms Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, iPhone, iPad
2014 Emberwing: Lost Legacy Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X
2014 Awakening: The Redleaf Forest Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X
2014 The Claw Boomzap Entertainment iPhone, iPad
2014 Doors of Fate Boomzap Entertainment iPhone, iPad
2014 Gladiator Fight Boomzap Entertainment iPhone, iPad
2014 Death and Betrayal in Romania: A Dana Knightstone Novel Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X
2014 Pillage People Boomzap Entertainment iPhone, iPad, Android
2014 Super Awesome Quest Boomzap Entertainment iPhone, iPad, Android
2014 Awakening: The Golden Age Big Fish Games Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X
2014 Rescue Quest Chillingo iPhone, iPad

Jelly Boom

Jelly Boom is Boomzap's first game, and it was released on February 14, 2006.[5] Jelly Boom is a block puzzle game, wherein you combine blocks of similar colors and eliminate them when a detonator falls unto the blocks.[5] Jelly Boom was published online by publishers like Big Fish Games, Boonty, and Double Games. It also reached #1 on Boonty's Top Games chart.[6]

Magic Lanterns

"Magic Lanterns" was first released in June 13, 2006. Magic Lanterns is a casual puzzle game where you have to click on a group of lanterns to clear them. The lanterns in most game modes refill the screen, so when lanterns are cleared, there are new ones. The more lanterns you clear, the higher your score. The game has different game modes, which has different mechanics: Lantern Quest, Perfect Mode, Panic Mode, and Puzzle Mode.

Hoyle Enchanted Puzzles

In 2007, Boomzap released the game Hoyle Enchanted Puzzles, also published by Encore, Inc. Hoyle Enchanted Puzzles is a collection of nine different puzzle mini-games in a light fantasy theme. It placed in the iWin's Top 100 chart, peaking at #3 and staying within the Top 10 for 21 days.[7] According to a review by Jayisgames, Hoyle Enchanted Puzzles is "A solid collection of puzzles built into a lasting and interesting new whole."[8] Gamezebo gave the game 4 out of 5 stars in its review, stating that "while the puzzle themes will be immediately familiar to casual games, the developer added enough of a new twist to most of these digital diversions to keep us glued to the PC for hours."[9]

Jewels of Cleopatra series

Jewels of Cleopatra

Boomzap developed the tile-matching puzzle series, Jewels of Cleopatra (released in 2007) under publisher Encore, Inc. Gamezebo gave 3.5 of out 5 stars to the original Jewels of Cleopatra, stating "What it all adds up to is a well-made, enjoyable gem-matching romp in full Egyptian garb.".[10]

Jewels of Cleopatra 2: Aztec Mysteries

Jewels of Cleopatra 2: Aztec Mysteries was released in 2008, developed by Boomzap under publisher Encore, Inc.. It gave the same rating of 3.5 stars to the sequel, noting that "Armchair adventurers who enjoy Match-3 games will no doubt enjoy clicking through the story-heavy Jewels of Cleopatra 2: Aztec Mysteries."[11]

Zen Fashion

On May 21, 2008, Zen Fashion was released on Big Fish Games and other casual game portals.[12] Zen Fashion is a drag-matching Match-3 type puzzle game.

Orchard

In 2007, Boomzap received funding from the Media Development Authority of Singapore to create a game demo for the game Orchard, which was later signed by Majesco.[13] The game was released in January 2009.[14] It also ranked #1 on Amazon.com, Arcade Town and PlayFirst.[15]

Frogs In Love

Boomzap released Frogs In Love on April 15, 2009.[16] You play the role of a frog who falls in love with a beautiful female frog, Jasmine. But to win her heart, you have to prove yourself by winning challenges at the Flower Festival. It is a puzzle game with 13 different kinds of puzzles. Frogs In Love was published on portals such as Big Fish Games, Oberon, PlayFirst, Pogo, WildGames.[17]

Passport to Paradise

On December 24, 2009, Passport to Paradise was released by iWin[1]. The game peaked at #4 on the Top 10 Games on iWin's portal, and was the #1 Tycoon game on iWin for the same week.[18]

Pirates Plund-Arrr

On January 7, 2010, Majesco announced Pirates Plund-Arrr, a Nintendo Wii game being developed by Boomzap Entertainment. It was scheduled for release in April 2010,[19][20] and was eventually released in May 2010.[21]

Awakening series

Awakening is a game franchise in the hidden object puzzle adventure genre published exclusively by Big Fish Games. It is available on PC, Mac, as well as iPhone and iPad platforms. The first game, Awakening: The Dreamless Castle, was originally released on February 14, 2010.[22] As of November 2014, Awakening consists of eight titles, seven of which are full, downloadable games while one is a free-to-play version.

Awakening: The Redleaf Forest is the sixth and final installment in Queen Sophia's adventures released on May 31, 2014.[23] A seventh title, Awakening: The Golden Age was released on November 1, 2014 to serve as a prequel to the series.[24]

Awakening Kingdoms is a stand-alone game that is not meant to replace the adventure series, but serves as "an endless game world that players can continuously explore and enjoy".[25]

As of August 2014, games from the Awakening series have been downloaded over 17 million times on PC, Mac and mobile devices.[26]

Antique Road Trip series

Antique Road Trip is a game series in the hidden object genre, with puzzles and different minigames. As of September 2013, Boomzap has released three Antique Road Trip games, all published exclusively by Big Fish Games and available on PC, Mac, iPhone, iPad ad Android platforms.

After Antique Road Trip: USA and Antique Road Trip 2: Homecoming follows the latest installment Antique Road Trip: American Dreamin, the first free-to-play game developed by Boomzap. It was released on September 25, 2013.[27]

Dana Knightstone series

Dana Knightstone is a series of hidden object games with a mystery novel storyline published exclusively by Big Fish Games. It is available on PC, Mac, iPhone and iPad platforms. The franchise draws it title from the main character, Dana Knightstone, a fiction writer who can see ghosts.[28]

As of August 2014, there are five games in the series: Death at Fairing Point: A Dana Knightstone Novel, Death Under Tuscan Skies: A Dana Knightstone Novel, Death Upon an Austrian Sonata: A Dana Knightstone Novel, Death at Cape Porto: A Dana Knightstone Novel, and Death and Betrayal in Romania: A Dana Knightstone Novel.[29]

Otherworld series

Otherworld is a hidden object adventure game series with a dark fantasy theme. Fiona, a young girl with magical powers, was abducted by a dark and menacing creature.

Otherworld: Spring of Shadows was the first game to be released on January 23, 2012.[30] The sequel, Otherworld: Omens of Summer, was released on February 4, 2013. Both are published exclusively by Big Fish Games. The games are available on PC, Mac, iPhone and iPad platforms.

Otherworld: Shades of Fall is the third installment published exclusively by Big Fish Games. It was released on October 17, 2013 for both PC and Mac,[31] then for iPad and iPhone on November 5, 2014.[32]

Zaptales: Interactive Fairy Tales

In 2012, an interactive story book app called ZapTales: Interactive Fairy Tales was developed by Boomzap and published by Big Fish Games.[33] It can be downloaded for free on iPhone and iPad platforms with in-app purchases for additional content. Aside from virtual books, minigames and puzzles were also available. The fairy tales were adapted from the works of Hans Christian Andersen, Brothers Grimm and Charles Perrault. Boomzap also added its own educational books. According to a reviewer, the "sweet graphics, sounds and animations, professional narration, simple navigation" made it an enjoyable and quality game."[34]

Botanica series

Botanica is a series of casual hidden object puzzle adventure games published exclusively by Big Fish Games. It is a combination of fantasy and science fiction with versions available on PC, Mac, iPhone and iPad.

Botanica: Into the Unknown was the first game to be released on October 22, 2012. The sequel entitled Botanica: Earthbound was launched on December 14, 2013.

Brain Curve

On May 19, 2013, Boomzap released the freemium game Brain Curve for iPhone and iPad devices.[35] It is an educational puzzle game that allows players to check their brain skills and compare their scores with friends in various minigames.[36]

Emberwing: Lost Legacy

On March 15, 2014, Boomzap launched Emberwing: Lost Legacy Collector's Edition, a brand new hidden object puzzle adventure game set in a magical world filled with dragons.[37] It was released exclusively on Big Fish Games for PC and Mac platforms.[38] All About Casual Game gave it a rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars, describing it as "one of Boomzap's finest products" because of its "stellar production, superior graphics and well-exquisite gameplay."[39]

Boomzap Casino Games

On July 24, 2014, Boomzap released mini casino games with real money betting powered by the b Spot platform.[40] All three games have two modes where players can "Play for Cash or Play for Fun".[41] These are available only in the United States for the iPhone and iPad platforms.

The Claw is a simulation game of a standard claw machine. Players have the chance to get rare prizes or common items, complete puzzles and unlock unique claw machines and backgrounds.[42]

Doors of Fate is a probability puzzle game based on luck and intuition wherein players must choose one of three doors and encounter obstacles or win treasure. There are also different doors and backtgrounds to collect.[43]

Gladiator Fight is fast-paced fighting game with simple, easy-tap combat wherein two gladiators battle inside an arena. Players can customize their gladiator and unlock hundreds of collectibles.[44]

Boomzap Fight Club

On October 2014, Boomzap announced a new brand called Boomzap Fight Club to house its free-to-play, mobile-first strategy games.[45]

Pillage People

Pillage People is a real-time strategy game for iOS and Android devices.[46]

Super Awesome Quest

Super Awesome Quest is a fantasy adventure role-playing game with collectible card game style combat available on iOS and Android devices.[47]

Rescue Quest

On November 25, 2014, Boomzap launched Rescue Quest for the iPhone and iPad under publisher Chillingo. It is a scrollable, path-based match-3 puzzle game with a fantasy storyline, featuring two magical apprentices on a mission to save fairy-like creatures called Spritelings from an evil sorcerer.[48]

Community and Industry Involvement

On February 2014, Boomzap launched its own forums as a place where players can get updates, technical support and various game content.[49] Fans can interact directly with the game developers, share feedback and access behind-the-scenes information about the games. A sub-forum is also added for purposes of beta testing.[50]

Boomzap also has an active presence in worldwide independent game development industry. Founders Natsuume and Simonsen, as well as other members of the studio, speak at conferences around the world such as Game Connection,[51] Casual Connect,[52] Game Developers Conference, and Global Mobile Game Developers Conference,[53] and help coordinate the different chapters of the International Game Developers Association.[54] Most recently, Boomzap has participated in the Manila site of the Global Game Jam.[55]

Awards and Recognitions

Aside from rankings in top downloads charts, Boomzap games have also been nominated and awarded in several websites and institutions such as All About Casual Game,[56] Big Fish Games,[57] Casual Gameplay,[58] Game Developers Association of the Philippines,[59] and The Straits Times.[60]
Title Award/s
Awakening: The Goblin Kingdom Best Hidden Object Game (Casual Gameplay 2011)
Best Story (Big Fish Games 2011)
Greatest Games of All Time (All About Casual Game)
Awakening: The Skyward Castle Best Adventure (Big Fish Games 2012)
#5 Best Hidden Object Adventure (Casual Gameplay 2012)
Best Visuals nominee (All About Casual Game 2012)
Best-Selling Games (All About Casual Game 2012)
Editor's Picks (All About Casual Game 2012)
Awakening: The Sunhook Spire #3 Game of the Year (Big Fish Games 2013)
Best Adventure Game nominee (All About Casual Game 2013)
Best Made-in-Singapore Game nominee (Digital Life Awards 2014)
Botanica: Into the Unknown #2 Best Concept (All About Casual Game 2012)
Death Upon an Austrian Sonata: A Dana Knightstone Novel #2 Best Story (Big Fish Games 2012)
Best Story nominee (All About Casual Game Best of 2012)
Greatest Games of All Time (All About Casual Game)
Otherworld: Spring of Shadows #3 Best Visuals (All About Casual Game 2012)
Best-Selling Games finalist (All About Casual Game 2012)
Editor's Picks finalist (All About Casual Game 2012)
Greatest Games of All Time (All About Casual Game)
Otherworld: Omens of Summer Best Adventure Game nominee (All About Casual Game 2013)
Best Sequel nominee (All About Casual Game 2013)
Editor's Picks (All About Casual Game 2013)
Pillage People Best Narrative (Philippine Game Festival 2014)
Best Game Art finalist (Philippine Game Festival 2014)
Best Gameplay finalist (Philippine Game Festival 2014)
Best Mobile Handheld Game finalist (Philippine Game Festival 2014)
Game of the Year finalist (Philippine Game Festival 2014)
Super Awesome Quest Best Game Art finalist (Philippine Game Festival 2014)
Best Sound Design finalist (Philippine Game Festival 2014)
Game of the Year finalist (Philippine Game Festival 2014)

References

  1. ^ Working Nowhere and Everywhere: The Zen of Running a Mobile, Virtual Game Development Studio from CasualConnect.org
  2. ^ The Top 5 Practices of Running a Virtual Game Studio on Gamesauce
  3. ^ "In-Depth: Ugly, Quick, And Dirty - The Power of Working Fast" from Gamasutra
  4. ^ "Quick and Dirty Prototyping: A Success Story - from Gamasutra"
  5. ^ a b "Jellyboom for Windows (2006)" from Moby Games
  6. ^ "Jelly Boom Detail" on CasualCharts.com
  7. ^ "Hoyle Enchanged Puzzles detail" on CasualCharts.com
  8. ^ "Hoyle Enchanted Puzzles" from Jay Is Games
  9. ^ "Hoyle Enchanted Puzzles Review" from Gamezebo
  10. ^ "Jewels of Cleopatra Review" from Gamezebo
  11. ^ "Jewels of Cleopatra 2: Aztec Mysteries Review" from Gamezebo
  12. ^ "Zen Fashion Game" on Big Fish Games
  13. ^ "Boomzap received funding to complete a game demo which was picked up by game publisher Majesco." on Singapore Media Fusion
  14. ^ "Majesco Entertainment Announces Orchard For The PC Is Now Available" on GameSpy
  15. ^ "Orchard Detail" on CasualCharts.com
  16. ^ "Frogs in Love for Windows (2009)" on Moby Games
  17. ^ "Frogs in Love Detail" on Casual Charts
  18. ^ "Passport to Paradise Detail" on Casual Charts
  19. ^ "Majesco Entertainment Announces 'Pirates Plund-Arrr' for Wii(TM)" on PR Newswire
  20. ^ "Pirates Plundarrr sailing Wii-ward this April" on Joystiq
  21. ^ "Pirates PludArrr" on Gamespot
  22. ^ "Awakening: The Dreamless Castle" on Big Fish Games
  23. ^ "Awakening: The Redleaf Forest" on Big Fish Games
  24. ^ ]"NEW on PC: Awakening: The Golden Age Collector's Edition - November 1, 2014" on Boomzap
  25. ^ "Awakening Kingdoms, One of Big Fish's Most Popular Hidden Object Series Now Offers an Endless Game World for Free" on The Sacramento Bee.
  26. ^ "Awakening Kingdoms is now available on Mobile Devices" on Big Fish Games.
  27. ^ "Antique Road Trip: American Dreamin'" on Big Fish Games
  28. ^ "Death At Fairing Point: A Dana Knightstone Novel Collector’s Edition" on Boomzap
  29. ^ "Death and Betrayal in Romania: A Dana Knightstone Novel Collector's Edition" on Boomzap
  30. ^ "Otherworld: Spring of Shadows" on Big Fish Games
  31. ^ "Otherworld: Shades of Fall Collector's Edition" on Big Fish Games
  32. ^ "New on iPad/iPhone: Otherworld: Shades of Fall - November 5, 2014 on Boomzap Entertainment
  33. ^ "Zaptales: Interactive Fairy Tales" on Boomzap
  34. ^ "Zap Tales: Interactive Fairytales: Free, Fun, Activities!" on Crazy Mike's Apps
  35. ^ "Brain Curve" on Boomzap
  36. ^ "How to Play | Game Basics - Braincurve!"
  37. ^ "Emberwing: Lost Legacy Collector's Edition" on Boomzap.com
  38. ^ "Emberwing: Lost Legacy Collector's Edition" on Big Fish Games
  39. ^ "Emberwing: Lost Legacy - Review" on All About Casual Game
  40. ^ Boomzap Bets on iOS Real Money Gambling on Gamezebo/.
  41. ^ Boomzap Casino Games on Boomzap.com
  42. ^ The Claw on Boomzap.com
  43. ^ Doors of Fate on Boomzap.com
  44. ^ Gladiator Fight on Boomzap.com
  45. ^ "Let’s talk about Fight Club, Boomzap Entertainment’s latest brand" on Games in Asia
  46. ^ "Pillage People" on Boomzap
  47. ^ "Super Awesome Quest" on Boomzap
  48. ^ "Spellbinding Puzzler Rescue Quest Out Now on the App Store" on Gamasutra
  49. ^ "Welcome! Please read the rules before posting" on Boomzap.com.
  50. ^ "Beta News!" on Boomzap.com
  51. ^ "Christopher Natsuume on the cold, hard truth" on Pocket Gamer
  52. ^ "Chris Natsuume: Making A Difference" on Gamesauce
  53. ^ "Staying Alive and Redefining Indie" on GMGC.
  54. ^ "Boomzap Entertainment - Company" on Boomzap.com
  55. ^ "Manila Game Jam @ Globe Labs" on Global Game Jam.org
  56. ^ "All About Casual Game Best of 2013 Awards" on AllAboutCasualGame.com
  57. ^ "Big Fish Games 2013 Customer Favorites Awards" on Big Fish Games
  58. ^ "Best of Casual Gameplay 2011" on Jay Is Games
  59. ^ Philippine Game Festival 2014
  60. ^ "Digital Life Awards 2014" on The Straits Times

External links

  • Boomzap Entertainment Homepage
  • Boomzap User Forums
  • Official Boomzap Entertainment page on Facebook
  • Official Boomzap Page on Twitter
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.