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400m

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400m

Template:Infobox athletics event The 400 metres, or 400 metre dash, is a common sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 (1964 for women). On a standard outdoor running track, it is exactly one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440 yard dash (402.336 m)—which is the length of a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete. An athlete who competes in the 400 m may still be referred to as 'quarter-miler'.

Maximum sprint speed capability is a significant contributing factor to success in the event, but athletes also require substantial speed endurance and the ability to cope well with high amounts of lactic acid to sustain a fast speed over a whole lap. While considered to be predominantly an anaerobic event, there is some aerobic involvement and the degree of aerobic training required for 400 metre athletes is open to debate.[1]

The United States dominates the men's event. The current men's world record is held by American Michael Johnson, with a time of 43.18 seconds. The world indoor record holder is Kerron Clement, in 44.57 seconds. The current women's world record is held by Marita Koch, with a time of 47.60 seconds. Grenadan Kirani James is the reigning men's Olympic champion, while LaShawn Merritt holds the world title; Christine Ohuruogu is the reigning women's world champion, while Sanya Richards-Ross holds the women's Olympic title. The men's T43 (classification) Paralympic world record of 45.07 seconds is held by Oscar Pistorius.[2]

An Olympic double of 200 metres and 400 m was first achieved by Valerie Brisco-Hooks in 1984, and later by Michael Johnson from the United States and Marie-José Pérec of France both in 1996. Alberto Juantorena of Cuba at the 1976 Summer Olympics became the first and so far the only athlete to win both the 400 m and 800 m Olympic titles.

Fastest 400 m runners

All-time top 25 men

  • Updated August 2013
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location Ref
1. 43.18 Michael Johnson United States 26 August 1999 Seville
2. 43.29 Harry 'Butch' Reynolds United States 17 August 1988 Zürich
3. 43.45 Jeremy Wariner United States 31 August 2007 Osaka
4. 43.50 Quincy Watts United States 5 August 1992 Barcelona
5. 43.74 LaShawn Merritt United States 13 August 2013 Moscow
6. 43.81 Danny Everett United States 26 June 1992 New Orleans
7. 43.86 Lee Evans United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
8. 43.87 Steve Lewis United States 28 September 1988 Seoul
9. 43.94 Kirani James Grenada 6 August 2012 London [3]
10. 43.97 Larry James United States 18 October 1968 Mexico City
11. 44.05 Angelo Taylor United States 23 June 2007 Indianapolis
12. 44.09 Alvin Harrison United States 19 June 1996 Atlanta
Jerome Young United States 21 June 1998 New Orleans
14. 44.10 Gary Kikaya Democratic Republic of the Congo 9 September 2006 Stuttgart
15. 44.13 Derek Mills United States 4 June 1995 Eugene
16. 44.14 Roberto Hernandez Cuba 30 May 1990 Seville
17. 44.15 Anthuan Maybank United States 3 July 1996 Lausanne
18. 44.16 Otis Harris United States 23 August 2004 Athens
19. 44.17 Innocent Egbunike Nigeria 19 August 1987 Zurich
20. 44.18 Samson Kitur Kenya 3 August 1992 Barcelona
21. 44.20 Charles Gitonga Kenya 23 June 1996 Nairobi
22. 44.21 Ian Morris Trinidad and Tobago 3 August 1992 Barcelona
23. 44.26 Alberto Juantorena Cuba 29 July 1976 Montreal
24. 44.27 Alonzo Babers United States 8 August 1984 Los Angeles
Antonio Pettigrew United States 17 June 1989 Houston
Darold Williamson United States 10 June 2005 Sacramento

Notable 4x400m relay splits

  • Michael Johnson: 42.91sec (Stuttgart 1993)
  • Jeremy Wariner: 42.93sec (Osaka 2007)

Women

  • Updated August 2013
Rank Time Athlete Nation Date Location
1. 47.60 Marita Koch East Germany 6 October 1985 Canberra
2. 47.99 Jarmila Kratochvílová Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
3. 48.25 Marie-José Pérec France 29 July 1996 Atlanta
4. 48.27 Olga Vladykina-Bryzgina Soviet Union 6 October 1985 Canberra
5. 48.59 Taťána Kocembová Czechoslovakia 10 August 1983 Helsinki
6. 48.63 Cathy Freeman Australia 29 July 1996 Atlanta
7. 48.70 Sanya Richards-Ross United States 16 September 2006 Athens
8. 48.83 Valerie Brisco-Hooks United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
9. 48.89 Ana Guevara Mexico 27 August 2003 Paris Saint-Denis
10. 49.05 Chandra Cheeseborough United States 6 August 1984 Los Angeles
11. 49.07 Tonique Williams-Darling The Bahamas 12 September 2004 Berlin
12. 49.10 Falilat Ogunkoya Nigeria 29 July 1996 Atlanta
13. 49.11 Olga Nazarova Soviet Union 25 September 1988 Seoul
14. 49.16 Antonina Krivoshapka Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
15. 49.19 Mariya Pinigina Soviet Union 10 August 1983 Helsinki
16. 49.24 Sabine Busch East Germany June 1984 Erfurt
17. 49.28 Irena Szewinska Poland 29 July 1976 Montreal
Pauline Davis-Thompson The Bahamas 29 July 1996 Atlanta
Yuliya Gushchina Russia 5 July 2012 Cheboksary
20. 49.29 Charity Opara Nigeria 14 July 1998 Rome
21. 49.30 Petra Muller East Germany 3 June 1988 Jena
Lorraine Fenton Jamaica 19 July 2002 Monaco
23. 49.32 Shericka Williams Jamaica 18 August 2009 Berlin
24. 49.33 Amantle Montsho Botswana 19 July 2013 Monaco
25. 49.35 Anastasiya Kapachinskaya Russia 22 July 2011 Cheboksary

Notable 4x400 m relay splits

  • Marita Koch: 47.70sec (Erfurt, 1984), 47.9 (Athens, 1982), 47.9 (Canberra, 1985), 48.21 (Stuttgart, 1986)[4]
  • Jarmila Kratochvilova: 47.75 (Helsinki, 1983), 47.8 (London, 1983)
  • Olga Bryzgina: 47.80 (Seoul, 1988)
  • Olga Nazarova: 47.82 (Seoul, 1988)
  • Allyson Felix: 47.8 (London 2012), 48.01 (Osaka, 2007)
  • Florence Griffith-Joyner: 48.08 (Seoul, 1988)

Most successful athletes

Multiple (3 or more) 400 metres victories at the Olympic Games and World Championships:

  • 6 wins: Michael Johnson (USA) - Olympic Champion in 1996 and 2000, World Champion in 1993, 1995, 1997 and 1999.
  • 4 wins: Marie-Jose Perec (FRA) - Olympic Champion in 1992 and 1996, World Champion in 1991 and 1995.
  • 3 wins: Cathy Freeman (AUS) - Olympic Champion in 2000, World Champion in 1997 and 1999
  • 3 wins: Jeremy Wariner (USA) - Olympic Champion in 2004, World Champion in 2005 and 2007.
  • 3 wins: Christine Ohuruogu (GBR) - Olympic Champion in 2008, World Champion in 2007 and 2013.

See also

References

External links

  • All-time Masters men's 400 m list
  • All-time Masters women's 400 m list
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