World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

All-Star Final Vote

Article Id: WHEBN0012092408
Reproduction Date:

Title: All-Star Final Vote  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Chicago White Sox, Nomar Garciaparra, Major League Baseball All-Star Game, Bobby Abreu, Johnny Damon, Jason Varitek, Andruw Jones, Paul Konerko, Brandon Inge, Geoff Jenkins
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

All-Star Final Vote

All-Star Final Vote
four-seam fastball
Awarded for the yearly final Major League Baseball All-Star Game selection
Country United States & Canada
Presented by Sprint and Major League Baseball
First awarded 2002
Last awarded 2013
Currently held by Freddie Freeman and Steve Delabar
Official website http://vote.mlb.com/

All-Star Final Vote is an annual Internet and text message ballot by Major League Baseball fans to elect the final player for each team that participates in the Major League Baseball All-Star Game after all other selections have been made and announced on national television. The first 33 players are selected by a combination of procedures. The sponsorship changes annually, but the contest remains similar from year to year. Each league presents a 5-man ballot and gives the fans a few days to choose one final All-Star.

All-Star selection

The All-Star Game managers selected the entire lineups from 1933 to 1946. In 1947, the fans were given the ability to select the starting lineups. This continued until 1957, when Cincinnati Reds fans stuffed the ballot box and selected seven Reds and Stan Musial. This forced Baseball Commissioner Ford Frick to step in and replace Wally Post and Gus Bell with Willie Mays and Hank Aaron that season and to turn over the starting lineup selection to players, coaches and managers for several subsequent seasons. Since 1970, the fans have elected the starting lineup of one player for each baseball position (except the pitcher) for both the National League and American League teams.[1]

In 2003, the major league players began electing a reserve for each position as well as five starters and three relievers, although the All-Star game managers performed this duty once.[2] Now, the "Player ballot" includes coaches, managers and players across both leagues who participate in choosing eight reserves and eight pitchers for each All-Star team.[3] Now, the managers only select the starting pitcher from among those pitchers already elected by the players. The managers also select the remainder of the roster spots except for the final spot while ensuring that each team has at least one representative. The All-Star game manager, guided by the baseball commissioner’s office, then selects a list of five nominees for the fans to choose from for the remaining roster spot for each league’s team.

On the Sunday evening nine days before the scheduled All-Star game, the rosters are announced and the All-Star Final Vote nominees are announced on a nationally broadcast show. The voting commences after the announcement of the nominees toward the end of the show, and continues for a prescribed number of days. Generally, a single daily update of the ballot standings is released during the voting. After voting concludes, the top vote-getter for each league is announced. Over the course of the seven years of the voting, over 100 million votes have been cast.[4]

History

The first All-Star Final Vote was held during the 2002 season. The 2002 Major League Baseball All-Star Game had 30 player rosters so the fans were voting for the 30th player. The 2003 Major League Baseball All-Star Game rosters expanded to 32 following the 11-inning 2002 game.[5] As a result, the fans elected the 32nd player. In 2009, the rosters again expanded to 33, including 13 pitchers, following the 15-inning 2008 Major League Baseball All-Star Game.[5] In 2003, the first corporate sponsor got involved in the ballot. Over the years, the sponsor has changed and the name of the fan voting procedure has changed both with the changing sponsors and the number of roster spots.

As of 2011, every franchise except the Seattle Mariners have had at least one nominee. The Boston Red Sox, Chicago White Sox, and Philadelphia Phillies have each had three winners.

As of 2011, no second baseman, shortstop, or designated hitter has been elected. The Chicago White Sox have had nine nominees. The Philadelphia Phillies have had seven each. As of 2011, Billy Wagner is the only three-time nominee.[6] Shane Victorino is the only two-time winner.[7]

Thus far, many All-Star Final Vote winners have played, but only one (Evan Longoria) has recorded an extra base hit or a run batted in. Chris Young became the first All-Star Final Vote winner to be involved in the decision as the losing pitcher of the 2007 All-Star Game. Johnny Damon was the first to record a hit or score a run.

Winners

Year Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
2002 Johnny Damon BOS CF (0/8) Andruw Jones ATL CF (1/7)
2003 Jason Varitek BOS C (0/7) Geoff Jenkins MIL LF (0/6)
2004 Hideki Matsui NYY LF (1/2) Bobby Abreu PHI RF (0/9)
2005 Scott Podsednik CHW OF (0/5) Roy Oswalt HOU SP (0/5)
2006 A.J. Pierzynski CHW C (1/9) Nomar Garciaparra LAD 1B (5/11)
2007 Hideki Okajima BOS RP (0/1) Chris Young SD SP (0/4)
2008 Evan Longoria TB 3B (0/1) Corey Hart MIL OF (0/5)
2009 Brandon Inge DET 3B (0/9) Shane Victorino PHI CF (0/7)
2010 Nick Swisher NYY OF (0/7) Joey Votto CIN 1B (0/4)
2011 Paul Konerko CHW 1B (4/15) Shane Victorino PHI OF (1/8)
2012 Yu Darvish TEX SP (0/1) David Freese STL 3B (0/4)
2013 Steve Delabar TOR RP (0/2) Freddie Freeman ATL 1B (0/4)

All charts include seasons (including the current one at the time of the voting) in which the player has appeared in a Major League game for years of experience. Below are some additional abbreviations used throughout. All-star game experience is based on the time of the final ballot nominations (before voting).

Results

2002 candidates

In 2002, the All-Star game rosters had 30 positions on each team so the fan voting was for the thirtieth roster spot. As a result, the official name of the contest was "The All-Star 30th Man".[8] The voting lasted only two days and was held exclusively online through each of the 30 teams' official websites and ESPN.com.[9] The voting for the July 9, 2002 Major League Baseball All-Star Game Final Vote started on June 30 and concluded on with the announcement of the results on July 2, 2002.[8] Both winners, Johnny Damon and Andruw Jones played center field and recorded 3 official All-Star game at bats.[10]

  *Election Winners
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Votes Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Votes
American League National League
Johnny Damon* BOS CF (0/8) 692,989 Andruw Jones* ATL CF (1/7) 559,752
Jim Thome CLE 1B (3/12) 666,825 Brian Giles PIT RF (2/8) 488,725
Eric Chavez OAK 3B (0/5) 266,110 Larry Walker COL RF (5/14) 297,174
Magglio Ordóñez CHW RF (3/6) 179,951 Albert Pujols STL 1B (1/2) 267,196
Darin Erstad ANA CF (2/7) 122,458 Ryan Klesko SD 1B (1/11) 138,824

2003 candidates

In 2003 the final vote had a named sponsor and the rosters expanded to 32 positions. The official contest name was the "etopps All-Star Final Vote". In 2003, ballot substitution was instituted. On Monday July 7, 2003, Kenny Lofton was added to the ballot to replace the Chicago Cubs' Corey Patterson who was injured on the day before.[11] The voting for the July 15, 2003 Major League Baseball All-Star Game Final Vote was extended to three days beginning Sunday, July 6, 2003 at 8 PM Eastern Time and ending on Wednesday, July 9, 2003 at 6 pm Eastern Time. Although the leading vote totals (Geoff Jenkins – 2,872,200, Jason Varitek – 3,210,509 of a total 10.8 million)[12] were released in 2003 individual results were not released for all contestants. In fact, the American League did not even release the final ordinal vote ranking with the final results so only the last update ordinal vote ranking is shown below.[13]

Neither Varitek nor Jenkins played, but both Giambi and Castillo batted as well as played in the field 2003 game as substitutes.[14] Giambi replaced Mike Sweeney.[15] Castillo was a last-minute addition to the team.[16]

  ^All-Star Game Substitutes
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Jason Varitek* BOS C (0/7) Geoff Jenkins* MIL LF (0/6)
Frank Thomas CHW DH (5/14) Benito Santiago SFG C (5/18)
Jason Giambi^ NYY 1B (3/9) Kenny Lofton PIT CF (6/13)
Eric Byrnes OAK OF (0/4) Orlando Cabrera MON SS (0/7)
Bengie Molina ANA C (0/6) Luis Castillo^ FLA 2B (1/8)

2004 candidates

In 2004, the contest was called the "Ameriquest All-Star Final Vote". The voting for the July 13, 2004 Major League Baseball All-Star Game Final Vote again continued for three days, running from Sunday, July 4, 2004 and ending on Wednesday, July 7, 2004.[17] The final results were announced with ordinal vote rankings (shown below) and approximate winning vote totals (Hideki Matsui – 1.2 million, Bobby Abreu – 2 million, of more than 9.5 million votes).[18] Abreu appeared as a pinch hitter, while Matsui both pinch hit and played left field.[19]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Hideki Matsui* NYY LF (1/2) Bobby Abreu* PHI RF (0/9)
Frank Thomas CHW DH (5/15) Aramis Ramírez CHC 3B (0/7)
Paul Konerko CHW 1B (1/8) Steve Finley ARZ CF (2/16)
Lew Ford MIN OF (0/2) Jason Kendall PIT C (3/9)
Travis Hafner CLE DH (0/3) Juan Pierre FLA CF (0/5)

2005 candidates

In 2005, the contest was again called the "Ameriquest All-Star Final Vote". The voting for the July 12, 2005 Major League Baseball All-Star Game Final Vote again continued for three days, running from Sunday, July 3, 2005 and ending on Wednesday, July 6, 2005. This marked the first time pitchers were nominated and the entire National League ballot was composed of pitchers. The American League ballot was composed of four outfielders and a shortstop.[20] 2005 marked the first year that cell phone text message voting was possible.[21] Derek Jeter and Roy Oswalt took the voting lead after Day 1.[21] By Day 2, Scott Podsednik overtook Jeter and went on to win.[22] Again, ordinal vote rankings (shown below) and winning vote totals (Podsednik – 3,965,473, Oswalt – 2,652,549 of 15 million votes) were revealed.[23]

Wagner was named to the 2005 team as a replacement for Pedro Martínez but did not play.[24][25] Both Oswalt and Podsednik played, but Podsednik did not record an official at bat.[25]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Scott Podsednik* CHW LF (0/5) Roy Oswalt* HOU SP (0/5)
Derek Jeter NYY SS (6/11) Trevor Hoffman SD RP (4/13)
Torii Hunter MIN CF (1/9) Brandon Webb ARZ SP (0/3)
Hideki Matsui NYY LF (2/3) Billy Wagner^ PHI RP (3/11)
Carl Crawford TB LF (1/4) Brett Myers PHI SP (0/4)

2006 candidates

In 2006, the contest was called the "Monster All-Star Final Vote". The voting for the July 11, 2006 Major League Baseball All-Star Game Final Vote again continued for three days, running from Sunday, July 2, 2006 and ending on Wednesday, July 5, 2006. Again, only the ordinal vote rankings (shown below) and the leading vote getter totals (Nomar Garciaparra – 4 million, A.J. Pierzynski – over 3.6 million of 18.6 million votes) were announced by Major League Baseball.[26]

Liriano and Capuano were selected for the All-Star team as substitutes, but did not play.[27] Liriano replaced José Contreras,[28] and Capuano replaced Tom Glavine.[29] Neither Garciaparra nor Pierzynzki played.[27]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
A.J. Pierzynski* CHW C (1/9) Nomar Garciaparra* LAD 1B (5/11)
Francisco Liriano^ MIN SP (0/2) Chris Capuano^ MIL SP (0/4)
Travis Hafner CLE DH (0/5) Bobby Abreu PHI RF (2/11)
Justin Verlander DET SP (0/2) Billy Wagner NYM RP (4/12)
Ramón Hernández BAL C (1/8) Chris Young SD SP (0/3)

2007 candidates

The 2007 "Monster All-Star Final Vote" included only pitchers (the National League included only starting pitchers). This is the 2nd time (2005) only pitchers were eligible for the final roster spot selection.[30] The voting for the July 10, 2007 Major League Baseball All-Star Game Final Vote was the first four day election, running from Sunday, July 1, 2007 and ending on Thursday, July 5, 2007. Voting leaders were announced daily. The ordinal vote rankings (shown below) and the leading vote getter totals (Young – over 4.5 million, Okajima – over 4.4 million of 23 million votes) were announced on the MLB.com results posting. Okajima (2–0, 0.88 ERA, & 4 saves in 38 relief appearances)[31] and Young (8–3, 2.00 ERA, 99 K)[32] are both first time all stars.

There was some controversy surrounding Roy Oswalt's nomination because he only had a 7–5 record at the time of nominations making him the only pitcher without eight wins nominated. However, he is considered by many to be the victim of lack of run support, questionable relief pitching and an average defense.[33] This respect was shown by the players who had voted him to sixth place among National League starting pitchers making him the first alternate in case of injury to any of the five elected All-star starting pitchers.[4] On the final day of All-Star Final Vote voting, it was announced that Oswalt (who was running third in the All-Star Final Vote) would replace John Smoltz who withdrew from All-Star game participation due to injury.[34]

Brandon Webb of the Diamondbacks, the reigning NL Cy Young Award winner, replaced injured Colorado reliever Brian Fuentes.[35] Neither Webb nor Oswalt played.[36] Okajima did not play, but Young pitched 1 inning allowing a walk and a 2 run inside-the-park home run.[37] As a result he was the losing pitcher.

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Hideki Okajima* BOS RP (0/1) Chris Young* SD SP (0/4)
Jeremy Bonderman DET SP (0/5) Carlos Zambrano CHC SP (2/7)
Pat Neshek MIN RP (0/2) Roy Oswalt^ HOU SP (2/7)
Kelvim Escobar LAA SP (0/11) Brandon Webb^ ARZ SP (1/5)
Roy Halladay TOR SP (4/10) Tom Gorzelanny PIT SP (0/3)

2008 candidates

The 2008 "Monster All-Star Final Vote" included no pitchers. The voting for the July 15, 2008 Major League Baseball All-Star Game Final Vote began Sunday, July 6, 2008 and ended on Thursday, July 10, 2008.[38] The ordinal vote rankings (shown below) and the leading vote-getter totals (Longoria – 9 million, Hart – 8 million of 47.8 million votes) were announced on the MLB.com results posting. Longoria and Hart were both first-time all stars.

Longoria drew a record nine million votes for his selection, over second-place finisher Jermaine Dye. Jason Giambi finished in third after a highly publicized "Support the 'Stache" campaign. Brian Roberts finished in fourth, followed by José Guillén. Hart accumulated eight million votes, the second highest vote total in the competition's history. Hart joined teammates outfielder Ryan Braun and pitcher Ben Sheets. Finishing in a close second was New York Mets third baseman David Wright, who eventually made the team as a replacement for injured Chicago Cubs outfielder Alfonso Soriano.[39]

Longoria was the first third baseman and second rookie to win the Final Vote. Hart's victory marked the third time that a club had a winning representative more than once; Geoff Jenkins (also from the Milwaukee Brewers) was elected in 2003. The other two clubs to have achieved this are the Red Sox (Damon, Varitek and Okajima) and the White Sox (Podsednik and Pierzynski).[40]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Evan Longoria* TB 3B (0/1) Corey Hart* MIL OF (0/5)
Jermaine Dye CHW OF (2/13) David Wright^ NYM 3B (3/5)
Jason Giambi NYY 1B (5/14) Pat Burrell PHI OF (0/9)
Brian Roberts BAL 2B (2/8) Aaron Rowand SF OF (1/8)
José Guillén KC OF (0/12) Carlos Lee HOU OF (3/10)

2009 candidates

The 2009 "All-Star Game Sprint Final Vote" included no pitchers for the second consecutive year. The voting ran from Sunday, July 5 through Thursday, July 9. Eight of the selected players had never been an MLB All-Star. Washington Nationals shortstop Cristian Guzmán is a two-time All-Star, and Texas Rangers second baseman Ian Kinsler was an All-Star in 2008. In exchange for their sponsorship, text voting was available exclusively on Sprint capable mobile phones.[41]

The Philadelphia Phillies and Detroit Tigers encouraged businesses in Michigan and Pennsylvania to allow their workers time off on Wednesday and Thursday to vote for both Inge and Victorino who were in second place in early voting. Victorino became the fourth Hawaiian (following pitchers Ron Darling, Sid Fernandez and Charlie Hough) to be selected to the Major League All-star game. This year's ballot, which is shown below in order of finish, was influenced by advertisements, online commercials, fliers, merchandise, official endorsements from people such as 2008 Republican presidential candidate John McCain, and contemporary technology such as Twitter.[42]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Brandon Inge* DET 3B (0/9) Shane Victorino* PHI CF (0/6)
Ian Kinsler TEX 2B (1/4) Pablo Sandoval SF 3B (0/2)
Chone Figgins^ LAA 3B (0/8) Mark Reynolds ARZ 3B (0/3)
Carlos Peña^ TB 1B (0/9) Matt Kemp LAD CF (0/4)
Adam Lind TOR DH/LF (0/4) Cristian Guzmán WSH SS (2/10)

2010 candidates

2010 Major League Baseball All-Star Game managers Joe Girardi of the American League and Charlie Manuel of the National League presented the 5-man ballots for the 2010 All-Star Game MLB.com Final Vote Sponsored by Sprint to determine the 34th player for each All-Star roster.[43] Votto was named on 13.7 million of the 26 million ballots, followed by Zimmerman, Gonzalez and Wagner, in order. Swisher, who at the time was the most followed Twitter user, edged out Youkilis, in what was described as the closest race in the history of the All-Star Final Vote.[44] Heath Bell was named substitute for Yovani Gallardo before the conclusion of the Final Vote and was removed from the ballot.[44]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Nick Swisher* NYY RF (0/7) Joey Votto* CIN 1B (0/3)
Kevin Youkilis BOS 1B (2/7) Ryan Zimmerman WSH 3B (1/5)
Michael Young TEX 3B (7/11) Carlos Gonzalez COL OF (0/3)
Paul Konerko^ CHW 1B (3/13) Billy Wagner^ ATL RP (6/15)
Delmon Young MIN LF (0/4) Heath Bell^ SD RP (1/6)

2011 candidates

2011 Major League Baseball All-Star Game managers Ron Washington of the American League and Bruce Bochy of the National League presented the 5-man ballots for the 2011 All-Star Game Final Vote Sponsored by Sprint to determine the 34th player for each All-Star roster. Internet fans were able to vote at MLB.com and MLB team websites, while American and Canadian fans were also able to vote by text.[6] Fans were encouraged to participate as campaign managers by generating votes via Twitter, Facebook and MLB.com websites for their choice.[6] The fans elected Paul Konerko and Shane Victorino with 8.4 and 9.2 million votes of 50 million votes. Victorino was the first-two-time winner.[7][45] MLB.com voters received special offers for discounts or free service.[7]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Paul Konerko* CHW 1B (4/14) Shane Victorino* PHI OF (1/8)
Victor Martinez DET C/DH (4/9) Andre Ethier^ LAD OF (1/6)
Alex Gordon KC OF (0/5) Todd Helton COL 1B (5/14)
Adam Jones BAL OF (1/5) Mike Morse WSH 1B (0/7)
Ben Zobrist TB 2B (1/5) Ian Kennedy ARZ P (0/4)

2012 candidates

2012 Major League Baseball All-Star Game offered the fans 5-man ballots to express their opinions in the 2012 All-Star Game Final Vote Sponsored by Firestone to determine the 34th player for each All-Star roster. Internet fans were able to vote at MLB.com and MLB team websites, while American and Canadian fans were also able to vote by text.[46] In the final few hours, fans were allowed to vote via Twitter for the first time by using specific hashtags, but Chipper Jones' name was removed since he had been named to the All-Star game as a replacement for the injured Matt Kemp.[47] The four hours of Twitter voting brought about 2500 votes per minute. Over 50 million votes were cast in the Final vote in total.[48]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Yu Darvish* TEX P (0/1) David Freese* STL 3B (0/4)
Jonathan Broxton KC P (2/7) Michael Bourn^ ATL OF (1/6)
Ernesto Frieri LAA RP (0/3) Bryce Harper^ WSH OF (0/1)
Jason Hammel BAL P (0/7) Aaron Hill ARZ 2B (1/8)
Jake Peavy^ CWS P (3/10) Chipper Jones^ ATL 3B (7/19)

2013 candidates

2013 Major League Baseball All-Star Game offered the fans 5-man ballots to express their opinions in the 2013 All-Star Game Final Vote, sponsored by freecreditscore.com to determine the 34th player for each All-Star roster. Internet fans were able to vote at MLB.com, MLB team websites and via by text.[49] In the final six hours, fans were allowed to vote via Twitter.[50] The contest saw an unusual alliance in which Toronto Blue Jays and Atlanta Braves fans supported each other's nominees.[51] This resulted in Toronto relief pitcher Steve Delabar and Atlanta first baseman Freddie Freeman winning the voting. Both Freeman and National League runner-up Yasiel Puig surpassed the 2009 15.6 million vote record, with Freeman totalling 19.7.[52] The overall vote total of 79.2 million votes also surpassed the 2009 record (68.6 million).[50]

Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
Player Team Position Experience
(All Star /
Seasons)
American League National League
Steve Delabar TOR P (0/2) Freddie Freeman ATL 1B (0/4)
David Robertson NYY P (1/6) Ian Desmond WSH SS (1/5)
Koji Uehara BOS P (0/5) Adrian Gonzalez LAD 1B (4/10)
Tanner Scheppers TEX P (0/1) Hunter Pence SF OF (2/7)
Joaquín Benoit DET P (0/13) Yasiel Puig LAD OF (0/1)

Team success summary


* – Includes replaced nominee
** – Was Anaheim Angels from 1997 to 2004.
*** – Was Florida Marlins from 1993 to 2011.
**** – Was Tampa Bay Devil Rays from 1998 to 2007.
***** – Was Montreal Expos from 1969 to 2004.

Team Nominees Winners
Arizona Diamondbacks 6 0
Atlanta Braves 4 2
Baltimore Orioles 4 0
Boston Red Sox 4 3
Chicago Cubs * 3 0
Chicago White Sox 10 3
Cincinnati Reds 1 1
Cleveland Indians 3 0
Colorado Rockies 3 0
Detroit Tigers 4 1
Houston Astros 3 1
Kansas City Royals 3 0
Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim ** 5 0
Los Angeles Dodgers 3 1
Miami Marlins *** 2 0
Milwaukee Brewers 3 2
Minnesota Twins 5 0
New York Mets 2 0
New York Yankees 6 2
Oakland Athletics 2 0
Philadelphia Phillies 7 3
Pittsburgh Pirates 4 0
San Diego Padres 5 1
San Francisco Giants 3 0
Seattle Mariners 0 0
St. Louis Cardinals 2 1
Tampa Bay Rays **** 4 1
Texas Rangers 3 1
Toronto Blue Jays 3 1
Washington Nationals ***** 5 0

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.