Azuki Bean

Azuki bean
Azuki beans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Vigna
Species: V. angularis
Binomial name
Vigna angularis
(Willd.) Ohwi & H. Ohashi

The azuki bean, (from the Japanese アズキ(小豆) (azuki?)), also known as adzuki or aduki, is an annual vine, Vigna angularis, widely grown throughout East Asia and the Himalayas for its small (approximately 5 mm) bean. The cultivars most familiar in Northeast Asia have a uniform red color. However, white, black, gray and variously mottled varieties are also known. Scientists presume Vigna angularis var. nipponensis is the progenitor.

History

Genetic evidence indicates that the azuki bean first became domesticated in East Asia and later crossbred with native species in Himalayas. Earliest known archeological evidence of the bean comes from the Awazu-kotei Ruin (Shiga prefecture) of the Japanese mid-Jōmon period of 4000BC, and later occurs commonly in many Jomon sites of between 4000BC and 2000BC in Japan.[1] The analysis of the unearthed beans indicates that it was first cultivated in Japan during the period frolm 4000BC to 2000BC. In China and Korea specimens from ruins date from 3000BC to 1000BC, and these are thought[by whom?] to be cultivated ones.

Names

Azuki beans, cooked, no salt
Nutritional value per serving
Serving size 1 Cup 230 g
Energy 1,233 kJ (295 kcal)
Carbohydrates 56.97 g
- Dietary fiber 16.8 g
Fat 0.23 g
Protein 17.3 g
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.264 mg (23%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.147 mg (12%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 1.649 mg (11%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.989 mg (20%)
Vitamin B6 0.221 mg (17%)
Folate (vit. B9) 278 μg (70%)
Calcium 64 mg (6%)
Iron 4.6 mg (35%)
Magnesium 120 mg (34%)
Phosphorus 386 mg (55%)
Potassium 1224 mg (26%)
Sodium 18 mg (1%)
Zinc 4.07 mg (43%)
USDA Nutrient Database


The name azuki is a transliteration of the native ateji.

In China, the corresponding name (Chinese: 小豆; pinyin: xiǎodòu) is still used in botanical or agricultural parlance. However in everyday Chinese, the more common terms are hongdou (紅豆; hóngdòu) and chidou (赤豆; chìdòu), both meaning "red bean", because almost all Chinese cultivars are uniformly red. In English-language discussions of Chinese topics, the term "red bean" is often used (especially in reference to red bean paste), but in other contexts this usage can cause confusion with other beans that are also red. In normal contexts, "red cowpeas" have been used to refer to this bean.

The Korean name is pat (hangul: ), and in Vietnamese it is called đậu đỏ (literally: red bean). In some parts of India, they are referred to as "Red Chori".[2] In Indian Punjab it is called "ravaa'n" and is a common ingredient of chaat. In Marathi, it is known as Lal Chavali (लाल चवळी)- literally means 'red cowpea'.

Uses

Main article: Red bean paste

In East Asian cuisine, the azuki bean is commonly eaten sweetened. In particular, it is often boiled with sugar, resulting in red bean paste (an), a very common ingredient in all of these cuisines. It is also common to add flavoring to the bean paste, such as chestnut.

Red bean paste is used in many Chinese dishes, such as tangyuan, zongzi, mooncakes, baozi and red bean ice. It also serves as a filling in Japanese sweets like anpan, dorayaki, imagawayaki, manjū, monaka, anmitsu, taiyaki and daifuku. A more liquid version, using azuki beans boiled with sugar and a pinch of salt, produces a sweet dish called red bean soup. Azuki beans are also commonly eaten sprouted, or boiled in a hot, tea-like drink. Some Asian cultures enjoy red bean paste as a filling or topping for various kinds of waffles, pastries, baked buns or biscuits.

In Japan, rice with azuki beans (; sekihan) is traditionally cooked for auspicious occasions. Azuki beans are also used to produce amanattō, and as a popular flavour of ice cream.

On October 20, 2009, Pepsi Japan released an azuki-flavored Pepsi product.[3]

Azuki beans, along with butter and sugar, form the basis of the popular Somali supper dish cambuulo.

In Gujarat, India, they are known as chori.[2]

Nutritional information

Azuki beans are a good source for a variety of minerals, with 1 cup of cooked beans providing 4.6 mg of Iron (~25% RDI[4]), 119.6 mg of magnesium (~30% RDI[5]), 1.223 g of potassium (~25 % AI[6]), 4.0 mg of zinc (~25% RDI[7]) and 278 µg of folic acid (~70% RDI[8]).[9]

See also

References

External links

  • Illustrated Plant Genetic Resources Database
  • Alternative Field Crop Manual
  • Multilingual taxonomic information from the University of Melbourne
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