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Biological weapon

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Biological weapon


A biological agent — also called bio-agent or biological threat agent — is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a biological weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).[1] In addition to these living and/or replicating pathogens, biological toxins are also included among the bio-agents. More than 1,200 different kinds of potentially weaponizable bio-agents have been described and studied to date.

Biological agents have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild allergic reactions to serious medical conditions, including death. Many of these organisms are ubiquitous in the natural environment where they are found in water, soil, plants, or animals.[2] Bio-agents may be amenable to "weaponization" to render them easier to deploy or disseminate. Genetic modification may enhance their incapacitating or lethal properties, or render them impervious to conventional treatments or preventives. Since many bio-agents reproduce rapidly and require minimal resources for propagation, they are also a potential danger in a wide variety of occupational settings.[3]

The Biological Weapons Convention (1972) is an international treaty banning the use or stockpiling of bio-agents; it currently has 165 state signatories. Bio-agents are, however, widely studied for defensive purposes under various biosafety levels and within biocontainment facilities throughout the world. In 2008, according to a U.S. Congressional Research Service report, China, Cuba, Egypt, Iran, Israel, North Korea, Russia, Syria and Taiwan were considered, with varying degrees of certainty, to be maintaining bio-agents in an offensive BW program capacity.

Classifications

Operational

The former US biological warfare program (1943-1969) categorized its weaponized anti-personnel bio-agents as either Lethal Agents (Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Botulinum toxin) or Incapacitating Agents (Brucella suis, Coxiella burnetii, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Staphylococcal enterotoxin B).

Legal

Since 1997, United States law has declared a list of bio-agents designated by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or the U.S. Department of Agriculture that have the "potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety" to be officially defined as "select agents" and possession or transportation of them are tightly controlled as such.[4]

Regulatory

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) breaks biological agents into three categories: Category A, Category B, and Category C. Category A agents pose the greatest threat to the US. Criteria for being a Category A agent include high rates of morbidity and mortality; ease of dissemination and communicablitily; ability to cause public panic; and special action require by the public health field to respond. Category A agents include anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers.

List of biological and toxin agents of military importance

Bacterial bio-agents

Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments
Anthrax Bacillus anthracis (N) or (TR)
Brucellosis (bovine) Brucella abortus (AB)
Brucellosis (caprine) Brucella melitensis (AM) or (BX)
Brucellosis (porcine) Brucella suis (US) or (NX)
Cholera Vibrio cholerae (HO)
Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae (DK)
Dysentery (bacterial) Shigella dysenteriae, some species of Escherichia coli (Y)
Glanders Burkholderia mallei (LA)
Listeriosis Listeria monocytogenes (TQ)
Melioidosis Burkholderia pseudomallei (HI)
Plague Yersinia pestis (LE)
Tularemia Francisella tularensis (SR) or (JT)

Chlamydial bio-agents

Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments
Psittacosis Chlamydophila psittaci (SI)

Rickettsial bio-agents

Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments
Q fever Coxiella burnetii (OU)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Rickettsia rickettsii (RI) or (UY)
Typhus (human) Rickettsia prowazekii (YE)
Typhus (murine) Rickettsia typhi (AV)

Viral bio-agents

Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments
Equine Encephalitis (Eastern) Eastern equine encephalitis virus (ZX)
Equine Encephalitis (Venezuelan) Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis virus (FX)
Equine Encephalitis (Western) Western equine encephalitis virus (FX)
Japanese B encephalitis Japanese encephalitis virus (AN)
Rift Valley fever Rift Valley fever virus (FA)
Smallpox Variola virus (ZL)
Yellow fever Yellow fever virus (OJ)

Mycotic bio-agents

Disease Causative Agent (Military Symbol) Comments
Coccidiomycosis Coccidioides immitis (OC)

Biological toxins

Toxin Source of Toxin (Military Symbol) Comments
Botulinum toxins (A through G) Clostridium botulinum bacteria or spores, and several other Clostridial species. (X) or (XR)
Ricin castor bean (Ricinus communis) (W) or (WA)
Saxitoxin various marine and brackish cyanobacteria, such as Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Lyngbya, and Cylindrospermopsis
Staphyloccocal enterotoxin B Staphylococcus aureus (UC) or (PG)
Tetrodotoxin various marine bacteria, including Vibrio alginolyticus, Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis (PP)
Trichothecene mycotoxins various species of fungi, including Fusarium, Trichoderma, and Stachybotrys

Biological vectors

Vector (Military Symbol) Disease Comments
Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) (AP) Malaria, Dengue fever, Yellow fever, other Arboviruses
Oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis) Plague, Murine typhus

Simulants

See also

External links

  • U.S. Department of Labor - Biological Agents
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services - Select Agents and Toxins

References

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