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Boston Navy Yard

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Boston Navy Yard

Boston Naval Shipyard
1912 Map of the Charlestown Navy Yard and Mystic Wharf
Location East of Chelsea Street, Charlestown, Boston, Massachusetts
Coordinates
Built 1800
Architect Alexander Parris, et al.
Governing body National Park Service
NRHP Reference # 66000134[1]
Added to NRHP November 15, 1966
Boston Navy Shipyard
Boston, Massachusetts
Type Shipyard
Site information
Controlled by United States Navy
Site history
Built 1800
In use 1800–1975

The Boston Navy Yard, originally called the Charlestown Navy Yard and later Boston Naval Shipyard, was one of the oldest shipbuilding facilities in the United States Navy. Established in 1801, it was officially closed as an active naval installation on July 1, 1974, and the 30-acre (120,000 m2) property was transferred to the National Park Service to be part of Boston National Historical Park. Enough of the yard remains in operation to support the USS Constitution. The USS Cassin Young, a World War II-era destroyer serving as a museum ship, is also berthed here. Among people in the area and the National Park Service, it is still known as the Charlestown Navy Yard.[2]

The South Boston Naval Annex was located along the waterfront in South Boston.

History

The earliest naval shipbuilding activities in Charlestown, Massachusetts, began during the American Revolutionary War. The land for the Charlestown Navy Yard was purchased in 1800 and the yard itself established shortly thereafter. The yard built the first U.S. ship of the line, USS Independence, but was primarily a repair and storage facility until the 1890s, when it started to build steel ships for the "New Navy". By then, it was called the Boston Navy Yard.

On June 24, 1833, the staff and dignitaries including Vice President Martin Van Buren, Secretary of War Lewis Cass, Secretary of the Navy Levi Woodbury, and many Massachusetts officials, witnessed "one of the great events of American naval history": the United States frigate Constitution was inaugurating the first naval drydock in New England designed by prominent civil engineer Loammi Baldwin, Jr.[3] On March 14, 1975, the historic ship floated out of the dock—the last commissioned vessel to use the facility.[4]

The ropewalk supplied cordage used in the Navy from the time it opened in 1837 until the Yard closed in 1975. After the Civil War, the Yard was downgraded to an Equipment and Recruit Facility.[4]

In the 1890s, the Navy began expanding and that brought new life to the Yard. In the first years of the 20th century, a second drydock was added. During WWII, it worked to fix British ships damaged by the Germans. On September 27, 1941—Liberty Fleet Day—Boston launched two destroyers, the USS Cowie and the USS Knight. In November 1941, Boston was one of four United States naval shipyards selected to build Captain class frigates as Lend-Lease for the Royal Navy. Since the United States was at war when these ships were completed, some were used by the United States Navy as destroyer escorts.[5] In the post war period, the shipyard modified World War II ships for Cold War service through Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM). The Korean War and Vietnam War did not bring much work to the Yard since it was so far from the fighting.

Ships built at Boston Navy Yard

The South Boston Naval Annex, circa 1958

Present day

The Yard closed after the Vietnam War. When ideas were floated for redevelopment of the yard, one popular idea was to have the yard turned into a construction yard for oil tankers.[52] Ultimately, these plans fell through, and the site became part of the Boston National Historical Park. Its mission is, "to interpret the art and history of naval shipbuilding".[4]

The Charlestown Navy Yard hosts many attractions. The fully commissioned USS Constitution and the museum ship USS Cassin Young (DD-793) are tied up at Pier 1 and open to the public.[53] The Navy Yard also hosts the USS Constitution Museum. Drydock No. 1 is still used for ship maintenance, mostly on historic vessels.

The Yard is toward the north end of the Freedom Trail and is seen by thousands every year. The MBTA Water Shuttle stops at nearby Pier 3, providing easy visitor access to the Yard.

See also

References

  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places.  
  2. ^ Charlestown Navy Yard, National Park Service
  3. ^ Historic Naval Ships Association
  4. ^ a b c Charlestown Navy Yard: The Shipyard on the Charles
  5. ^ Franklin, Bruce Hampton (1999) The Buckley-class Destroyer Escorts Naval Institute Press ISBN 1-55750-280-3 p.7
  6. ^ "Independence".  
  7. ^ "Boston".  
  8. ^ "Warren".  
  9. ^ "Falmouth".  
  10. ^ "Cyane".  
  11. ^ "Marion".  
  12. ^ "Cumberland".  
  13. ^ "Plymouth".  
  14. ^ "Vermont".  
  15. ^ "Hartford".  
  16. ^ "Narragansett".  
  17. ^ "Wachusett".  
  18. ^ "Housatonic".  
  19. ^ "Maratanza".  
  20. ^ "Canandaigua".  
  21. ^ "Tioga".  
  22. ^ "Genesee".  
  23. ^ "Monadnock".  
  24. ^ "Pequot".  
  25. ^ "Saco".  
  26. ^ "Winooski".  
  27. ^ "Ammonoosuc".  
  28. ^ "Guerriere".  
  29. ^ "Worcester".  
  30. ^ "Nantasket".  
  31. ^ "Alaska".  
  32. ^ "Vandalia".  
  33. ^ "Bridge".  
  34. ^ "Brazos".  
  35. ^ "Neches".  
  36. ^ "Pecos".  
  37. ^ a b Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.114
  38. ^ a b Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.118
  39. ^ a b c d Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.124
  40. ^ a b c d Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.126
  41. ^ a b Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.129
  42. ^ a b c d Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.132
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.135
  44. ^ a b c d e f Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.140
  45. ^ a b c Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.141
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Lenton, H.T. & Colledge, J.J. (1968) British and Dominion Warships of World War II Doubleday pp.242-245
  47. ^ a b c d e Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.153
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.155
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.157
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company p.175
  51. ^ a b c d Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War II (1968) Doubleday & Company pp.263&266
  52. ^ "NEW ENGLAND: Bases for Sale". New England: Time Incorporated. July 1, 1974. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  53. ^ As Constitution is a US Navy ship, consult her official website before visiting.

External links

  • Charlestown Navy Yard - Boston National Historical Park
  • Charlestown Online Navy Yard website
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