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Columbia River Gorge

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Columbia River Gorge

Columbia River Gorge
Protected Area
Looking east up the Columbia River Gorge from Crown Point.
Official name: Columbia River Gorge
National Scenic Area
Country United States
States Oregon, Washington
Region Pacific Northwest
Founded 1986
Website: http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/columbia/

The Columbia River Gorge is a canyon of the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Up to 4,000 feet (1,200 m) deep, the canyon stretches for over 80 miles (130 km) as the river winds westward through the Cascade Range forming the boundary between the State of Washington to the north and Oregon to the south. Extending roughly from the confluence of the Columbia with the Deschutes River down to eastern reaches of the Portland metropolitan area, the water gap furnishes the only navigable route through the Cascades and the only water connection between the Columbia River Plateau and the Pacific Ocean.

The gorge holds federally protected status as a National Scenic Area called the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area and is managed by the Columbia River Gorge Commission and the US Forest Service. The gorge is a popular recreational destination.

Contents

  • Description 1
  • Geology 2
  • History 3
  • Gallery 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Description

The ecosystems from the temperate rain forest on the western end—with an average annual precipitation of 75 to 100 inches (1,900 to 2,500 mm)—to the eastern grasslands with average annual precipitation between 10 and 15 inches (250 and 380 mm), to a transitional dry woodland between Hood River and The Dalles. Isolated micro-habitats have allowed for many species of endemic plants and animals to prosper, including at least 13 endemic wildflowers.

The Gorge transitions between temperate rainforest to dry grasslands in only 80 miles, hosting a dramatic change in scenery while driving down I-84. In the western, temperate rainforest areas, forests are marked by bigleaf maples, Douglas Fir, and Western hemlock, all covered in epiphytes. In the transition zone (between Hood River and The Dalles), vegetation turns to Oregon white oak, Ponderosa pine, and cottonwood. At the eastern end, the forests make way for expansive grasslands, with occasional pockets of lodgepole pine and Ponderosa pine.

windsurfing and kitesurfing location.

The Gorge is a popular destination for

  • U.S. Forest Service - Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area
  • Columbia River Gorge Commission
  • Columbia Gorge Magazine
  • Abbott, Carl. "Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area".  
  • Portland State University Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Collection—contains research material used to write the book Planning a New West: The Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

External links

  1. ^ "Columbia River Gorge of Oregon". Northwest Waterfall Survey. Retrieved February 6, 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Columbia River Gorge". Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  3. ^ magazinePacific NWThe Seattle Times' - "Trailing an Apocalypse" - 30 September 2007
  4. ^ O'Connor, Jim E. (Fall 2004). "The Evolving Landscape of the Columbia River Gorge: Lewis and Clark and Cataclysms on the Columbia". Oregon Historical Quarterly. 
  5. ^ Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area Act from GorgeFriends.org

References

  • Barlow Road, the first wagon-compatible pioneer road to provide a safer alternative to traveling through the gorge
  • Cascades Rapids
  • Columbia Gorge casino, a proposed off-reservation casino in Cascade Locks
  • Wahclella Falls

See also

Gallery

The Columbia Gorge American Viticultural Area, a 4,432-acre (1,794 ha) area located on both sides of the river.

The gorge has provided a transportation corridor for thousands of years. BNSF Railway runs freights along the Washington side of the river, while its rival, the Union Pacific Railroad, runs freights along the Oregon shore. Until 1997, Amtrak's Pioneer also used the Union Pacific tracks. The Portland segment of the Empire Builder uses the BNSF tracks that pass through the gorge.

The gorge has supported human habitation for over 13,000 years. Evidence of the Folsom and Marmes people, who crossed the Bering land bridge from Asia, were found in archaeological digs. Excavations near Celilo Falls, a few miles east of The Dalles, show humans have occupied this salmon-fishing site for more than 10,000 years.

History

A view of the Columbia River Gorge from near the top of Mt. Hamilton, looking south from the Bonneville Dam is visible. On the left-center is the small town of North Bonneville. Behind the hills in the center of the image, the peak of Mt. Hood is just barely visible. The large rock at the river's edge on the right side is Beacon Rock. To get an idea of the scale of the image, Beacon Rock is 848 feet (258 m) tall.

Although the river slowly eroded the land over this period of time, the most drastic changes took place at the end of the last Ice Age when the Missoula Floods cut the steep, dramatic walls that exist today, flooding the river as high up as Crown Point.[3] This quick erosion left many layers of volcanic rock exposed.[2]

The Columbia River Gorge began forming as far back as the Miocene (roughly 17 to 12 million years ago), and continued to take shape through the Pleistocene (2 million to 700,000 years ago). During this period the Cascades Range was forming, which slowly moved the Columbia River's delta about 100 miles (160 km) north to its current location.[2]

Geology

Trails and day use sites are maintained by the Forest Service and many Oregon and Washington state parks.

. Multnomah Falls, including the notable 620-foot (190 m)-high Historic Columbia River Highway Many are along the [1]

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