World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Compound feed

Article Id: WHEBN0007626640
Reproduction Date:

Title: Compound feed  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Amino acid, Feed, Onobrychis viciifolia, Canola, Irrigon, Oregon, Genetically modified food, Rapeseed, Fodder, Ralston Purina, Extrusion
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Compound feed

Compound feeds are feedstuffs that are blended from various raw materials and additives. These blends are formulated according to the specific requirements of the target animal. They are manufactured by feed compounders as meal type, pellets or crumbles.

Compound feeds can be complete feeds that provide all the daily required nutrients, concentrates that provide a part of the ration (protein, energy) or supplements that only provide additional micronutrients, such as minerals and vitamins.

According to the American Feed Industry Association, as much as $20 billion worth of feed ingredients are purchased each year. These products range from grain mixes to orange rinds to beet pulps. The feed industry is one of the most competitive businesses in the agricultural sector, and is by far the largest purchaser of U.S. corn, feed grains, and soybean meal. Tens of thousands of farmers with feed mills on their own farms are able to compete with huge conglomerates with national distribution. Feed crops generated $23.2 billion in cash receipts on U.S. farms in 2001. At the same time, farmers spent a total of $24.5 billion on feed that year.

In 2011, around 734.5 million tons of feed were produced annually around the world.[1]

History

The beginning of industrial-scale production of animal feeds can be traced back to the late 19th century, around the time advances in human and animal nutrition were able to identify the benefits of a balanced diet, and the importance of the role processing of certain raw materials played. Corn gluten feed was first manufactured in 1882, while leading world feed producer Purina Feeds was established in 1894 by William Hollington Danforth. Cargill, which was mainly dealing in grains from its beginnings in 1865, started to deal in feed at about 1884.

The feed industry expanded rapidly in the first quarter of the 20th century, with Purina expanding its operations into Canada, and opened its first feed mill in 1927 (which is still in operation).

In 1928, the feed industry was revolutionized by the introduction of the first pelleted feeds - Purina Checkers.

Ingredients

The main ingredients used in commercially prepared feed are the feed grains, which include corn, soybeans, sorghum, oats, and barley. Corn production was valued at nearly $25 billion in 2003, while soybean production was valued at $17.5 billion. Roughly 66 percent of sorghum production, which was valued at $965 million in 2003, is used as livestock feed. Approximately 60 percent of barley production, which totaled 227 million bushels (4,610,000 metric tons) and was valued at $765 million in 2003, is used as livestock feed. Annual oat production in 2003 was valued at $218 million.

The sale and manufacture of premixes is an industry within an industry. Premixes are composed of microingredients such as vitamins, minerals, chemical preservatives, antibiotics, fermentation products, and other essential ingredients that are purchased from premix companies, usually in sacked form, for blending into commercial rations. Because of the availability of these products, a farmer who uses his own grain can formulate his own rations and be assured his animals are getting the recommended levels of minerals and vitamins.

Manufacture

The job of the feed manufacturer is to buy the commodities and blend them in the feed mill according to the specifications outlined by the nutritionist. There is little room for error because, if the ration is not apportioned correctly, lowered animal production and diminished outward appearance can occur.

Industry leaders

Globally

The world's largest feed manufacturer is the CP Group Thailand, producing 18 million tonnes of compound feed at various locations across East Asia.

Europe

The merge of the Hamburg-based traditional commodity trade firm, Cremer, and the Düsseldorf based Deuka (Deutsche Kraftfutterwerke), led to one of the largest feed companies in Europe. The new Cremer Group produces around 3.5 million tons. BOCM Pauls in the UK produces around the same amount if not more.

United States

Leading U.S. companies involved in prepared feeds production in the early first decade of the 21st century included ConAgra Inc., an Omaha, Nebraska-based firm; and Cargill, Incorporated, a diversified company that was the nation's top exporter of grain. In 1998, Ralston Purina Company, based in St. Louis, Missouri, formed Agribrands International, Inc. to control its international animal feed and agricultural products division. Agribrands produced feed and other products for livestock in markets outside of the United States, and had about 75 facilities operating in 16 countries. In 2001, it was acquired by Cargill.

Other significant industry players included Conti Group Companies, Inc., the world's leading cattle feeder; CHS, Inc. (previously known as Cenex Harvest States Cooperative), which was primarily involved in grain trading; and Farmland Industries, Inc., the leading agricultural cooperative in the United States. Farmland was a worldwide exporter of products, such as grain. In May 2002, the firm declared bankruptcy, and in the following year, Smithfield Foods acquired most of Farmland's assets.

India

There are a lot of government and private feed compounding units in India. Suguna, Kolkata based Amrit Group and Deoria based Heera Nutritech Pvt Ltd are few among them.

See also

References

External links

  • Animal feed legislation and guidance
  • Animal Feed and Ingredients Glossary
  • FAO Feed Safety guidelines
  • Feed - Biosecurity Guide
  • Infographic: A look at the global feed production 2012de:Kraftfutter
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.