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Diplura

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Title: Diplura  
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Subject: Insect, Arthropods, Springtail, Apterygota, Pterygota
Collection: Arthropod Orders, Arthropods, Diplura, Pennsylvanian First Appearances
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Diplura

Diplurans
Temporal range: Late Carboniferous–Recent
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Campodea staphylinus, Belgium
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Hexapoda
Class: Entognatha
Order: Diplura
Börner, 1904
Families [2]

The order Diplura is one of the four groups of hexapods, alongside insects, springtails and Protura. They are sometimes called "two-pronged bristletails".[3] Around 800 species have been described, of which around 70 occur in North America,[2] 12 in Great Britain[4] and two in Australia.[5]

Contents

  • Anatomy 1
  • Ecology 2
  • Relatives 3
  • References 4

Anatomy

Anatomy of Campodea (Campodeidae) and Japyx (Japygidae)

Diplurans are mostly 2–5 millimetres (0.08–0.20 in) long, although some species of Japyx may reach 50 mm (2.0 in).[4] They have no eyes and, apart from the darkened cerci in some species, they are unpigmented.[4] They have long antennae with 10 or more bead-like segments projecting forward from the head,[6] and a pair of cerci projecting backwards from the last of the 11 abdominal somites.[7] These cerci may be long and filamentous or short and pincer-like,[8] leading to occasional confusion with earwigs.[5] These cerci give the group its name, from the Greek diplo ("two") and uros ("tail").[6] Some diplurans have the ability to shed their cerci if necessary (autotomy); of all terrestrial arthropods, only diplurans have the ability to regenerate these lost appendages over a series of moults.[6] Moulting occurs up to 30 times throughout the life of a dipluran, which is estimated to last up to one year.[5] The abdomens of diplurans bear eversible vesicles,[9] which seem to absorb moisture from the environment and help with the animal's water balance.[6]

Ecology

Diplurans are common in moist

  1. ^ Hoell, H.V., Doyen, J.T. & Purcell, A.H. (1998). Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press. p. 320.  
  2. ^ a b c David R. Maddison (January 1, 2005). "Diplura".  
  3. ^ a b c d "Guide to New Zealand Soil Invertebrates".  
  4. ^ a b c David Kendall (2005). "Diplura". Kendall Bioresearch Services. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "Diplura".  
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Diplura".  
  7. ^ "Diplura". The Earthlife Web. November 11, 2005. 
  8. ^ "Diplura".  
  9. ^ a b c d John R. Meyer (2005). "Diplura".  
  10. ^ A. Carapelli, F. Nardi, R. Dallai & F. Frati (2006). "A review of molecular data for the phylogeny of basal hexapods". Pedobiologia 50 (2): 191–204.  

References

The relationships among the four groups of hexapods are not resolved, but most recent studies argue against a monophyletic Entognatha.[10] The fossil record of the Diplura is sparse, but one apparent dipluran dates from the Carboniferous.[2] This early dipluran, Testajapyx, had compound eyes, and mouthparts that more closely resembled those of true insects than those of modern diplurans do.

Relatives

[3] Like other non-insect hexapods, diplurans have

[5] Those species with long cerci are herbivorous.[3].detritus, springtails, and other small soil invertebrates, as well as mites, fungi feed on soil Campodeidae, and even other diplurans, while members of the family larvae insect, myriapods, small isopods, springtails are mainly predatory and use their pincer-like cerci to capture prey, including Japygidae Members of the family [3]

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