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Emilie Schenkl

Emilie Schenkl
Emilie Schenkl with Subhas Chandra Bose
Born Emilie Schenkl
(1910-12-26)26 December 1910
Died March, 1996
Spouse(s) Subhas Chandra Bose (m. 1937)

Emilie Schenkl (26 December 1910 – March 1996), was the wife,[1] or companion,[2] of Subhas Chandra Bose—a major leader of Indian nationalism—and the mother of their daughter, Anita Bose Pfaff.[1][3] Since Bose was unable to bring his family to India in the midst of wartime Europe, he left Schenkl, an Austrian, with a note addressed to his elder brother Sarat Bose confirming the identity of his wife and their baby daughter and asking for them to be accepted into their family, should he die in the war. Bose then moved from Germany to southeast Asia in February 1943, and subsequently died at the end of the war.[4] After the war, Emilie and their daughter were met by Bose's brother Sarat Chandra Bose and his family in Vienna in 1948, and welcomed into the Bose family.[5]

Early life

Emilie Schenkl was born in Vienna on 26 December 1910 in an Austrian Catholic family.[6] Paternal granddaughter of a shoemaker and the daughter of a veterinarian, she started primary school late—towards the end of the Great war—on account of her father's reluctance for her to have formal schooling.[6] Her father, moreover, became unhappy with her progress in secondary school and enrolled her in a nunnery for four years.[6] Schenkl decided against becoming a nun and went back to school, finishing when she was 20.[6] The Great Depression had begun in Europe; consequently, for a few years she was unemployed.[6]

She was introduced to Bose through a mutual friend, Dr. Mathur, an Indian physician living in Vienna.[6] Since Schenkl could take shorthand and her English and typing skills were good, she was hired by Bose, who was writing his book, The Indian Struggle.[6] They soon fell in love and were married in a secret Hindu ceremony in 1937,[1][2] but without a Hindu priest, witnesses, or civil record. Bose went back to India and reappeared in Nazi Germany during April 1941–February 1943.

Berlin during the war

Soon, according to historian Romain Hayes, "the (German) Foreign Office procured a luxurious residence for (Bose) along with a butler, cook, gardener, and an SS-chauffeured car. Emilie Schenkl moved in openly with him. The Germans, aware of the nature of the relationship, refrained from any involvement."[3] However, most of the staff in the Special Bureau for India, which had been set up to aid Bose, did not get along with Emilie.[7] In particular Adam von Trott, Alexander Werth and Freda Kretschemer, according to historian Leonard A. Gordon, "appear to have disliked her intensely. They believed that she and Bose were not married and that she was using her liaison with Bose to live an especially comfortable life during the hard times of war" and that differences were compounded by issues of class.[7] In November 1942, Schenkl gave birth to their daughter. In February 1943, Bose left Schenkl and their baby daughter and boarded a German submarine to travel, via transfer to a Japanese submarine, to Japanese-occupied southeast Asia, where with Japanese support he formed a Provisional Government of Free India and revamped an army, the Indian National Army, whose goal was to liberate India militarily with Japanese help. Bose's effort, however, was unsuccessful, and he died in a plane crash in Taipei, Taiwan, on 18 August 1945, while attempting to escape to the still Japanese-held town of Dairen (now Dalian) on the Manchurian peninsula.[8]

Later life

Schenkl and her daughter survived the war.[4][9] During their nine years of marriage, Schenkl and Bose spent less than three years together, putting strains on Schenkl.[10] In the post-war years, Schenkl worked shifts in the Trunk Office and was the main breadwinner of her family, which included her daughter and her mother.[10] Although some family members from Bose's extended family, including

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