Enacting formula

An enacting clause, or enacting formula, is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by a legislature. It usually declares the source from which the law claims to derive its authority. In many countries, an enacting formula is not considered necessary and is simply omitted.

The simplest enacting clauses merely cite the legislature by which the law has been adopted; for example the enacting clause used in Australia since 1990 is "The Parliament of Australia enacts".[1] Alternatively an enacting clause may invoke the ultimate sovereign. For example, California, based on the principle of popular sovereignty, has the following enacting clause: "The People of the State of California do enact as follows."[1]

National legislatures

Antigua and Barbuda

Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda:

"ENACTED by the Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda as follows:"
[2]

Argentina

Congress of Argentina:

"The Senate and House of Deputies of the Argentine Nation, in Congress assembled, ... enact or approve with the force of law:"
Spanish: "El Senado y Cámara de Diputados de la Nación Argentina, reunidos en Congreso,... decretan o sancionan con fuerza de ley."

Australia

Parliament of Australia:

"The Parliament of Australia enacts:"
[1]

For constitutional amendments passed at a referendum:[3]

"The Parliament of Australia, with the approval of the electors, as required by the Constitution, enacts:"

Before October 1990:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen [King], and the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Australia, as follows:"
[4]

1901–?:

"BE IT ENACTED by the King's [Queen's] Most Excellent Majesty, the Senate and the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Australia, as follows:"

Barbados

Parliament of Barbados:

1969:
"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Assembly of Barbados and by the authority of the same as follows:-"
[5]

Bahamas

Parliament of the Bahamas:

"Enacted by the Parliament of The Bahamas."
[6]

Belize

Parliament of Belize:

"BE IT ENACTED, by and with the advice and consent of the House of Representatives and the Senate of Belize and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"

Brazil

National Congress of Brazil:

"THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: I make it known that the National Congress decrees and I approve the following Law:"
Portuguese: "O PRESIDENTE DA REPÚBLICA: Faço saber que o Congresso Nacional decreta e eu sanciono a seguinte Lei:"'

When the president vetoes a bill, and the veto is overridden, the Bill is returned by Congress to the President not for approval, but merely for promulgation. In that case, the president is expected to promulgate the bill in 48 hours. In that situation, the formula is as follows:

"THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: I make it known that the National Congress maintained and I promulgate the following Law:"
Portuguese: "O PRESIDENTE DA REPÚBLICA: Faço saber que o Congresso Nacional manteve e eu promulgo a seguinte Lei:"

Implicit approval is deemed to take place if the president fails to sign or veto a bill within the constitutionally mandated timeframe of fifteen working days from receiving the bill. Once the bill is considered implicitlly approved, the president is expected to promulgate the new law and the same 48 hour timeframe applies. The formula in this case is:

"THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: I make it known that the National Congress decrees and I promulgate the following Law:"
Portuguese: "O PRESIDENTE DA REPÚBLICA: Faço saber que o Congresso Nacional decreta e eu promulgo a seguinte Lei:"

Should the president refuse to promulgate, or fail to promulgate in the period of 48 hours, a bill, after his veto has been overriden by Congress, then the authority to promulgate the bill passes to the President of the Senate. In that case, the formula of promulgation is:

"The President of the FEDERAL SENATE promulgates, in accordance with art. 66 §7, of the Federal Constitution, the following Law, that results from bill vetoed by the President of the Republic and maintained by the National Congress:"
Portuguese: "O Presidente do SENADO FEDERAL promulga, nos termos do art. 66, § 7, da Constituição Federal, a seguinte Lei, resultante de Projeto vetado pelo Presidente da República e mantido pelo Congresso Nacional:"

Should the president of the Republic refuse to promulgate, or fail to promulgate in the period of 48 hours, a bill, after the bill has been implicitly approved due to his failiure to sign or veto it within the constitutionally mandated timeframe, then the authority to promulgate the bill passes to the President of the Senate. In that case, the formula of promulgation is:

"I make it known that the NATIONAL CONGRESS enacted, the President of the Republic, in accordance with the provisions of §3 of the art. 66 of the Constitution, approved, and I, (NAME IN CAPITAL LETTERS), President of the Federal Senate, in accordance with the §7 of the same article, do promulgate the following Law:"
Portuguese: "Faço saber que o CONGRESSO NACIONAL aprovou, o Presidente da República, nos termos do § 3o do art. 66 da Constituição, sancionou, e eu, NOME, Presidente do Senado Federal, nos termos do § 7o do mesmo artigo promulgo a seguinte Lei:"

Whenever the president adopts a provisional measure and the provisional measure is approved by Congress with changes, a normal bill is sent to the president for approval or veto, and the same formulas used for other bills are employed; once enacted, the new statute replaces the provisional measure. However, if the provisional measure adopted by the president is approved by Congress without changes, the bill does not need to be presented for approval or veto; in that case, the law that both corresponds fully to the provisional measure and replaces it is promulgated directly by the President of the Senate, with the following words:

"I make it known that the President of the Republic adopted the Provisional Measure number NNN of YYYY, that the National Congress approved, and I, NAME IN CAPITAL LETTERS, President of the Federal Senate, for the effects of the provision of the sole paragraph of art. 62 of the Federal Constitution, do promulgate the following Law:"
Portuguese: "Faço saber que o Presidente da República adotou a Medida Provisória no NN, de YYYY, que o Congresso Nacional aprovou e eu, NOME, Presidente do Senado Federal, para os efeitos do disposto no parágrafo único do art. 62 da Constituição Federal, promulgo a seguinte Lei:"

Canada

Parliament of Canada:

"Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows:"
French: "Sa Majesté, sur l'avis et avec le consentement du Sénat et de la Chambre des communes du Canada, édicte:"
[7]

Chile

National Congress of Chile:

THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC: "Bearing in mind that the Hon. National Congress has given its approval to the next Bill...And because I have seen fit to approve and sanction it; therefore it enacted and take effect as a law of the Republic"
Spanish: EL PRESIDENTE DE LA REPÚBLICA: "Teniendo presente que el H. Congreso Nacional ha dado su aprobación al siguiente proyecto de ley...Y por cuanto he tenido a bien aprobarlo y sancionarlo; por tanto promúlguese y llévese a efecto como Ley de la República.

"

Finland

Parliament of Finland:

"Be it enacted in accordance with the resolution of the Parliament:"
Finnish: "Eduskunnan päätöksen mukaisesti säädetään:"[8]
Swedish: "I enlighet med riksdagens beslut föreskrivs:"[9]

Before 1917 (examples):

"His Majesty the Emperor has, in accordance with the humble submission by the Estates of Finland, while in Petergof, on 7 (20) of July, 1906, been pleased to Graciously ratify the following Election Act for the Grand Duchy of Finland:"
—(1906)
Finnish: "Hänen Majesteettinsa Keisari on, Suomenmaan Valtiosäätyjen alamaisesta esityksestä, Pietarhovissa ollessaan 7 (20) p:nä heinäkuuta 1906 suvainnut Armossa vahvistaa seuraavan vaalilain Suomen Suuriruhtinaanmaalle::—"[10]
"We Alexander the Third, by Grace of God the Emperor and Autocrat of all the Russias, Czar of Poland, Grand Duke of Finland, etc., etc., etc., make it known: it is our will to hereby promulgate, in accordance with the humble submission of the Estates of Finland, the following Criminal Code for the Grand Duchy of Finland, on execution of which, as well as on enforcement of punishments, a special decree will be given"
Finnish: "Me Aleksander Kolmas, Jumalan Armosta, koko Venäjänmaan Keisari ja Itsevaltias, Puolanmaan Zsaari, Suomen Suuriruhtinas, y. m., y. m., y. m. Teemme tiettäväksi: Suomenmaan Valtiosäätyjen alamaisesta esityksestä tahdomme Me täten armosta vahvistaa seuraavan rikoslain Suomen Suuriruhtinaanmaalle, jonka voimaanpanemisesta, niinkuin myöskin rangaistusten täytäntöönpanosta erityinen asetus annetaan:"[11]

France

Parliament of France:

"The National Assembly and the Senate have adopted,
The President of the Republic promulgates the law of which content follows:"
French: "L'Assemblée nationale et le Sénat ont adopté,
Le Président de la République promulgue la loi dont la teneur suit:"

Germany

Bundestag of Germany:

For acts which do not need the consent of the Bundesrat:

"The Bundestag has enacted as follows. The constitutional rights of the Bundesrat have been observed"
German: "Der Bundestag hat folgendes Gesetz beschlossen. Die verfassungsmäßigen Rechte des Bundesrates sind gewahrt"

For acts which need the consent of the Bundesrat:

"The Bundestag, with the consent of the Bundesrat, has enacted as follows"
German: "Der Bundestag hat mit Zustimmung des Bundesrates folgendes Gesetz beschlossen"

Grenada

Parliament of Grenada:

"Be it enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Representatives of Grenada, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—"

India

Parliament of India:

"BE it enacted by Parliament in the [number of years since 1950] Year of the Republic of India as follows:—"
[12]

Ireland

Standard:

Since 1937:
"Be it enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:—"
Irish: "Achtaitear ag an Oireachtas mar a leanas:—"
[13]
1922-1937:
"Be it enacted by the Oireachtas of Saorstát Éireann as follows:—"
Irish: "Achtuigheadh Oireachtas Shaorstáit Éireann mar leanas:—"
[14]

For an act with a preamble:

Since 1937:
"Be it therefore enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:—"
Irish: "Achtuigheadh an tOireachtas ar an ábhar san mar leanas:—"
1922-1937:
"Be it therefore enacted by the Oireachtas of Saorstát Éireann as follows:—"
Irish: "Achtuigheadh Oireachtas Shaorstáit Éireann ar an ábhar san mar leanas:—"

Jamaica

Parliament of Jamaica:

"BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and House of Representatives of Jamaica, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-
[15]

Malaysia

Parliament of Malaysia:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong with the advice and consent of the Dewan Negara and Dewan Rakyat in Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:–"
Malay: "MAKA INILAH DIPERBUAT UNDANG-UNDANG oleh Duli Yang Maha Mulia Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong dengan nasihat dan persetujuan Dewan Negara dan Dewan Rakyat yang bersidang dalam Parlimen, dan dengan kuasa daripadanya, seperti berikut:–"

Lebanon

Parliament of Lebanon:

"The Chamber of deputies has adopted,
The President of the Republic enacts the law of which content follows:"

Malta

Parliament of Malta:

Since 1974:
"BE IT ENACTED by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the House of Representatives, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:"

Mexico

Congress of Mexico:

"The Congress of the United Mexican States decrees ..."[2]

Moldova

Parliament of the Republic of Moldova:

"The Parliament adopts the present law"
Romanian: "Parlamentul adoptă prezenta lege"

Netherlands

Estates-General of the Netherlands:

"We Willem-Alexander [name of sovereign], by the grace of God, King [Queen] of the Netherlands, Prince [Princess] of Orange-Nassau, etc. etc. etc.


To all who shall see this or hear it read, greetings! be it known:
Whereas we have considered that: [here follows a short recital of the Act's purpose];
Thus it is, that We, by the advice of the Council of State, and with the consent of the States General, have assented and understood as We hereby assent and understand:

[...text of law...]

[We] Require and command that these will be placed in the Official Bulletin of Acts and Decrees and that all ministries, authorities, governmental institutions and civil servants, whom it concerns, will diligently implement it.

Given at [location, be it in the Netherlands or abroad, and the date] [signed Willem-Alexander]"

The text in Dutch is:

"Wij Willem-Alexander [name of sovereign], bij de gratie Gods, Koning [Koningin] der Nederlanden, Prins [Prinses] van Oranje-Nassau, enz. enz. enz.


Allen, die deze zullen zien of horen lezen, saluut! doen te weten:
Alzo Wij in overweging genomen hebben, [here follows a short recital of the Act's purpose];
Zo is het, dat Wij, de Raad van State gehoord, en met gemeen overleg der Staten-Generaal, hebben goedgevonden en verstaan, gelijk Wij goedvinden en verstaan bij deze:

[...text of law...]

Lasten en bevelen dat deze in het Staatsblad zal worden geplaatst en dat alle ministeries, autoriteiten, colleges en ambtenaren wie zulks aangaat, aan de nauwkeurige uitvoering de hand zullen houden.

Gegeven te [location and date] [signed Willem-Alexander]"

New Zealand

Parliament of New Zealand:

"The Parliament of New Zealand enacts as follows:-"
[16]

1986-1999:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Parliament of New Zealand as follows:-"
[17]

Before 1986:

"BE IT ENACTED by the General Assembly of New Zealand in Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"
[18]

Nigeria

Nigerian National Assembly:

"Be it Enacted by the National Assembly of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as follows -"
[19]

Philippines

Congress of the Philippines

1987 Constitution:

"We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of the Almighty God, in order to build a just and humane society, and establish a Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote the common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution."

Bills:

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:-"

Joint Resolutions:

"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:-"

Peru

Congress of Peru:

"The Congress of the Republic has given the following Law"
Spanish: "El Congreso de la Republica ha dado la Ley siguiente"

Romania

Parliament of Romania:

"The Parliament of Romania adopts the present law"
Romanian: "Parlamentul României adoptă prezenta lege"

1965-1989:

"The Great National Assembly of the Romanian Socialist Republic adopts the present law"
Romanian: "Marea Adunare Naţională a Republicii Socialiste România adoptă prezenta lege"

1948-1965:

"The Great National Assembly of the Romanian People's Republic adopts"
Romanian: "Marea Adunare Naţională a Republicii Populare Române adoptă"

1881-1947:

"[King's name],
By the grace of God and the nation's will, King of Romania,
To all present and future, good health:
The lawmaking assemblies have voted and adopted, and We approve what follows:"
Romanian: "[Numele regelui],
Prin graţia lui Dumnezeu şi voinţa naţională, Rege al Romaniei,
La toţi de faţă şi viitori, sănătate:
Adunările legiuitoare au votat şi adoptat, iar Noi, sancţionăm ce urmează:"

South Africa

Parliament of South Africa: Since 27 April 1994:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:—"
or
"PARLIAMENT of the Republic of South Africa [therefore] enacts as follows:—
[20]
The Constitution of South Africa, not being a conventional Act of Parliament, does not contain an enacting formula per se. Its preamble does, however, contain the words
"We therefore, through our freely elected representatives, adopt this Constitution as the supreme law of the Republic".
In the context, "we" refers to the people of South Africa.

3 September 1984 to 27 April 1994:

For "general affairs" acts:
"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the State President and the Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:—"
For "own affairs" acts:
"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the State President and the House of [Assembly/Representatives/Delegates] of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:—"

1 January 1981 to 3 September 1984:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the State President and the House of Assembly of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:―"

31 May 1961 to 1 January 1981:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the State President, the Senate and the House of Assembly of the Republic of South Africa, as follows:―"
For acts amending the entrenched clauses of the Constitution of 1961:
"BE IT ENACTED by the State President, the Senate and the House of Assembly of the Republic of South Africa in accordance with the requirements of section 118 of the Republic of South Africa Constitution Act, 1961, as follows:―

31 May 1910 to 31 May 1961:

"BE IT [THEREFORE] ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] Most Excellent Majesty, the Senate and House of Assembly of the Parliament of the Union of South Africa, as follows:—"
For acts amending the entrenched clauses of the South Africa Act 1909:
"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] Most Excellent Majesty, the Senate and the House of Assembly of the Union of South Africa, in accordance with the requirements of section one hundred and fifty-two of the South Africa Act, 1909, as follows:―"

Spain

Cortes Generales of Spain:

"Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all whom these presents shall be seen or understood, BE IT KNOWN: That the Cortes Generales have approved and I do enact this Act as follows"
Spanish: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y Yo vengo en sancionar la siguiente Ley"

For Constitutions:

"Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all whom these presents shall be seen or understood, BE IT KNOWN: That the Cortes Generales have approved and the people of Spain have ratified the following Constitution"
Spanish: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y el pueblo español ratificado la siguiente Constitución"

For organic acts:

"Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], King [Queen] of Spain, to all whom these presents shall be seen or understood, BE IT KNOWN: That the Cortes Generales have approved and I do enact this Organic Act as follows"
Spanish: "Juan Carlos I [Name of the king/queen], Rey [Reina] de España, a todos los que la presente vieren y entendieren, sabed: Que las Cortes Generales han aprobado y Yo vengo en sancionar la siguiente Ley Orgánica"

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Parliament of Saint Kitts and Nevis:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty by and with the advice and consent of the National Assembly of Saint Christopher and Nevis, and by the authority of the same as follows:-"

Saint Lucia

Parliament of Saint Lucia:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the House of Assembly and the Senate of Saint Lucia, and by the authority of the same, as follows:"
[21]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty by and with the advice and consent of the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"
[22]

Solomon Islands

National Parliament of the Solomon Islands:

"ENACTED by the National Parliament of Solomon Islands."
[23]

Switzerland

Swiss Federal Assembly:

"The Federal Assembly of the Swiss Confederation, pursuant to the articles ... of the Federal Constitution, having taken notice of the message of the Federal Council of ..., resolves:"[24]
German: "Die Bundesversammlung der Schweizerischen Eidgenossenschaft, gestützt auf die Artikel ... der Bundesverfassung, nach Einsicht in die Botschaft des Bundesrates vom ..., beschliesst:"
French: "L’Assemblée fédérale de la Confédération suisse, vu les art. ... de la Constitution, vu le message du Conseil fédéral du ..., arrête:"
Italian: "L’Assemblea federale della Confederazione Svizzera, visti gli articoli ... della Costituzione federale; visto il parere del Consiglio federale del ..., decreta:"

Thailand

National Assembly of Thailand:[25]

Constitution:

"May there be virtue. Today is the [e.g. eleventh] day of the [e.g. ninth] month of the year of the [e.g. pig] under the lunar calendar, being [e.g. Friday], the [e.g. twenty fourth] day of [e.g. August] under the solar calendar, in the [e.g. 2550th] Year of the Buddhist Era.

Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej Mahitalathibet Ramathibodi Chakkrinaruebodin Sayaminthrathirat Borommanatbophit [Name of the King in full title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that..............[e.g. the President of the National Legislative Assembly has made submission to the King that...] ................................................................................................................................ .............[e.g. The President of the National Legislative Assembly], therefor, submitted the draft charter to His Majesty to affix the royal signature to henceforth promulgate it as the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand. Having throughly considered by the King, the expedience to grant the royal permission in accordance with the public opinion. Be it, therefor, commanded by the King the enactment of this Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand replaces the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand which enacted on [e.g. 1 October B.E. 2549 (2006)] as of the date of its publication, henceforth onwards. May the Thai People unite in observing, protecting and upholding this Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand in order to maintain the democratic regime and the sovereignty of the Thai people, and bring about happiness, prosperity and dignity to His Majesty’s subjects throughout the Kingdom according to the will of His Majesty in every respect."

Act:

"Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej [Name of the King in brief title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that:

Whereas it is expedient to have/amend/abrogate a/the law on............ Be it, therefor, enacted by the King, by and with the advice and consent of the National Assembly, as follows:"

Royal Degree & Emergency Decree:

"Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej [Name of the King in brief title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that:

Whereas it is expedient to have/amend/abrogate a/the law on............ Be it, therefor, by the virtue of.........., enacted by the King the Royal Decree/Emergency Decree as follows:"

Royal Command:

"Phra Bat Somdet Phra Poramin Maha Bhumibol Adulyadej [Name of the King in brief title] is graciously pleased to proclaim that..............

Announced on the [e.g. 31st] Day of [e.g. January] BE [e.g. 2551] (... [e.g.] 2008), being the [e.g. 63rd] Year of the Present Reign."

Tuvalu

Parliament of Tuvalu:

"ENACTED by the Parliament of Tuvalu-

United Kingdom

Parliament of the United Kingdom:

"BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—"
[26]
For money bills:
"Most Gracious Sovereign

WE, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of the United Kingdom in Parliament assembled, towards raising the necessary supplies to defray Your Majesty's public expenses, and making an addition to the public revenue, have freely and voluntarily resolved to give and grant unto Your Majesty the several duties hereinafter mentioned; and do therefore most humbly beseech Your Majesty that it may be enacted, and be it enacted by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—"
[27]
Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949:
"BE IT ENACTED by The Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Commons in this present Parliament assembled, in accordance with the provisions of the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949, and by the authority of the same, as follows:—"

United States

Congress of the United States

Bills:

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,"
[28]

Joint Resolutions (have the same effect as bills):

"Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,"
[29]

Venezuela

National Assembly of Venezuela:

"The National Assembly of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela hereby Decrees"

Zimbabwe

Parliament of Zimbabwe:

"ENACTED by the President and the Parliament of Zimbabwe."
[30]

Former legislatures

"The Congress of the Confederate States of America do enact,"[3]
"It is hereby enacted as follows:—"

Territorial legislatures

Guam

Hong Kong

  • Legislative Council of Hong Kong
    • 1843-1887: "BE IT ENACTED by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-"
    • 1888-1997: "BE IT ENACTED by the Governor of Hongkong, with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows:-"(Chinese: "茲由香港總督參照立法局意見並得該局同意後,制定本條例,各條文如下─"
    • 1997-1998: "Enacted by the Provisional Legislative Council." (Chinese: "由臨時立法會制定。"
    • After 1998: "Enacted by the Legislative Council." (Chinese: "由立法會制定。"[31]

British crown dependencies

  • Tynwald of the Isle of Man: "BE IT ENACTED by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Council and Keys in Tynwald assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:–"[32]
  • States of Jersey: "THE STATES, subject to the sanction of Her Most Excellent Majesty in Council, have adopted the following Law –" (French: "LES ETATS, moyennant la sanction de Sa Très Excellente Majesté en Conseil, ont adopté la Loi suivante –")[33]
  • States of Guernsey: "THE STATES, in pursuance of their Resolution of DATE, have approved the following provisions which, subject to the Sanction of Her Most Excellent Majesty in Council, shall have force of law in the Bailiwick [or Island] of Guernsey."[34]

British overseas territories

  • Parliament of Bermuda: "Be it enacted by The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and the House of Assembly of Bermuda, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"
  • House of Assembly of the British Virgin Islands: "ENACTED by the Legislature of the Virgin Islands as follows:-"
  • Gibraltar Parliament: "ENACTED by the Legislature of Gibraltar:-"
  • Legislative Council of Saint Helena:"Enacted by the Governor of St Helena with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council of St Helena."[35]
  • Administrator of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia: "BE it enacted by the Administrator of the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia as follows:-"
  • Legislative Assembly of Montserrat: "Be it enacted by The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Assembly of Montserrat, and by the authority of the same as follows:–".[36]

Subnational legislatures

Australia

Canada

New Zealand

Provincial councils (abolished in 1876)

  • Canterbury Provincial Council: "Be it enacted by the Superintendent of the Province of Canterbury, by and with the advice and consent of the Provincial Council thereof, as follows:—"

United Kingdom

Devolved institutions

  • Northern Ireland Assembly: "BE IT ENACTED by being passed by the Northern Ireland Assembly and assented to by Her [His] Majesty as follows:"[58]
  • Scottish Parliament: Acts of the Scottish Parliament do not begin with a conventional enacting clause. Instead they begin with a phrase that reads: "The Bill for this Act of the Scottish Parliament was passed by the Parliament on [Date] and received Royal Assent on [Date]"[59]
  • National Assembly for Wales:
Acts in the English Language: "Having been passed by the National Assembly for Wales and having received the assent of Her Majesty, it is enacted as follows:—"[60]
Acts in the Welsh Language: "Gan ei fod wedi ei basio gan Gynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru a chael cysyniad Ei Mawrhydi, deddfir fel a ganlyn:—"
Measures in the English Language: "This Measure, passed by the National Assembly for Wales on [Date] and approved by Her Majesty in Council on [Date], enacts the following provisions:—"[61]
Measures in the Welsh Language: "Mae'r Mesur hwn, a basiwyd gan Gynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru ar [Dyddiad] ac a gymeradwywyd gan Ei Mawrhydi yn Ei Chyngor ar [Dyddiad], yn deddfu'r darpariaethau a ganlyn:—"
Former legislatures
  • Parliament of Northern Ireland (1921–1972): "BE it enacted by the Queen's [King's] most Excellent Majesty, and the Senate and the House of Commons of Northern Ireland in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows:-"

United States

District of Columbia

References

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