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Endocrine diseases

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Endocrine diseases

Endocrine disease
Classification and external resources
10 9 MeSH D004700

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system. The branch of medicine associated with endocrine disorders is known as endocrinology.

Types of endocrine disease

Broadly speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups:[1]

  1. Endocrine gland hyposecretion (leading to hormone deficiency)
  2. Endocrine gland hypersecretion (leading to hormone excess)
  3. Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands

Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system. For example, most forms of hyperthyroidism are associated with an excess of thyroid hormone and a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone.[2]

List of endocrine diseases

Adrenal disorders

Glucose homeostasis disorders

Thyroid disorders

Calcium homeostasis disorders and Metabolic bone disease

Pituitary gland disorders

Posterior pituitary

Anterior pituitary

Sex hormone disorders

Tumours of the endocrine glands not mentioned elsewhere

See also separate organs

Endocrine emergencies

In endocrinology, medical emergencies include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, hypoglycemic coma, acute adrenocortical insufficiency, phaeochromocytoma crisis, hypercalcemic crisis, thyroid storm, myxoedema coma and pituitary apoplexy.[3]

Emergencies arising from decompensated pheochromocytomas or parathyroid adenomas are sometimes referred for emergency resection when aggressive medical therapies fail to control the patient's state, however the surgical risks are significant, especially blood pressure lability and the possibility of cardiovascular collapse after resection (due to a brutal drop in respectively catecholamines and calcium, which must be compensated with gradual normalization).[4][5] It remains debated when emergency surgery is appropriate as opposed to urgent or elective surgery after continued attempts to stabilize the patient, notably in view of newer and more efficient medications and protocols.[6][7][8]

See also

References

External links

  • Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  • endocrinediseases
  • Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy
  • Endotext
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