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Ferdinand Blumentritt


Ferdinand Blumentritt

Ferdinand Blumentritt
Blumentritt in 1905
Born September 10, 1853 (1853-09-10)
Prague, Austro-Hungarian Empire
Died September 20, 1913(1913-09-20) (aged 60)
Litoměřice, Austro-Hungarian Empire
Occupation Author, lecturer, ethnography
Language German, English
Citizenship Austro-Hungarian

Ferdinand Blumentritt (September 10, 1853, Prague – September 20, 1913, Litoměřice), was a teacher, secondary school principal in Litoměřice, lecturer, and author of articles and books in the Philippines and its ethnography. He is well known in the Philippines for his close friendship with the writer and Propagandist, José Rizal, and the numerous correspondence between the two provide a vital reference for Rizal historians and scholars,[1] including his last letter from prison[2] before the execution.


  • Biography 1
  • Main works 2
  • Literature 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6


Blumentritt was born in Prague (now the Czech Republic, in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire). He is a nephew of the Hungarian German writer Ferenc Virághalmi (hu). He wrote expansively about the Philippines, although he never visited the islands.

Blumentritt became one of Rizal's closest confidants although they met only once. He translated the latter's first book, Noli Me Tangere, into German and wrote the preface to Rizal's second book, El filibusterismo, although he was against its publication. These two novels are commentaries disguised as fiction which angered both the Catholic Church and the Spanish colonial government, and which eventually led to Rizal's 1896 trial and execution.

Blumentritt died in Litoměřice (German: Leitmeritz), Bohemia. He is memorialized in the Philippines by numerous public parks and streets. Among them are Blumentritt Road, Blumentritt LRT Station, Blumentritt railway station, the Blumentritt Market in Metro Manila and the Blumentritt Street in Naga City and Tuguegarao.

Main works

  • Alphabetisches Register der Reifeprüfungsvorschriften. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1909
  • Alphabetisches Verzeichnis der gebräuchlichsten Aquarellfarben. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1910
  • America and the Philippines (1900)
  • Die Chinesen auf den Philippinen. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1879
  • Diccionario mitologico de Filipinas. Madrid, 1895
  • Einige Manuskripte aus dem 17. und 18. Jahrhundert. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1904
  • Einiges über Juan Valera. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1894
  • Introduction to the Noli me tangere of Rizal. Barcelona, 1889
  • Introduction to the Sucesos de las islas Filipinas of Antonio de Morga, annotated by Rizal. Paris, 1890
  • Die Erdbeben des Juli 1880 auf den Philippinen
  • Die Goldfundstellen auf den Philippinen und ihre Ausbeutung
  • Holländische Angriffe auf die Philippinen im 16., 17., und 18. Jahrhundert. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1880
  • Das Kaiserbild. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1899
  • J. C. Labhart-Lutz. Ein Nachruf. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1889
  • Die Philippinen. Eine übersichtliche Darstellung der ethnographischen und historischpolitischen Verhältnisse des Archipels. Hamburg, 1900
  • Die Sprachgebiete Europas am Ausgange des Mittelalters, verglichen mit den Zuständen der Gegenwart. Prague (Czech: Praha), 1883
  • Strömungen und Gezeiten an der Küste von Mindanao.
  • Der "Tratado Anonimo" über den Aufstand der Cumuneros gegen König Carl V. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1878
  • Versuch einer Ethnographie der Philippinen. Gotha, 1882
  • Vocabular einzelner Ausdrücke und Redensarten, welche dem Spanischen der philippinischen Inseln eigenthümlich sind. Leitmeritz (Czech: Litoměřice), 1882, 1883–1884|8, 1885|5.


  • Jindřich Tomas: Jose Rizal, Ferdinand Blumentritt and the Philippines in the New Age. The City of Litomerice: Czech. Publishing House Oswald Praha, 1998.
  • „Ich interessiere mich von jeher nur für die spanischen Colonien“ – Neueste Erkenntnisse für die Blumentritt-Forschung aus der Korrespondenz mit Hugo SchuchardtJohann Stockinger: . (Wien, 1998)
  • The Dapitan Correspondence of Dr.Jose Rizal and Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt. Compiled by Romeo G. Jalosjos. The City Government Dapitan City: Philippines, 2007. ISBN 978-971-93553-0-4.
  • Harry Sichrovsky: Der Revolutionär von Leitmeritz. Ferdinand Blumentritt und der philippinische Freiheitskampf . Wien: Österr. Bundesverl., 1983. ISBN 3-215-04989-9
  • Harry Sichrovsky: Ferdinand Blumentritt: An Austrian Life for the PhilippinesHarry Sichrovsky: . Manila, 1987.
  • Lea Blumentritt-Virághalmy, Egy szudétanémet nagypolgár európai és délkelet-ázsiai kapcsolathálója. Szentendre, 1999) /Resume/
  • Ferdinand Blumentritt /1853-1913/Lea-Katharina Steller (née Blumentritt-Virághalmy): . In: Series of the Collections for Research into Sudeten German Minority. I.. Szentendre, 2006. Szentendre, 2006.
  • Lea-Katharina Steller (née Blumentritt-Virághalmy), Ferdinand Blumentritt In: Unitas, a scholarly publication of the University of Santo Tomas. Ed. I. C. Abaño OP. Manila, 2006/Dezember.
  • Harry Sichrovsky: "Blumentritt and Rizal. The Austrian Friend behind the Philippine National Hero." Austromedia Corp, Makati 2011 (152 pages), ISBN 978-971-95152-0-3


  1. ^ Rizal-Blumentritt Friendship, Austrian-Philippine Website
  2. ^ "211. Rizal, Fort Santiago, Manila, 29 Ðecember 1896". Retrieved 2013-05-01. 

Further reading

  • Harry Sichrovsky. Ferdinand Blumentritt: an Austrian life for the Philippines : the story of José Rizal's closest friend and companion. s.n.; 1987. ISBN 978-971-13-6024-5.

External links

  • Rizal-Blumentritt Friendship maintained by the University of Vienna
  • The Complete Jose Rizal,
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