World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Fermat prime

Article Id: WHEBN0000102409
Reproduction Date:

Title: Fermat prime  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Constructible number, Perfect number, Euler's totient function, Angle trisection, 3 (number), 17 (number), Huzita–Hatori axioms, Constructible polygon, Chiliagon, Mod n cryptanalysis
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Fermat prime

In mathematics, a Fermat number, named after Pierre de Fermat who first studied them, is a positive integer of the form

F_{n} = 2^{(2^n)} + 1

where n is a nonnegative integer. The first few Fermat numbers are:

3, 5, 17, 257, 65537, 4294967297, 18446744073709551617, … (sequence OEIS).

If 2n + 1 is OEIS).

Basic properties

The Fermat numbers satisfy the following recurrence relations:

F_{n} = (F_{n-1}-1)^{2}+1\!

for n ≥ 1,

F_{n} = F_{n-1} + 2^{2^{n-1}}F_{0} \cdots F_{n-2}\!

F_{n} = F_{n-1}^2 - 2(F_{n-2}-1)^2\!

F_{n} = F_{0} \cdots F_{n-1} + 2\!

for n ≥ 2. Each of these relations can be proved by mathematical induction. From the last equation, we can deduce Goldbach's theorem (named after Christian Goldbach): no two Fermat numbers share a common factor. To see this, suppose that 0 ≤ i < j and Fi and Fj have a common factor a > 1. Then a divides both

F_{0} \cdots F_{j-1}

and Fj; hence a divides their difference, 2. Since a > 1, this forces a = 2. This is a contradiction, because each Fermat number is clearly odd. As a corollary, we obtain another proof of the infinitude of the prime numbers: for each Fn, choose a prime factor pn; then the sequence {pn} is an infinite sequence of distinct primes.

Further properties:

  • The number of digits D(n,b) of Fn expressed in the base b is
D(n,b) = \left\lfloor \log_{b}\left(2^{2^{\overset{n}{}}}+1\right)+1 \right\rfloor \approx \lfloor 2^{n}\,\log_{b}2+1 \rfloor (See floor function).
  • No Fermat number can be expressed as the sum of two primes, with the exception of F1 = 2 + 3.
  • No Fermat prime can be expressed as the difference of two pth powers, where p is an odd prime.
  • With the exception of F0 and F1, the last digit of a Fermat number is 7.
  • The sum of the reciprocals of all the Fermat numbers (sequence Solomon W. Golomb, 1963)

Primality of Fermat numbers

Fermat numbers and Fermat primes were first studied by Pierre de Fermat, who conjectured (but admitted he could not prove) that all Fermat numbers are prime. Indeed, the first five Fermat numbers F0,...,F4 are easily shown to be prime. However, this conjecture was refuted by Leonhard Euler in 1732 when he showed that

F_{5} = 2^{2^5} + 1 = 2^{32} + 1 = 4294967297 = 641 \times 6700417. \;

Euler proved that every factor of Fn must have the form k2n+1 + 1 (later improved to k2n+2 + 1 by Lucas).

The fact that 641 is a factor of F5 can be easily deduced from the equalities 641 = 27×5+1 and 641 = 24 + 54. It follows from the first equality that 27×5 ≡ −1 (mod 641) and therefore (raising to the fourth power) that 228×54 ≡ 1 (mod 641). On the other hand, the second equality implies that 54 ≡ −24 (mod 641). These congruences imply that −232 ≡ 1 (mod 641).

It is widely believed that Fermat was aware of the form of the factors later proved by Euler, so it seems curious why he failed to follow through on the straightforward calculation to find the factor.[1] One common explanation is that Fermat made a computational mistake and was so convinced of the correctness of his claim that he failed to double-check his work.

There are no other known Fermat primes Fn with n > 4. However, little is known about Fermat numbers with large n.[2] In fact, each of the following is an open problem:

  • Is Fn composite for all n > 4?
  • Are there infinitely many Fermat primes? (Eisenstein 1844)[3]
  • Are there infinitely many composite Fermat numbers?

As of 2010 it is known that Fn is composite for 5 ≤ n ≤ 32, although complete factorizations of Fn are known only for 0 ≤ n ≤ 11, and there are no known factors for n = 20 and n = 24.[4] The largest Fermat number known to be composite is F2747497, and its prime factor 57×22747499 + 1 was discovered by Marshall Bishop in PrimeGrid's Proth Prime Search on May 13, 2013.[5]

Heuristic arguments for density

The following heuristic argument suggests there are only finitely many Fermat primes: according to the prime number theorem, the "probability" that a number n is prime is at most A/ln(n), where A is a fixed constant. Therefore, the total expected number of Fermat primes is at most

\begin{align}A \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\ln F_{n}} &= \frac{A}{\ln 2} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\log_{2}(2^{2^{n}}+1)}\\ &< \frac{A}{\ln 2} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} 2^{-n} \\ &= \frac{2A}{\ln 2}.\end{align}

It should be stressed that this argument is in no way a rigorous proof. For one thing, the argument assumes that Fermat numbers behave "randomly", yet we have already seen that the factors of Fermat numbers have special properties. If (more sophisticatedly) we regard the conditional probability that n is prime, given that we know all its prime factors exceed B, as at most Aln(B)/ln(n), then using Euler's theorem that the least prime factor of Fn exceeds 2n + 1, we would find instead

\begin{align}A \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{\ln 2^{n+1}}{\ln F_{n}} &= A \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{\log_2 2^{n+1}}{\log_{2}(2^{2^{n}}+1)} \\ &<

A \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} (n+1) 2^{-n} \\ &= 4A.\end{align}

Although such arguments engender the belief that there are only finitely many Fermat primes, one can also produce arguments for the opposite conclusion. Suppose we regard the conditional probability that n is prime, given that we know all its prime factors are 1 modulo M, as at least CM/ln(n). Then using Euler's result that M = 2n + 1 we would find that the expected total number of Fermat primes was at least

\begin{align}C \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{2^{n+1}}{\ln F_{n}} &= \frac{C}{\ln 2} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{2^{n+1}}{\log_{2}(2^{2^{n}}+1)} \\ &> \frac{C}{\ln 2} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} 1 \\ &= \infty,\end{align}

and indeed this argument predicts that an asymptotically constant fraction of Fermat numbers are prime.

Equivalent conditions of primality

There are a number of conditions that are equivalent to the primality of Fn.

  • Proth's theorem (1878)—Let N = k2m + 1 with odd k < 2m. If there is an integer a such that
a^{(N-1)/2} \equiv -1\pmod{N}\!
then N is prime. Conversely, if the above congruence does not hold, and in addition
\left(\frac{a}{N}\right)=-1\! (See Jacobi symbol)
then N is composite. If N = Fn > 3, then the above Jacobi symbol is always equal to −1 for a = 3, and this special case of Proth's theorem is known as Pépin's test. Although Pépin's test and Proth's theorem have been implemented on computers to prove the compositeness of some Fermat numbers, neither test gives a specific nontrivial factor. In fact, no specific prime factors are known for n = 20 and 24.
  • Let n ≥ 3 be a positive odd integer. Then n is a Fermat prime if and only if for every a co-prime to n, a is a primitive root modulo n if and only if a is a quadratic nonresidue modulo n.
  • The Fermat number Fn > 3 is prime if and only if it can be written uniquely as a sum of two nonzero squares, namely
When F_{n} = x^2 + y^2 not of the form shown above, a proper factor is:
\gcd(x + 2^{2^{n-1}} y, F_{n}).\!
Example 1: F5 = 622642 + 204492, so a proper factor is
\gcd(62264\, +\, 2^{2^4}\times 20449,\, F_{5}) = 641.\!
Example 2: F6 = 40468032562 + 14387937592, so a proper factor is
\gcd(4046803256\, +\, 2^{2^5}\times 1438793759,\, F_{6}) = 274177.\!

Factorization of Fermat numbers

Because of the size of Fermat numbers, it is difficult to factorize or to prove primality of those. Pépin's test gives a necessary and sufficient condition for primality of Fermat numbers, and can be implemented by modern computers. The elliptic curve method is a fast method for finding small prime divisors of numbers. Distributed computing project Fermatsearch has successfully found some factors of Fermat numbers. Yves Gallot's proth.exe has been used to find factors of large Fermat numbers. Édouard Lucas, improving the above mentioned result by Euler, proved in 1878 that every factor of Fermat number F_n, with n at least 2, is of the form k\times2^{n+2}+1 (see Proth number), where k is a positive integer; this is in itself almost sufficient to prove the primality of the known Fermat primes.

Factorizations of the first twelve Fermat numbers are:

F0 = 21 + 1 = 3 is prime
F1 = 22 + 1 = 5 is prime
F2 = 24 + 1 = 17 is prime
F3 = 28 + 1 = 257 is prime
F4 = 216 + 1 = 65,537 is the largest known Fermat prime
F5 = 232 + 1 = 4,294,967,297
= 641 × 6,700,417
F6 = 264 + 1 = 18,446,744,073,709,551,617
= 274,177 × 67,280,421,310,721
F7 = 2128 + 1 = 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,457
= 59,649,589,127,497,217 × 5,704,689,200,685,129,054,721
F8 = 2256 + 1 = 115,792,089,237,316,195,423,570,985,008,687,907,853,269,984,665,640,564,039,457,584,007,913,129,639,937
= 1,238,926,361,552,897 × 93,461,639,715,357,977,769,163,558,199,606,896,584,051,237,541,638,188,580,280,321
F9 = 2512 + 1 = 13,407,807,929,942,597,099,574,024,998,205,846,127,479,365,820,592,393,377,723,561,443,721,764,030,073,546,
= 2,424,833 × 7,455,602,825,647,884,208,337,395,736,200,454,918,783,366,342,657 × 741,640,062,627,530,801,524,787,141,901,937,474,059,940,781,097,519,023,905,821,316,144,415,759,504,705,008,092,818,711,693,940,737
F10 = 21024 + 1 = 179,769,313,486,231,590,772,930,519,078,902,473,361,797,697,894,230,657,273,430,081,157,732,675,805,500,963,132,708,477,322,407,536,021,120,
= 45,592,577 × 6,487,031,809 × 4,659,775,785,220,018,543,264,560,743,076,778,192,897 × 130,439,874,405,488,189,727,484,768,796,509,903,946,608,530,841,611,892,186,895,295,776,832,416,251,471,863,574,
F11 = 22048 + 1 = 32,317,006,071,311,007,300,714,876,688,669,951,960,444,102,669,715,484,032,130,345,427,524,655,138,867,890,893,197,201,411,522,913,463,688,717,
= 319,489 × 974,849 × 167,988,556,341,760,475,137 × 3,560,841,906,445,833,920,513 × 173,462,447,179,147,555,430,258,970,864,309,778,377,421,844,723,664,084,649,347,019,061,363,579,192,879,108,857,591,038,330,408,837,177,983,810,868,451,

As of February 2012

Pseudoprimes and Fermat numbers

Like composite numbers of the form 2p − 1, every composite Fermat number is a strong pseudoprime to base 2. Because all strong pseudoprimes to base 2 are also Fermat pseudoprimes - i.e.

2^{F_n-1} \equiv 1 \pmod{F_n}\,\!

for all Fermat numbers.

It is generally believed that all but the first few Fermat numbers are composite. If proven true, this would mean it is possible to generate infinitely many strong pseudoprimes to base 2 from the Fermat numbers.

In 1964, Rotkiewicz showed that the product of any number of prime or composite Fermat numbers will be a Fermat pseudoprime to the base 2.

Other theorems about Fermat numbers

Lemma: If n is a positive integer,

a^n-b^n=(a-b)\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} a^kb^{n-1-k}.



Theorem: If 2^n+1 is an odd prime, then n is a power of 2.


If n is a positive integer but not a power of 2, then n = rs where 1 \le r < n, 1 < s \le n and s is odd.

By the preceding lemma, for positive integer m,

(a-b) \mid (a^m-b^m)

where \mid means "evenly divides". Substituting a = 2^r, b = -1, and m = s and using that s is odd,

(2^r+1) \mid (2^{rs}+1),

and thus

(2^r+1) \mid (2^n+1).

Because 1 < 2^r+1 < 2^n+1, it follows that 2^n+1 is not prime. Therefore, by contraposition n must be a power of 2.

Theorem: A Fermat prime cannot be a Wieferich prime.

Proof: We show if p=2^m+1 is a Fermat prime, then the congruence 2^{p-1} \equiv 1 \pmod {p^2} does not satisfy.

It is easy to show 2m |p-1. Now write, p-1=2m\lambda. If the given congruence satisfies, then p^2|2^{2m\lambda}-1, therefore

0 \equiv (2^{2m\lambda}-1)/(2^m+1)=(2^m-1)(1+2^{2m}+2^{4m}+...+2^{2(\lambda-1)m}) \equiv -2\lambda \pmod {2^m+1}.\

Hence 2^m+1|2\lambda,and therefore 2\lambda \geq 2^m+1. This leads to

p-1 \geq m(2^m+1), which is impossible since m \geq 2.

A theorem of Édouard Lucas: Any prime divisor p of Fn = 2^{2^{\overset{n}{}}}+1 is of the form k2^{n+2}+1 whenever n is greater than one.

Sketch of proof:

Let Gp denote the group of non-zero elements of the integers (mod p) under multiplication, which has order p-1. Notice that 2 (strictly speaking, its image (mod p)) has multiplicative order 2^{n+1} in Gp, so that, by Lagrange's theorem, p-1 is divisible by 2^{n+1} and p has the form k2^{n+1}+1 for some integer k, as Euler knew. Édouard Lucas went further. Since n is greater than 1, the prime p above is congruent to 1 (mod 8). Hence (as was known to Carl Friedrich Gauss), 2 is a quadratic residue (mod p), that is, there is integer a such that a2 -2 is divisible by p. Then the image of a has order 2^{n+2} in the group Gp and (using Lagrange's theorem again), p-1 is divisible by 2^{n+2} and p has the form s2^{n+2}+1 for some integer s.

In fact, it can be seen directly that 2 is a quadratic residue (mod p), since (1 +2^{2^{n-1}})^{2} \equiv 2^{1+2^{n-1}} (mod p). Since an odd power of 2 is a quadratic residue (mod p), so is 2 itself.

Relationship to constructible polygons

Main article: Constructible polygon

An n-sided regular polygon can be constructed with compass and straightedge if and only if n is the product of a power of 2 and distinct Fermat primes. In other words, if and only if n is of the form n = 2kp1p2ps, where k is a nonnegative integer and the pi are distinct Fermat primes.

A positive integer n is of the above form if and only if its totient φ(n) is a power of 2.

Applications of Fermat numbers

Pseudorandom Number Generation

Fermat primes are particularly useful in generating pseudo-random sequences of numbers in the range 1 … N, where N is a power of 2. The most common method used is to take any seed value between 1 and P − 1, where P is a Fermat prime. Now multiply this by a number A, which is greater than the square root of P and is a primitive root modulo P (i.e., it is not a quadratic residue). Then take the result modulo P. The result is the new value for the RNG.

V_{j+1} = \left( A \times V_j \right) \bmod P (see Linear congruential generator, RANDU)

This is useful in computer science since most data structures have members with 2X possible values. For example, a byte has 256 (28) possible values (0–255). Therefore to fill a byte or bytes with random values a random number generator which produces values 1–256 can be used, the byte taking the output value − 1. Very large Fermat primes are of particular interest in data encryption for this reason. This method produces only pseudorandom values as, after P − 1 repetitions, the sequence repeats. A poorly chosen multiplier can result in the sequence repeating sooner than P − 1.

Other interesting facts

A Fermat number cannot be a perfect number or part of a pair of amicable numbers. (Luca 2000)

The series of reciprocals of all prime divisors of Fermat numbers is convergent. (Křížek, Luca & Somer 2002)

If nn + 1 is prime, there exists an integer m such that n = 22m. The equation nn + 1 = F(2m+m) holds at that time.[7]

Let the largest prime factor of Fermat number Fn be P(Fn). Then,

P(F_n)\ge 2^{n+2}(4n+9)+1. (Grytczuk, Luca & Wójtowicz 2001)

Generalized Fermat numbers

Numbers of the form a^{2^{ \overset{n} {}}} + b^{2^{ \overset{n} {}}}, where a > 1 are called generalized Fermat numbers. An odd prime p is a generalized Fermat number if and only if p is congruent to 1 (mod 4). (Here we consider only the case n>0, so 3 = 2^{2^{0}}+1 is not a counterexample.)

By analogy with the ordinary Fermat numbers, it is common to write generalized Fermat numbers of the form a^{2^{ \overset{n} {}}} + 1 as Fn(a). In this notation, for instance, the number 100,000,001 would be written as F3(10). In the following we shall restrict ourselves to primes of this form, a^{2^{ \overset{n} {}}} + 1.

If we require n>0, then Landau's fourth problem asks if there are infinitely many generalized Fermat primes Fn(a).

Generalized Fermat primes

Because of the ease of proving their primality, generalized Fermat primes have become in recent years a hot topic for research within the field of number theory. Many of the largest known primes today are generalized Fermat primes.

Generalized Fermat numbers can be prime only for even a, because if a is odd then every generalized Fermat number will be divisible by 2. By analogy with the heuristic argument for the finite number of primes among the base-2 Fermat numbers, it is to be expected that there will be only finitely many generalized Fermat primes for each even base. The smallest prime number Fn(a) with n > 4 is F5(30), or 3032+1.

A more elaborate theory can be used to predict the number of bases for which Fn(a) will be prime for a fixed n. The number of generalized Fermat primes can be roughly expected to halve as n is increased by 1.

Largest known generalized Fermat primes

The following is a list of the 10 largest known generalized Fermat primes.[8] They are all megaprimes. As of July 2013 the whole top-10 was discovered by participants in the PrimeGrid project.

Rank Largest known prime rank[9] Prime number Generalized Fermat notation Number of digits Found date reference
1 12 475856524288 + 1 F19(475856) 2,976,633 2012 August 8 [10]
2 13 356926524288 + 1 F19(356926) 2,911,151 2012 June 20 [11]
3 14 341112524288 + 1 F19(341112) 2,900,832 2012 June 15 [12]
4 17 75898524288 + 1 F19(75898) 2,558,647 2011 November 19 [13]
5 28 773620262144 + 1 F18(773620) 1,543,643 2012 April 19 [14]
6 30 676754262144 + 1 F18(676754) 1,528,413 2012 February 12 [15]
7 32 525094262144 + 1 F18(525094) 1,499,526 2012 January 18 [16]
8 35 361658262144 + 1 F18(361658) 1,457,075 2011 October 29 [17]
9 38 145310262144 + 1 F18(145310) 1,353,265 2011 February 8 [18]
10 44 40734262144 + 1 F18(40734) 1,208,473 2011 March 8 [19]

See also



  • - This book contains an extensive list of references.

External links

  • Chris Caldwell, Prime Pages.
  • Luigi Morelli, History of Fermat Numbers
  • John Cosgrave, Unification of Mersenne and Fermat Numbers
  • Wilfrid Keller, Prime Factors of Fermat Numbers
  • MathWorld.
  • MathWorld.
  • MathWorld.
  • MathWorld.
  • Yves Gallot, Generalized Fermat Prime Search
  • Mark S. Manasse, Complete factorization of the ninth Fermat number (original announcement)
  • Peyton Hayslette, Largest Known Generalized Fermat Prime Announcement

Template:Classes of natural numbersda:Fermatprimtal

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.