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Gatifloxacin

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Gatifloxacin

Gatifloxacin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro- 8-methoxy-7-(3-methylpiperazin-1-yl)- 4-oxo-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Trade names Zymar
AHFS/Drugs.com
MedlinePlus
Legal status
  • Rx only
Routes Oral (discontinued),
Intravenous (discontinued)
ophthalmic
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 20%
Half-life 7 to 14 hours
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
ATC code J01 S01
PubChem
DrugBank
ChemSpider  YesY
UNII  YesY
KEGG  YesY
ChEBI  YesY
ChEMBL  YesY
NIAID ChemDB
Chemical data
Formula C19H22FN3O4 
Mol. mass 375.394 g/mol
 YesY   

Gatifloxacin sold under the brand names Gatiflo, Tequin and Zymar, is an antibiotic of the fourth-generation fluoroquinolone family,[1] that like other members of that family, inhibits the bacterial enzymes DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Bristol-Myers Squibb introduced Gatifloxacin in 1999 under the proprietary name Tequin for the treatment of respiratory tract infections, having licensed the medication from Kyorin Pharmaceutical Company of Japan. Allergan produces it in eye-drop formulation under the names Zymar and Zymaxid. In many countries, gatifloxacin is also available as tablets and in various aqueous solutions for intravenous therapy.

Contents

  • Side-effects and removal from the market 1
  • Contraindications 2
  • Availability 3
  • References 4

Side-effects and removal from the market

A Canadian study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in March 2006 claims Tequin can have significant side effects including dysglycemia.[2] An editorial by Dr. Jerry Gurwitz in the same issue called for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to consider giving Tequin a black box warning.[3] This editorial followed distribution of a letter dated February 15 by Bristol-Myers Squibb to health care providers indicating action taken with the FDA to strengthen warnings for the medication.[4] Subsequently it was reported on May 1, 2006 that Bristol-Myers Squibb would stop manufacture of Tequin, end sales of the drug after existing stockpiles were exhausted, and return all rights to Kyorin.[5]

Union Health and Family Welfare Ministry of India on 18 March 2011 banned the manufacture, sale and distribution of Gatifloxacin as it caused certain adverse side effects[6]

Contraindications

Diabetes[7]

Availability

Gatifloxacin is currently available only in the US and Canada as an ophthalmic solution.

In China it is sold in tablet as well as in eye drop formulations.

Ophthalmic anti-infectives are generally well tolerated. The concentration of the drug observed following oral administration of 400 mg gatifloxacin systemically is approximately 800 times higher than that of the 0.5% Gatifloxacin eye drop. Given as an eye drop, Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.3% & 0.5% cause very low systemic exposures. Therefore, the systemic exposures resulting from the gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution are not likely to pose any risk for systemic toxicities.

References

  1. ^ Burka JM, Bower KS, Vanroekel RC, Stutzman RD, Kuzmowych CP, Howard RS (July 2005). "The effect of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin on epithelial healing following photorefractive keratectomy". Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140 (1): 83–7.  
  2. ^ Park-Wyllie, Laura Y.; David N. Juurlink; Alexander Kopp; Baiju R. Shah; Therese A. Stukel; Carmine Stumpo; Linda Dresser; Donald E. Low; Muhammad M. Mamdani (March 2006). "Outpatient Gatifloxacin Therapy and Dysglycemia in Older Adults".   Note: publication date 30 March; available on-line 1 March
  3. ^ Gurwitz, Jerry H. (March 2006). "Serious Adverse Drug Effects — Seeing the Trees through the Forest".  
  4. ^ Lewis-Hall, Freda (February 15, 2006). "Dear Healthcare Provider:" (PDF). Bristol-Myers Squibb. Retrieved May 1, 2006. 
  5. ^ Schmid, Randolph E. (May 1, 2006). "Drug Company Taking Tequin Off Market".  
  6. ^ "Two drugs banned". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 19 March 2011. 
  7. ^ Peggy Peck (2 May 2006). "Bristol-Myers Squibb Hangs No Sale Sign on Tequin". Med Page Today. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
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