Georgia (country)

Georgia
საქართველო
Sakartvelo
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: 
ძალა ერთობაშია
Dzala Ertobashia
Strength is in Unity
Anthem: 
თავისუფლება
Tavisupleba
Freedom
Georgia proper shown in dark green; areas outside of Georgian control shown in light green.
Capital
and largest city
Tbilisi
Official languages [1]
Spoken languages[2] 71% Georgian
9% Russian
7% Armenian
6% Azerbaijani
7% other
[2]) 83.8% Georgian
6.5% Azerbaijani
5.7% Armenian
1.5% Russian
2.5% others
Demonym Georgian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic
 -  President Giorgi Margvelashvili
 -  Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili
 -  Speaker of the Parliament Davit Usupashvili
Legislature Parliament
Independence
 -  Kingdom of Diaokhi 12th century BC–8th century BC 
 -  Colchis 13th century–164 BC 
 -  Kingdom of Iberia 302 BC–580 AD 
 -  Principality of Iberia 580-880 AD 
 -  Kingdom of Georgia 1008 
 -  Russian Empire occupation September 12, 1801 
 -  from Russian Empire May 26, 1918 
 -  Soviet re-conquest February 25, 1921 
 -  from Soviet Union
Declared
Finalized

April 9, 1991
December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 69,700 km2 (120th)
26,911 sq mi
Population
 -  2013 estimate 4,935,880[2] (119th)
 -  Density 70.8/km2 (137th)
183.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2013 estimate
 -  Total $27.3 billion[2] (121)
 -  Per capita $6,100[2]
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $15.984 billion[3]
 -  Per capita $3,596[3]
Gini (2010) 42.1[4]
medium
HDI (2013) Increase 0.744[5]
high · 79th
Currency ) (GEL)
Time zone GET (UTC+4)
Drives on the right
Calling code +995
ISO 3166 code GE
Internet TLD .ge .გე

Georgia (unitary, semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy.

During the civil unrest and economic crisis for most of the 1990s. This lasted until the Rose Revolution of 2003, after which the new government introduced democratic and economic reforms.

Georgia is a member of the

  • Civil Georgia, daily news about Georgia
  • Crisis profile, Georgia, Abkhazia, S. Ossetia From Reuters Alertnet
  • Georgian Daily, all the latest news from Georgia and related to Georgia
  • NewsGeorgia Google Translation into English from the NewsGeorgia (Russian Language) site
  • GeorgiaCaucasus.com GeorgiaCaucasus.com – online info Magazine dedicated to Georgia and Caucasus
News media
  • Georgia entry at The World Factbook
  • Georgia at UCB Libraries GovPubs
  • Georgia (country) at DMOZ
  • Georgia profile from the BBC News
  • OpenStreetMap
  • Association of Modern Scientific Investigation – (AMSI)
General information
  • President of Georgia
  • Government of Georgia
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia
  • Department of Tourism and Resorts
  • American Chamber of Commerce in Georgia
  • Chief of State and Cabinet Members
Government

External links

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  85. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia – Visa Information for Foreign Citizens". Mfa.gov.ge. April 30, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2009.  (South Korea is on the list of the countries whose citizens do not need a visa to enter and stay on the territory of Georgia for 360 days)
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  87. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Georgia – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka". Mfa.gov.ge. Retrieved May 5, 2009. 
  88. ^ "U.S. Announces New Military Assistance Program for Georgia". Civil.Ge. July 1, 2001. Retrieved May 5, 2009. 
  89. ^ "Georgia's way to NATO". Mfa.gov.ge. May 27, 2010. Retrieved November 2, 2010. 
  90. ^ "Europe | Bush praises Georgian democracy". BBC News. May 10, 2005. Retrieved May 5, 2009. 
  91. ^ Bush Heads to Europe for G – 8 Summit, The New York Times
  92. ^ EU, Georgia Sign ENP Action Plan, Civil Georgia, October 2, 2006.
  93. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
  94. ^ Saakashvili, Mikheil. "Why Georgia sends troops to Afghanistan"The Telegraph
  95. ^ Tenth Georgia Soldier Killed in Afghanistan Retrieved: September 1, 2011
  96. ^ Seth Robson. "U.S. training a dual mission for Georgians". Stripes.com. Retrieved June 13, 2011. 
  97. ^ a b Mark McDonald, Knight Ridder Newspapers. "Firing of traffic police force stands as a symbol of hope in Georgia | McClatchy". Mcclatchydc.com. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  98. ^ "Georgia's National Police Corruption Project". NPR. September 15, 2005. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  99. ^ Building security in the Republic of Georgia Andrew Stamer Retrieved 1 June 2007
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  101. ^ "Security Notice". American Embassy Tblisi. Archived from the original on August 15, 2007. Retrieved December 23, 2007. 
  102. ^ "Georgia's public defender". Ombudsman.ge. Retrieved July 3, 2011. 
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  152. ^ The Complete Works, Jewish Antiquities, Josephus, Book 1, p 57
  153. ^ This figure includes the territories currently out of the "Ethnographic map of the Caucasus". Hunmagyar.org. Retrieved November 2, 2010.  ^
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  164. ^ Toumanoff, Cyril, "Iberia between Chosroid and Bagratid Rule", in Studies in Christian Caucasian History, Georgetown, 1963, pp. 374-377. Accessible online at [1]
  165. ^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr (2007). "7 - Georgian Christianity". The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 138.  
  166. ^ Spilling, Michael. Georgia (Cultures of the world). 1997
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  169. ^ Molly Corso (May 13, 2005) Education reform rocks Georgia. Eurasianet. United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
  170. ^ a b Education system in Georgia. National Tempus Office Georgia. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
  171. ^ Education institutions. Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
  172. ^ High education institutions. National Tempus Office Georgia. Retrieved on September 2, 2008.
  173. ^ Georgia at a glance. World Bank. July 28, 2007.
  174. ^ Georgia : in the mountains of poetry 3rd rev. ed., Nasmyth, Peter
  175. ^ Rapp, Stephen H. (2003), Studies In Medieval Georgian Historiography: Early Texts And Eurasian Contexts. Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-429-1318-5
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  178. ^ "Georgian Alphabet". 101languages.net. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  179. ^ Romans erected the statue of the Iberian King Pharsman after he demonstrated Georgian training methods during his visit to Rome; Cassius Dio, Roman History, LXIX, 15.3
  180. ^ Williams, Douglas. Georgia in my Heart, 1999.
  181. ^ "Rustavi 2 Broadcasting Company". Rustavi2.com. April 29, 2012. 
  182. ^ "Georgian National Broadcaster". 1tv.ge. April 30, 2012. 

References

  • Asmus, Ronald. A Little War that Shook the World : Georgia, Russia, and the Future of the West. NYU (2010). ISBN 978-0-230-61773-5
  • Gvosdev, Nikolas K.: Imperial policies and perspectives towards Georgia: 1760–1819, Macmillan, Basingstoke 2000, ISBN 0-312-22990-9
  • Goltz, Thomas. Georgia Diary : A Chronicle of War and Political Chaos in the Post-Soviet Caucasus. Thomas Dunne Books (2003). ISBN 0-7656-1710-2
  • Jones, Stephen. Georgia: A Political History Since Independence (I.B. Tauris, distributed by Palgrave Macmillan; 2012) 376 pages;
  • Lang, David M.: The last years of the Georgian Monarchy: 1658–1832, Columbia University Press, New York 1957
  •  

Further reading

See also

The first and only race circuit in the Caucasian region is located in Georgia. Rustavi International Motorpark originally built in 1978 was re-opened in 2012 after total reconstruction[182] costing $20 million. The track satisfies the FIA Grade 2 requirements and currently hosts the Legends car racing series and Formula Alfa competitions.[183]

Within Georgia, one of the most popularized styles of wrestling is the Kakhetian style. There were a number of other styles in the past that are not as widely used today. For example, the polo, and Lelo, a traditional Georgian game later replaced by rugby union.

[181] The most popular sports in Georgia are

Romania in the Rugby World Cup 2011.

Sports

Greece, and recently China.

Georgian dish Khinkali with beer.

Cuisine

Georgia has a rich and vibrant musical tradition, primarily known for its early development of polyphony. Georgian polyphony is based on three vocal parts, a unique tuning system based on perfect fifths, and a harmonic structure rich in parallel fifths and dissonances. Each region in Georgia has its own traditional music with Persian influenced drones and ostinato-like soloists in the East, complex improvised harmonies in the west, and solid moving chords in Svanetie.

Music

The art of Georgia spans the primitivist painter Niko Pirosmani.

Georgian ecclesiastic art is one of the most notable aspects of Georgian Christian architecture, which combines classical Monastery of the Cross in Jerusalem (built by Georgians in the 9th century).

Georgian architecture has been influenced by many civilizations. There are several different architectural styles for Rustaveli avenue in Tbilisi in the Hausmann style, and the Old Town District.

Old Tbilisi - Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.

Architecture and arts

Georgia is well known for its rich [177]

Georgians have their own unique 3 alphabets which according to traditional accounts was invented by King Pharnavaz I of Iberia in 3rd century BC.[178][179]

The Georgian language, and the Classical Georgian literature of the poet Classical Greece, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, and later by the Russian Empire.

Georgian culture evolved over thousands of years with its foundations in classical literature, arts, philosophy, architecture and science in the 11th century.[176]

Ancient Colchian golden earrings, 4th century BC.

Culture

Most of these institutions offer three levels of study: a Bachelor's Program (3–4 years); a Master's Program (2 years), and a Doctoral Program (3 years). There is also a Certified Specialist's Program that represents a single-level higher education program lasting for 3–6 years.[171][172] As of 2008, 20 higher education institutions are accredited by the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia.[173] Gross primary enrollment ratio was 94% for the period of 2001–2006.[174]

The education system of Georgia has undergone sweeping modernizing, although controversial, reforms since 2004.[169][170] Education in Georgia is mandatory for all children aged 6–14.[171] The school system is divided into elementary (6 years; age level 6–12), basic (3 years; age level 12–15), and secondary (3 years; age level 15–18), or alternatively vocational studies (2 years). Students with a secondary school certificate have access to higher education. Only the students who have passed the Unified National Examinations may enroll in a state-accredited higher education institution, based on ranking of scores he/she received at the exams.

Education

Despite the long history of religious harmony in Georgia,[167] there have been several instances of religious discrimination and violence against "nontraditional faiths", such as Jehovah's Witnesses, by the followers of the defrocked Orthodox priest Vasil Mkalavishvili.[168]

Religious minorities of Georgia include Israel.

The special status of the Georgian Orthodox Church is officially recognised in the Constitution of Georgia and the Concordat of 2002, although religious institutions are separate from the state, and every citizen has the right of religion.

Sunni mosque on Botanical Street, Tbilisi (mid-1880s)

A large majority of Georgia's population (83.9% in 2002)[163] practices Saint Nino of Cappadocia.[165][166] The Church gained autocephaly during the early Middle Ages; it was abolished during the Russian domination of the country, restored in 1917 and fully recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1990.

The Georgian Orthodox Church.

Religion

Today 83.9% of the population practices Armenian Apostolic (3.9%), and Roman Catholic (0.8%). 0.8% of those recorded in the 2002 census declared themselves to be adherents of other religions and 0.7% declared no religion at all.[129][162]

The 1989 census recorded 341,000 ethnic Turkey and China.

[158] In the early 1990s, following the

Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region[155]

The most widespread language group is the Armenian, 6% Azerbaijani, and 7% other languages.[129]

Ethnic Georgians form about 84% of Georgia's current population of 4,661,473 (July 2006 est.).[153] Other ethnic groups include Georgian Jews are one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world.

Like most native Tubal.[152]

Georgian youth in the Chokha, a traditional costume.
Air and maritime transport is developing in Georgia, with the former mainly used by passengers and the latter for transport of freight. Georgia currently has four international airports; the largest of which is by far

[149] railway.standard gauge, which for the first time will connect much of the Caucasus with Turkey by Kars–Tbilisi–Baku railway Additional projects also include the construction of the economically important [148] The Georgian railways represent an important transport artery for the Caucasus as they make up the largest proportion of a route linking the Black and

In recent years Georgia has invested large amounts of money in the modernisation of its transport networks. The construction of new highways has been prioritised and, as such, major cities like Tbilisi have seen the quality of their roads improve dramatically; despite this however, the quality of inter-city routes remains poor and to date only one motorway-standard road has been constructed - the ს 1.[145]

Today transport in Georgia is provided by means of European Russia and the Near East and Turkey.

A green directional sign on the ს 1 motorway, denoting it as such.

Transport

In regards to telecommunication infrastructure, Georgia is ranked second to last among its bordering neighbors in the World Economic Forum's Network Readiness Index (NRI) – an indicator for determining the development level of a country’s information and communication technologies. Georgia ranked number 60 overall in the 2014 NRI ranking, up from 65 in 2013.[144]

As of 2001 54% of the population lived below the national poverty line but by 2006 poverty decreased to 34%. In 2005 average monthly income of a household was GEL 347 (about 200 USD).[142] 2013 estimates place Georgia's services (now representing 65% of GDP), moving away from the agricultural sector (10.9%).[143]

Since coming to power Saakashvili administration accomplished a series of reforms aimed at improving tax collection. Among other things a flat income tax was introduced in 2004.[138] As a result budget revenues have increased fourfold and a once large budget deficit has turned into surplus.[139][140][141]

Georgia is developing into an international transport corridor through Batumi and Poti ports, an oil pipeline from Baku through Tbilisi to Ceyhan, the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (BTC) and a parallel gas pipeline, the South Caucasus Pipeline.

Tourism is an increasingly significant part of the Georgian economy. About a million tourists brought US$313 million to the country in 2006.[136] According to the government, there are 103 resorts in different mineral springs, over 12,000 historical and cultural monuments, four of which are recognised as UNESCO World Heritage Sites (Bagrati Cathedral in Kutaisi and Gelati Monastery, historical monuments of Mtskheta, and Upper Svaneti).[137]

The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri.

oil products, machinery and parts, and transport equipment.

Since the early 21st century visible positive developments have been observed in the economy of Georgia. In 2007 Georgia's ease of doing business.[131] The country has a high unemployment rate of 12.6% and has fairly low median income compared to European countries.

The production of wine is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.

For much of the 20th century, Georgia's economy was within the Soviet model of DM 50 million.

[129] Archaeological research demonstrates that Georgia has been involved in commerce with many lands and empires since the ancient times, largely due its location on the Black Sea and later on the historical

The Caspian Sea - the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.

Economy

Just over 6500 species of fungi, including lichen-forming species, have been recorded from Georgia,[124][125] but this number is far from complete. The true total number of fungal species occurring in Georgia, including species not yet recorded, is likely to be far higher, given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered.[126] Although the amount of available information is still very small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to Georgia, and 2595 species have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the country.[127] 1729 species of plants have been recorded from Georgia in association with fungi.[125] The true number of plant species occurring in Georgia is likely to be substantially higher.

[123] Because of its high landscape diversity and low latitude Georgia is home to about 1000 species of

Biodiversity

The wettest periods generally occur during Spring and Autumn while Winter and the Summer months tend to be the driest. Much of eastern Georgia experiences hot summers (especially in the low-lying areas) and relatively cold winters. As in the western parts of the nation, elevation plays an important role in eastern Georgia where climatic conditions above 1,500 metres (4,921 ft) are considerably colder than in the low-lying areas. The regions that lie above 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) frequently experience frost even during the summer months.

Eastern Georgia has a transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. The region's weather patterns are influenced both by dry Caspian air masses from the east and humid Black Sea air masses from the west. The penetration of humid air masses from the Black Sea is often blocked by several mountain ranges (Likhi and Meskheti) that separate the eastern and western parts of the nation. Annual precipitation is considerably less than that of western Georgia and ranges from 400–1,600 mm (15.7–63.0 in).

Much of western Georgia lies within the northern periphery of the humid subtropical zone with annual precipitation ranging from 1,000–4,000 mm (39.4–157.5 in). The precipitation tends to be uniformly distributed throughout the year, although the rainfall can be particularly heavy during the Autumn months. The climate of the region varies significantly with elevation and while much of the lowland areas of western Georgia are relatively warm throughout the year, the foothills and mountainous areas (including both the Greater and Lesser Caucasus Mountains) experience cool, wet summers and snowy winters (snow cover often exceeds 2 meters in many regions). Ajaria is the wettest region of the Caucasus, where the Mt. Mtirala rainforest, east of Kobuleti receives around 4,500 mm (177.2 in) of precipitation per year.

The Black Sea coast of Batumi, Western Georgia.

The climate of Georgia is extremely diverse, considering the nation's small size. There are two main climatic zones, roughly separating Eastern and Western parts of the country. The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range plays an important role in moderating Georgia's climate and protects the nation from the penetration of colder air masses from the north. The Lesser Caucasus Mountains partially protect the region from the influence of dry and hot air masses from the south as well.

Climate

At higher elevations above 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) Alazani Valley of Kakheti. The eternal snow and glacier zone lies above the 3,500-metre (11,483 ft) line in most areas of eastern Georgia.

The general landscape of eastern Georgia comprises numerous valleys and gorges that are separated by mountains. In contrast with western Georgia, nearly 85% of the forests of the region are deciduous. Coniferous forests only dominate in the beech, oak, and hornbeam dominate. Other deciduous species include several varieties of maple, aspen, ash, and hazelnut. The Upper Alazani River Valley contains yew forests.

Eastern Georgia's landscape (referring to the territory east of the Mtkvari and Alazani River plains have been deforested for agricultural purposes. In addition, because of the region's relatively drier climate, some of the low-lying plains (especially in Kartli and south-eastern Kakheti) were never covered by forests in the first place.

The west-central slopes of the Meskheti Range in Ajaria as well as several locations in Samegrelo and Abkhazia are covered by temperate rain forests. Between 600–1,000 metres (1,969–3,281 ft) above sea level, the deciduous forest becomes mixed with both broad-leaf and coniferous species making up the plant life. The zone is made up mainly of beech, spruce, and fir forests. From 1,500–1,800 metres (4,921–5,906 ft), the forest becomes largely coniferous. The tree line generally ends at around 1,800 metres (5,906 ft) and the alpine zone takes over, which in most areas, extends up to an elevation of 3,000 metres (9,843 ft) above sea level. The eternal snow and glacier zone lies above the 3,000 metre line.

View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below

[122] Much of the natural habitat in the low-lying areas of Western Georgia has disappeared over the last 100 years because of the agricultural development of the land and urbanization. The large majority of the forests that covered the Colchis plain are now virtually non-existent with the exception of the regions that are included in the national parks and reserves (e.g.

The landscape within the nation's boundaries is quite varied. Western Georgia's landscape ranges from low-land marsh-forests, swamps, and alpine/subalpine zone accounts for roughly around 10% of the land.

Ushba, a prominent peak of the Svanetian Caucasus

Topography

The Krubera Cave is the deepest known cave in the world. It is located in the Arabika Massif of the Gagra Range, in Abkhazia. In 2001, a Russian–Ukrainian team had set the world depth record for a cave at 1,710 meters (5,610 ft). In 2004, the penetrated depth was increased on each of three expeditions, when a Ukrainian team crossed the 2,000-meter (6,562 ft) mark for the first time in the history of speleology. In October 2005, an unexplored part was found by the CAVEX team, further increasing the known depth of the cave. This expedition confirmed the known depth of the cave at 2,140 meters (7,021 ft).

The overall region can be characterized as being made up of various, interconnected mountain ranges (largely of volcanic origin) and plateaus that do not exceed 3,400 meters (11,155 ft) in elevation. Prominent features of the area include the Rioni and the Mtkvari. The Southern Georgia Volcanic Highland is a young and unstable geologic region with high seismic activity and has experienced some of the most significant earthquakes that have been recorded in Georgia.

The term Lesser Caucasus Mountains is often used to describe the mountainous (highland) areas of southern Georgia that are connected to the Greater Caucasus Mountain Range by the Likhi Range.[121] The area can be split into two separate sub-regions; the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, which run parallel to the Greater Caucasus Range, and the Southern Georgia Volcanic Highland, which lies immediately to the south of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains.

Tusheti region in northeast Georgia

The highest mountain in Georgia is Mount 30% are located within Georgia.

The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range forms the northern border of Georgia.[121] The main roads through the mountain range into Russian territory lead through the Roki Tunnel between South and North Ossetia and the Khevi). The Roki Tunnel was vital for the Russian military in the 2008 South Ossetia war because it is the only direct route through the Caucasus Mountains. The southern portion of the country is bounded by the Lesser Caucasus Mountains.[121] The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range is much higher in elevation than the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, with the highest peaks rising more than 5,000 meters (16,404 ft) above sea level.

Georgia is situated in the Svaneti from the rest of Georgia.

Svaneti region, North-Western Georgia.

Geography and climate

[118]

. minimal international recognition Both republics have received [117][74] In both Abkhazia and South Ossetia large numbers of people had been given Russian passports, some through a process of forced

[114] [113] the de facto independent region of Abkhazia declared independence in 1999.[112] Georgia contains two official autonomous regions, of which one has declared independence. In addition, another territory not officially autonomous has also declared independence. Officially autonomous within Georgia,

Georgia is divided into 9 regions, 1 city, and 2 autonomous republics.[2] These in turn are subdivided into 69 districts.

Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are de facto independent from the central government of Georgia.

Administrative divisions

[111][110][109][107] The government came under criticism for its alleged use of excessive force on May 26, 2011 when it dispersed protesters led by

Human rights in Georgia are guaranteed by the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2005. NGO "Tolerance", in its alternative report about its implementation, speaks of rapid decreasing of the number of Azerbaijani schools and cases of appointing headmasters to Azerbaijani schools who don't speak the Azerbaijani language.[103]

Human rights

The new 'Patruli' force was first introduced in the summer of 2005 to replace the traffic police, a force which was accused of widespread corruption.[100] The police introduced an 022 emergency dispatch service in 2004.[101]

[99]'s Bureau of International Narcotics and Law-Enforcement Affairs has provided assistance to the training efforts and continues to act in an advisory capacity.US State Department The [97] A new force was then subsequently built around new recruits.[98][97] In 2005, President

In Georgia, law enforcement is conducted and provided for by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia. In recent years, the Patrol Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia has undergone a radical transformation, with the police having now absorbed a great many duties previously performed by dedicated independent government agencies. New duties performed by the police include border security and customs functions and contracted security provision; the latter function is performed by the dedicated 'security police'. Intelligence collecting in the interests of national security is now the remit of the Georgian Intelligence Service.

Georgian police's new patrol car Ford Taurus Police Interceptor.

Law enforcement

[96][95] Georgia contributed nearly 1000 soldiers to the

Georgia's military is organized into Constitution of Georgia, Georgia’s Law on Defense and National Military Strategy, and international agreements to which Georgia is signatory. They are performed under the guidance and authority of the Ministry of Defense.

The 33rd Light Infantry Battalion prepares for deployment to Afghanistan.

Military

Brussels.[92]

In 2006, the Georgian parliament voted unanimously for the bill which calls for integration of Georgia into NATO. The majority of Georgians and politicians in Georgia support the push for NATO membership. [89] On February 14, 2005, the agreement on the appointment of

Georgia is currently working to become a full member of North Atlantic Council of NATO approved the Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP) of Georgia, and Georgia moved on to the second stage of Euro-Atlantic Integration. In 2005, by the decision of the President of Georgia, a state commission was set up to implement the Individual Partnership Action Plan, which presents an interdepartmental group headed by the Prime Minister. The Commission was tasked with coordinating and controlling the implementation of the Individual Partnership Action Plan.

[88] The growing US and European Union influence in Georgia, notably through proposed EU and NATO membership, the US

Georgia maintains good relations with its direct neighbours (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Japan, Uruguay,[84] South Korea,[85] Israel,[86] Sri Lanka,[87] Ukraine, and many other countries.

Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi.

Foreign relations

The coalition, which President Saakashvili acknowledged on the following day.[83]

In preparation for 2012 parliamentary elections, Parliament adopted a new electoral code on December 27, 2011 that incorporated many recommendations from non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and the Venice Commission. However, the new code failed to address the Venice Commission’s primary recommendation to strengthen the equality of the vote by reconstituting single-mandate election districts to be comparable in size. On December 28, Parliament amended the Law on Political Unions to regulate campaign and political party financing. Local and international observers raised concerns about several amendments, including the vagueness of the criteria for determining political bribery and which individuals and organizations would be subject to the law. As of March 2012, Parliament was discussing further amendments to address these concerns.[82]

[81] [77] Different opinions exist regarding the degree of political freedom in Georgia. Saakashvili believed in 2008 that the country is "on the road to becoming a European democracy."

Although considerable progress was made since the [78][79] Observers note the deficit of trust in relations between the Government and the opposition.[80]

The Prime-Minister, currently Irakli Garibashvili, is appointed by the President and serves as the head of government.

Republican Party. On 26 May 2012, Saakashvili inaugurated a new Parliament building in the western city of Kutaisi, in an effort to decentralise power and shift some political control closer to Abkhazia.[76]

Georgia is a 2013 election. Since 2013, Irakli Garibashvili has been the prime minister of Georgia.

head of state of Georgia.

Government and politics

[75][74] Since the war, Georgia has maintained that [73] In response, the Georgian government cut diplomatic relations with Russia.[72] Russia recognised Abkhazia and South Ossetia on 26 August 2008.

[71] Through mediation by

[68][67] Both during and after the war, South Ossetian authorities and irregular militia conducted a campaign of

In five days of fighting, the Russian forces captured Tskhinvali, pushed back Georgian troops, and largely destroyed Georgia’s military infrastructure using Gori, Senaki, and Zugdidi.[62]

US Secretary of State Mikheil Saakashvili during the South Ossetian war

After the heights around Tskhinvali were secured, Georgian troops with tanks and artillery support entered the town.[52] Georgian shelling left parts of Tskhinvali in ruins.[54] According to Russian military commander, over 10 Russian peacekeepers were killed on 8 August.[55] That day Russia officially sent troops across the Georgian border into South Ossetia,[56] claiming to be defending both peacekeepers and South Ossetian civilians.[57] Russia accused Georgia of committing "genocide".[58] Russian authorities claimed that the civilian casualties in Tskhinvali amounted up to 2,000.[59] These high casualty figures were later revised down to 162 casualties.[60]

[53] The official reason given for this was to "restore constitutional order" in the region.[52] On 7 August, Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili, ordered a unilateral

[46][45][44][41]

Russo-Georgian War and since

[40].1999 Istanbul summit during the Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty base in Abkhazia, which it was required to vacate after the adoption of Gudauta while failing to withdraw from the [39] were withdrawn. Russia withdrew all personnel and equipment from these sites by December 2007Akhalkalaki and Batumi by which Russian military bases (dating back to the Soviet era) in [38] These events, along with accusations of Georgian involvement in the

Following the Rose Revolution, a series of reforms were launched to strengthen the country's military and economic capabilities. The new government's efforts to reassert Georgian authority in the southwestern autonomous republic of Ajaria led to a major crisis early in 2004. Success in Ajaria encouraged Saakashvili to intensify his efforts, but without success, in breakaway South Ossetia.

, former members and leaders of Shevardnadze's ruling party. Mikheil Saakashvili was elected as President of Georgia in 2004. Nino Burjanadze and Zurab Zhvania, Mikheil Saakashvili The revolution was led by [36] In 2003, Shevardnadze (who won reelection in 2000) was deposed by the

region and moved to Russia. Borjomi fled South Ossetia as well, and many Ossetian families were forced to abandon their homes in the [35] were [34] Roughly 230,000 to 250,000 Georgians

Simmering disputes within two regions of Georgia, Abkhazia and Russia, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia achieved de facto independence from Georgia, with Georgia retaining control only in small areas of the disputed territories. In 1995, Shevardnadze was officially elected as president of Georgia.

He was soon deposed in a bloody coup d'état, from December 22, 1991, to January 6, 1992. The coup was instigated by part of the National Guards and a paramilitary organization called "

On April 9, 1991, shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Georgia declared independence. On May 26, 1991, oblasts under the Soviet Union.

Georgia after restoration of independence

On April 9, 1989, a peaceful demonstration in the Georgian capital Tbilisi ended with Merab Kostava and Zviad Gamsakhurdia. The latter won the elections by a clear margin, with 155 out of 250 parliamentary seats, whereas the ruling Communist Party (CP) received only 64 seats. All other parties failed to get over the 5% threshold and were thus allotted only some single-member constituency seats.

From 1941 to 1945, during World War II, almost 700,000 Georgians fought in the Eastern Front.[33]

Bolsheviks, who came to power in the Russian Empire after the October Revolution in 1917. Stalin was to rise to the highest position in the Soviet state.

The 11th Red Army of the Russian SFSR holds a military parade in Tbilisi, February 25, 1921.

Nevertheless, there remained significant opposition to the Bolsheviks, and this culminated in the Georgian SSR.

In February 1921, Georgia Filipp Makharadze.

Despite the Soviet takeover, Poland through the 1930s.[31]

Georgia in the Soviet Union

The country's independence did not last long. Georgia was under British protection from 1918–1920. [30] In 1918, the

After the Noe Zhordania, became prime minister.

Declaration of independence by the Georgian parliament, 1918

Declaration of independence

Following the annexation of eastern Georgia, the western Georgian Adjara – were recovered. The principality of Guria was abolished and incorporated into the Empire in 1828, and that of Megrelia in 1857. The region of Svaneti was gradually annexed in 1857–59.

In the summer of 1805, Russian troops on the Askerani River near Treaty of Gulistan.

On December 22, 1800, Tbilisi's Sioni Cathedral and forced them to take an oath on the Imperial Crown of Russia. Those who disagreed were temporarily arrested.[29]

In 1783, Russia and the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Pyotr Bagration, one of the descendants of the abolished house of Bagrationi would later join the Russian army and rise to be a general by the Napoleonic wars.

King [21]

Georgia in the Russian Empire

The rulers of regions which remained partly Kakheti, had been under Persian suzerainty since 1555. With the death of Nader Shah in 1747, both kingdoms broke free of Persian control and were reunified through a personal union under the energetic king Heraclius II in 1762.

The revival of the Georgian Kingdom was set back after Tbilisi was captured and destroyed by the Persian Empire and the Ottoman Empire subjugated the eastern and western regions of Georgia, respectively.

The Golden age of Georgia left a legacy of great cathedrals, romantic poetry and literature, and the epic poem "Mongol attacks within two decades after Tamar's death.

Kingdom of Georgia in 1124, at the peak of its power under David IV of Georgia.

[18]

[14] Bagrat III (r. 1027–72) united western and eastern Georgia. In the next century,

Although Arabs captured the capital city of Tbilisi in AD 645, Kartli-Iberia retained considerable independence under local Arab rulers.[14] In AD 813 the prince Ashot I – also known as Ashot Kurapalat – became the first of the Bagrationi family to rule the kingdom. Ashot's reign began a period of nearly 1,000 years during which the Bagrationi, as the house was known, ruled at least part of what is now the republic.

The various independent regions would not be united into a single Georgian Kingdom until the beginning of the 11th century.

The early kingdoms disintegrated into various feudal regions by the early Khazar empire.

Queen [16]

Middle Ages

[14] After the

. Sassanid Persia and Byzantine Empire fought between the Lazic War or Lazica, Colchis was also the battlefield of the Egrisi Known to its natives as [14]. The incorporation of the Golden Fleece into the myth may have derived from the local practice of using fleeces to sift gold dust from rivers.Argonautica' epic tale Apollonius Rhodius in Argonauts and the Jason sought by Golden Fleece, Colchis was the location of the Greek mythology) (in the east), were among the first nations in the region to adopt Christianity (in AD 337, or in AD 319 as recent research suggests). In იბერია The two early Georgian kingdoms of late antiquity, known to

The Tabal and all of the Hittite kingdoms of the Taurus Mountains.[13]

Ancient Georgian States of Colchis and Iberia, IV-III centuries B.C.

Antiquity

[11] Archaeological finds and references in ancient sources reveal elements of early political and state formations characterized by advanced metallurgy and goldsmith techniques that date back to the 7th century BC and beyond.[11] The territory of modern-day Georgia was inhabited by

Prehistory

History

The self-designation used by Iberians (Iberoi in some Greek sources).[10]

tried to link the name to the literal meaning of Greek γεωργός ("tiller of the earth; agriculturalist"). Jean Chardin Early modern authors such as [8] "Georgia" is an [7] The full, official name of the country is "Georgia", as specified in the Georgian constitution.

It is said that Saint George.

Etymology

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Prehistory 2.1
    • Antiquity 2.2
    • Middle Ages 2.3
    • Georgia in the Russian Empire 2.4
    • Declaration of independence 2.5
    • Georgia in the Soviet Union 2.6
    • Georgia after restoration of independence 2.7
    • Russo-Georgian War and since 2.8
  • Government and politics 3
    • Foreign relations 3.1
    • Military 3.2
    • Law enforcement 3.3
    • Human rights 3.4
  • Administrative divisions 4
  • Geography and climate 5
    • Topography 5.1
    • Climate 5.2
    • Biodiversity 5.3
  • Economy 6
    • Transport 6.1
  • Demographics 7
    • Religion 7.1
    • Education 7.2
  • Culture 8
    • Architecture and arts 8.1
    • Music 8.2
    • Cuisine 8.3
    • Sports 8.4
  • See also 9
  • Further reading 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

[6]

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