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Gutzon Borglum

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Gutzon Borglum

Gutzon Borglum
Gutzon Borglum
Born John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum
(1867-03-25)March 25, 1867
St. Charles, Idaho Territory, U.S.
Died March 6, 1941(1941-03-06) (aged 73)
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Nationality American
Education Mark Hopkins Institute of Art (now San Francisco Art Institute), San Francisco; Académie Julian and Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris.
Known for Sculpture, Painting

John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941) was a Danish-American artist and sculptor famous for creating the monumental presidents' heads at Mount Rushmore, South Dakota; the famous carving on Stone Mountain near Atlanta; and other public works of art, including a head of Abraham Lincoln, exhibited in Theodore Roosevelt's White House and held in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C..

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Stone Mountain 2
  • Mount Rushmore 3
  • Other works 4
  • In popular culture 5
  • Publications 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

Background

The son of St. Mary's College, Kansas.[4]

After a brief stint at Saint Mary’s College, Gutzon Borglum relocated to Solon Borglum, already an established sculptor.

In 1925, the sculptor moved to Texas to work on the monument to trail drivers commissioned by the Trail Drivers Association. He completed the model in 1925, but due to lack of funds it was not cast until 1940, and then was only a fourth its originally planned size. It stands in front of the Texas Pioneer and Trail Drivers Memorial Hall next to the

In popular culture

[19] Historian

He also created a memorial to Sacco and Vanzetti (1928), a plaster cast of which is now in the Boston Public Library.[18]

In 1938 Borglum also sculpted the Memorial to the "Start Westward of the United States" which is located in Marietta, Ohio. He also built the statue of Daniel Butterfield in Sakura Park, Manhattan.

Canadian artist Christian Cardell Corbet was the first Canadian to sculpt a posthumous medallion of Borglum. It currently resides at the Gutzon Borglum Museum in South Dakota.

Borglum was a member of the racist conviction in Nordic moral superiority, and urges strict immigration policies.[17]

Borglum was an active member of the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons (the Freemasons), raised in Howard Lodge #35, New York City, on June 10, 1904, and serving as its Worshipful Master 1910-11. In 1915, he was appointed Grand Representative of the Grand Lodge of Denmark near the Grand Lodge of New York. He received his Scottish Rite Degrees in the New York City Consistory on October 25, 1907.[13]

Another Borglum design is the Newark, NJ: Seated Lincoln (1911), Indian and Puritan (1916), Wars of America (1926), and a bas-relief, "First Landing Party of the Founders of Newark" (1916).[12]

One of Borglum's more unusual pieces is the "Aviator," completed in 1919 as a memorial for James R. McConnell, who was killed in World War I while flying for the Lafayette Escadrille. It is located on the grounds of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia.[11]

In 1918, he was one of the drafters of the Czechoslovak declaration of independence.[10]

In 1912, the Nathaniel Wheeler Memorial Fountain was dedicated in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

In 1909, Rabboni was created as a grave site for the Ffoulke Family in Washington, D.C. at Rock Creek Cemetery.

In 1908, Borglum completed the statue of John William Mackay (1831–1902), a Comstock Lode silver baron. The statue is located at the University of Nevada, Reno.

Monument depicting North Carolinian soldiers who fought during the Battle of Gettysburg
University of Virginia

Other works

Ivan Houser, father of

His Mount Rushmore project, 1927–1941, was the brainchild of South Dakota state historian Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt.

Mount Rushmore Carving officially began on June 23, 1923, with Borglum making the first cut. At Stone Mountain he developed sympathetic connections with the reorganized Ku Klux Klan, who were major financial backers for the monument. Lee's head was unveiled on Lee's birthday January 19, 1924, to a large crowd, but soon thereafter Borglum was increasingly at odds with the officials of the organization. His domineering, perfectionist, irascible, authoritarian manner brought tensions to such a point that in March 1925 Borglum smashed his clay and plaster models, and he left Georgia permanently. His tenure with the organization was over. None of his work remains, as it was all cleared from the mountain's face for the work of

After a delay caused by magic lantern to project the image onto the side of the mountain.

Borglum's ideas eventually evolved into a high-relief Ku Klux Klan altar in his plans for the memorial to acknowledge a request of Helen Plane in 1915, who wrote to him: "I feel it is due to the KKK that saved us from Negro domination and carpetbag rule, that it be immortalized on Stone Mountain".[8]

Borglum's nativist stances made him seem an ideologically sympathetic choice to carve a memorial to heroes of the [7]

Georgia

Stone Mountain

Borglum died in 1941 and is buried at Lincoln, he had a daughter, Mary Ellis (Mel) Borglum Vhay (1916–2002).

Borglum was active in the committee that organized the New York Stamford, Connecticut for 10 years.

In 1908, Borglum won a competition for a statue of the Civil War General

Washington, D.C.

A fascination with gigantic scale and themes of heroic nationalism suited his extroverted personality. His head of Abraham Lincoln, carved from a six-ton block of marble, was exhibited in Theodore Roosevelt's White House and can be found in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C. A "patriot," believing that the "monuments we have built are not our own," he looked to create art that was "American, drawn from American sources, memorializing American achievement," according to a 1908 interview article. His equation of being "American" with being born of American parents—"flesh of our flesh"—was characteristic of nativist beliefs in the early 20th century. Borglum was highly suited to the competitive environment surrounding the contracts for public buildings and monuments, and his public sculpture is sited all around the United States.

[6]

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