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Hypertensive heart disease

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Title: Hypertensive heart disease  
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Hypertensive heart disease

Hypertensive heart disease
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 I11, I13
ICD-9-CM 402
MedlinePlus 000163
eMedicine article/162449

Hypertensive heart disease includes a number of complications of high blood pressure that affect the heart. While there are several definitions of hypertensive heart disease in the medical literature,[1][2] the term is most widely used in the context of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding categories. The definition includes heart failure and other cardiac complications of hypertension when a causal relationship between the heart disease and hypertension is stated or implied on the death certificate.

According to ICD-10, hypertensive heart disease (I11), and its subcategories: hypertensive heart disease with heart failure (I11.0) and hypertensive heart disease without heart failure (I11.9) are distinguished from chronic rheumatic heart diseases (I05-I09), other forms of heart disease (I30-I52) and ischemic heart diseases (I20-I25). However, since high blood pressure is a risk factor for atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease,[3] death rates from hypertensive heart disease provide an incomplete measure of the burden of disease due to high blood pressure. In 2013 hypertensive heart disease resulted in 1.07 million deaths up from 630,000 in 1990.[4]

Contents

  • Signs and symptoms 1
    • Potential complications 1.1
  • Diagnosis 2
    • Differential diagnosis 2.1
    • Prevention 2.2
    • Blood pressure goals 2.3
  • Treatment 3
  • Epidemiology 4
    • Sex differences 4.1
    • Ethnic differences 4.2
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Signs and symptoms

The symptoms and signs of hypertensive heart disease will depend on whether or not it is accompanied by heart failure. In the absence of heart failure, hypertension, with or without enlargement of the heart (left ventricular hypertrophy) is usually symptomless. Symptoms and signs of chronic heart failure can include:

Patients can present acutely with heart failure and pulmonary edema due to sudden failure of pump function of the heart. Acute heart failure can be precipitated by a variety of causes including myocardial ischemia, marked increases in blood pressure, or cardiac dysrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation. Alternatively heart failure can develop insidiously over time.

Potential complications

Diagnosis

Stages of elevated BP and hypertension[6]
Category Systolic BP (mm Hg) Diastolic BP (mm Hg)
Optimal < 120 < 80
Prehypertension 120-139 80-89
Stage I 140-159 90-99
Stage II >160 >100

Differential diagnosis

Other conditions can share features with hypertensive heart disease and need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. For example:

  • Coronary artery disease or ischemic heart disease due to atherosclerosis
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes
  • Congestive heart failure or heart failure with normal ejection fraction due to other causes
  • Atrial fibrillation or other disorders of cardiac rhythm due to other causes
  • Sleep apnea

Prevention

Because there are no symptoms with high blood pressure, people can have the condition without knowing it. Diagnosing high blood pressure early can help prevent heart disease, stroke, eye problems, and chronic kidney disease.[7]

The risk of cardiovascular disease and death can be reduced by lifestyle modifications, including dietary advice, promotion of weight loss and regular aerobic exercise, moderation of alcohol intake and cessation of smoking.[6] Drug treatment may also be needed to control the hypertension and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease,[6] manage the heart failure,[8] or control cardiac arrhythmias.[9] Patients with hypertensive heart disease should avoid taking over the counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or cough suppressants, and decongestants containing sympathomimetics, unless otherwise advised by their physician as these can exacerbate hypertension and heart failure.[10][11]

Blood pressure goals

According to JNC 7, BP goals should be as follows :[6]

  • Less than 140/90mm Hg in patients with uncomplicated hypertension
  • Less than 130/85mm Hg in patients with diabetes and those with renal disease with less than 1g/24-hour proteinuria
  • Less than 125/75mm Hg in patients with renal disease and more than 1 g/24-hour proteinuria

Treatment

The medical care of patients with hypertensive heart disease falls under 2 categories—[12]

  • Treatment of the elevated BP
  • Prevention and treatment of hypertensive heart disease.

Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for hypertensive heart disease per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[13]
  no data
  less than 110
  110–220
  220–330
  330–440
  440–550
  550–660
  660–770
  770–880
  880–990
  990–1100
  1100–1600
  more than 1600

Hypertension or high blood pressure affects at least 4 billion people worldwide.[14] Hypertensive heart disease is only one of several diseases attributable to high blood pressure. Other diseases caused by high blood pressure include ischemic heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, aneurysms and kidney disease. Hypertension increases the risk of heart failure by two or three-fold[6] and probably accounts for about 25% of all cases of heart failure.[15] In addition, hypertension precedes heart failure in 90% of cases,[6] and the majority of heart failure in the elderly may be attributable to hypertension.[16] Hypertensive heart disease was estimated to be responsible for 1.0 million deaths worldwide in 2004 (or approximately 1.7% of all deaths globally), and was ranked 13th in the leading global causes of death for all ages.[17] A world map shows the estimated disability-adjusted life years per 100,000 inhabitants lost due to hypertensive heart disease in 2004.[13]

Sex differences

There are more women than men with hypertension,[18] and, although men develop hypertension earlier in life,[19] hypertension in women is less well controlled.[20][21] The consequences of high blood pressure in women are a major public health problem and hypertension is a more important contributory factor in heart attacks in women than men.[19] Until recently women have been under-represented in clinical trials in hypertension and heart failure. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the effectiveness of antihypertensive drugs differs between men and women[19] and that treatment for heart failure may be less effective in women.[22]

Ethnic differences

Studies in the USA indicate that a disproportionate number of African Americans have hypertension compared with non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, and that they suffer a greater burden of hypertensive heart disease.[23] Heart failure is more common in people of African American ethnicity, mortality from heart failure is also consistently higher than in white patients, and it develops at an earlier age.[22][24] Worryingly, recent data suggests that rates of hypertension are increasing more rapidly in African Americans than other ethnic groups.[25] The excess of high blood pressure and its consequences in African Americans is likely to contribute to their shorter life expectancy compared with white Americans.[23]

References

  1. ^ Alegría-Ezquerra E, González-Juanatey JR, González-Maqueda I (April 2006). "Hypertensive heart disease: a proposed clinical classification".  
  2. ^ Lip GY, Felmeden DC, Li-Saw-Hee FL, Beevers DG (October 2000). "Hypertensive heart disease. A complex syndrome or a hypertensive 'cardiomyopathy'?".  
  3. ^ a b c d e f Grossman E, Messerli FH (August 1996). "Diabetic and hypertensive heart disease".  
  4. ^ GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet.  
  5. ^ Maeder MT, Kaye DM (March 2009). "Heart failure with normal left ventricular ejection fraction".  
  6. ^ a b c d e f Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT, Roccella EJ, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood, Pressure, National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating, Committee (May 21, 2003). "The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report" (PDF).  
  7. ^ "Hypertensive heart disease". Medline Plus. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  8. ^ Hunt SA, Abraham WT, Chin MH, Feldman AM, Francis GS, Ganiats TG, Jessup M, Konstam MA, Mancini DM, Michl K, Oates JA, Rahko PS, Silver MA, Stevenson LW, Yancy CW (April 2009). "2009 focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2005 Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines: developed in collaboration with the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation".  
  9. ^ Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, Halperin JL, Kay GN, Le Huezey JY, Lowe JE, Olsson SB, Prystowsky EN, Tamargo JL, Wann LS (March 2011). "2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused updates incorporated into the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines developed in partnership with the European Society of Cardiology and in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society".  
  10. ^ White WB (April 2007). "Cardiovascular risk, hypertension, and NSAIDs".  
  11. ^ Ackman ML, Campbell JB, Buzak KA, Tsuyuki RT, Montague TJ, Teo KK (June 1999). "Use of nonprescription medications by patients with congestive heart failure".  
  12. ^ Riaz, Kamran. "Hypertensive Heart Disease". Medscape Reference. Retrieved 17 February 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009. Retrieved Nov 11, 2009. 
  14. ^ Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds K, Muntner P, Whelton PK, He J (2005). "Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data".  
  15. ^ Kannel WB, Cobb J (1992). "Left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality—results from the Framingham Study".  
  16. ^ Yamasaki N, Kitaoka H, Matsumura Y, Furuno T, Nishinaga M, Doi Y (May 2003). "Heart failure in the elderly".  
  17. ^ World Health Organization (2008). The Global Burden of Disease: 2004 Update. Geneva: World Health Organization.  
  18. ^ Anastos K, Charney P, Charon RA, Cohen E, Jones CY, Marte C, Swiderski DM, Wheat ME, Williams S (August 1991). "Hypertension in women: what is really known? The Women's Caucus, Working Group on Women's Health of the Society of General Internal Medicine".  
  19. ^ a b c Rabi DM, Khan N, Vallée M, Hladunewich MA, Tobe SW, Pilote L (June 2008). "Reporting on sex-based analysis in clinical trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker efficacy".  
  20. ^ Lloyd-Jones DM, Evans JC, Levy D (July 2005). "Hypertension in adults across the age spectrum: current outcomes and control in the community".  
  21. ^ Wassertheil-Smoller S, Anderson G, Psaty BM, Black HR, Manson J, Wong N, Francis J, Grimm R, Kotchen T, Langer R, Lasser N (November 2000). "Hypertension and its treatment in postmenopausal women: baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative".  
  22. ^ a b Bui AL, Horwich TB, Fonarow GC (January 2011). "Epidemiology and risk profile of heart failure".  
  23. ^ a b Ferdinand KC, Sounders E (January 2006). "Hypertension-related morbidity and mortality in African Americans—why we need to do better".  
  24. ^ Loehr LR, Rosamond WD, Chang PP, Folsom AR, Chambless LE (April 2008). "Heart failure incidence and survival (from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study)".  
  25. ^ Lloyd-Jones D, Adams R, Carnethon M, De Simone G, Ferguson TB, Flegal K, Ford E, Furie K, Go A, Greenlund K, Haase N, Hailpern S, Ho M, Howard V, Kissela B, Kittner S, Lackland D, Lisabeth L, Marelli A, McDermott M, Meigs J, Mozaffarian D, Nichol G, O'Donnell C, Roger V, Rosamond W, Sacco R, Sorlie P, Stafford R, Steinberger J, Thom T, Wasserthiel-Smoller S, Wong N, Wylie-Rosett J, Hong Y (January 2009). "Heart disease and stroke statistics—2009 update: a report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee".  

External links

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