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Joseph Barton Elam

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Joseph Barton Elam

Joseph Barton Elam
Joseph Barton Elam
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 4th district
In office
March 4, 1877 – March 3, 1881
Preceded by William Mallory Levy
Succeeded by Newton C. Blanchard
Speaker of the Louisiana House of Representatives (Confederate States of America)
In office
1862–1864
President Jefferson Davis, CSA
Preceded by None
Succeeded by B. F. Chapman
Personal details
Born

12 June 1821 (1821-06-12)
Hope, Hempstead County

Arkansas, USA
Died

July 4, 1885(1885-07-04) (aged 64#REDIRECT

  • This is a redirect from a page that has been moved (renamed). This page was kept as a redirect to avoid breaking links, both internal and external, that may have been made to the old page name. For more information follow the category link.{{Sidebar with collapsible lists
|name = Neo-fascism |title = Neo-fascism |pretitle = Linked to the Politics and elections series
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Political party Democratic
Spouse(s)

Twice widowed

Third wife: Harriet Spencer Elam
Relations

William B. Spencer (brother-in-law)

Harmon Drew, Jr. (great-grandson)
Children

Charles Wheaton Elam (1866-1917)
Joseph Barton Elam, Jr. (1878-1935)
Mollie (b. 1857)
Ida (b. 1861)
William J. (b. 1863)
Irene (b. 1868)
Susan (b. 1871)

Katie (b. 1874)
Residence

Alexandria, Louisiana
Many, Louisiana

Mansfield, Louisiana
Alma mater Private study of law
Profession Lawyer
Religion Episcopalian

Joseph Barton Elam, Sr. (June 12, 1821 – July 4, 1885), was a two-term Democratic U.S. representative from Louisiana's 4th congressional district, who service corresponded with the administration of U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes.

Early life and education

Elam was born near Hope in Hempstead County in southwestern Arkansas, to William Jefferson Elam, a teacher, and his wife, the former Cynthia Wheaton, both from Virginia. The Elam family moved in 1823 to Ayish Bayou near San Augustine in East Texas, where another son, Charles Wheaton Elam, was born. In 1826, the Elams relocated to Natchitoches, Louisiana, where Mary Jane Elam, was born. By 1833, the family moved to Fort Jessup, Louisiana, the westernmost outpost of the United States at that time. William Elam tutored the officers' sons. Another son, John Waddill Elam, was born at Fort Jesup in 1833. There was also a daughter, Henrietta Elam.

The Elam children were educated at Fort Jessup. Later, Joseph Elam read law with his cousin John Waddill in Alexandria, Louisiana. In 1853, Waddill helped obtain freedom of Solomon Northup, a kidnapped freeman from New York and the subject of the film, Twelve Years a Slave, who had been sold into slavery in Louisiana. Northup had been held for twelve years as a slave in the Red River region. Under its 1841 law, the state of New York commissioned an attorney to help find and free the kidnapped man.[1]

Elam was admitted to the bar in October 1843 and began his practice in Alexandria. He moved in 1844 to Sabine Parish and settled in the parish seat of Many.

Political career

Elam helped to establish the court system in DeSoto Parish, where on August 7, 1843, he made his first court appearance as an attorney. In 1845, Elam was elected to the Sabine Parish Police Jury, the parish governing body. He was the jury president from 1846 to 1847. Elam also served as the district attorney of Sabine Parish. In 1847, Elam drafted the articles for incorporation for the town of Mansfield, and was elected as its first mayor.[2] He served as mayor a second time in 1856. He was also a Mansfield alderman.

Elam was elected to the Louisiana House of Representatives from DeSoto Parish. He served as the House Speaker from 1862 to 1864.[3]His brother, John Waddill Elam, was elected sheriff of DeSoto Parish.

In 1861, Elam was elected a delegate to the Confederate Constitutional Convention and signed the Louisiana Ordinance of Secession on January 26, 1861.

In November 1865, he was elected as a state representative in the post-civil war Reconstruction legislature; this tenure is not reflectd in the website, "Membership of the Louisiana House of Representatives, 1812-2016." Elam served in the state legislature until the passage in 1867 by Congress of the Reconstruction Acts.[4] Elam attended the National Union Convention as a delegate from Louisiana in 1866.[5]

During Reconstruction, the Radical Republicans took control of Louisiana, and Elam was temporarily disfranchised under the Louisiana Constitution of 1868, which prevented former officers of the Confederacy from running for office for a limited period. When in 1870, section 99 of this Constitution was repealed, Elam was allowed again to seek office.

Because of violence and intimidation associated with elections, conducted in part by the Ku Klux Klan trying to suppress black and other Republican voting, the Radicals passed legislation in 1870 to establish "returning boards," which were authorized to review elections and dismiss results from ones in which fraud was committed. That year, the U. S. Congress passed the Force Act, intended to aid in suppressing the power of the KKK in the South.

Elam was denied office in 1870, 1872 and 1874 by the returning boards. In 1870, Elam stopped a riot by speaking to and calming a crowd after an election was taken from him, and did the same in 1872.[6] The Wheeler Adjustment, passed by the Louisiana legislature in March 1875, did not allow Elam to take his Louisiana State Senate seat for the 1874 election.[7] The elections continued to be marked by violence by the White League, a paramilitary group that supported the Democratic Party, disrupted Republican gatherings and worked to suppress black voting.[8]

In 1876, Elam, a secessionist and former Confederate state legislator, was elected to the United States Congress in the Forty-fifth Congress. A national political compromise of that year allowed him and other Democrats to take office, along with the accession of Republican Rutherford Hayes as President. Elam was reelected to the Forty-sixth Congress to represent Louisiana's 4th district.[9]

During his reelection campaign of 1878, Elam was severely injured in a stagecoach accident.[10] In 1881, he returned to Louisiana to practice law in Mansfield, where he died at the age of sixty-three.

Personal life

Elam was twice widowed and had eight children by his third wife, Harriet Spencer Elam. Son Charles Wheaton Elam, the brother of Joseph Elam, Jr., served in the Louisiana House from 1892 to 1896, and Joseph Barton Elam, Jr., was the mayor of Mansfield from 1914 to 1920.[11]

His younger sister, Henrietta Elam, married William B. Spencer, also later elected to the United States House of Representatives in the 1870s from Louisiana's 5th congressional district.

One of Elam's granddaughters, Margaret Taylor Elam Drew (1919–1977), was the first wife of R. Harmon Drew, Sr. of Minden, who was from 1972 to 1978 a state representative from Webster Parish in northwestern Louisiana. Their son Harmon Drew, Jr., also of Minden, is a judge of the Louisiana Court of Appeals for the Second District, based in Shreveport.


Citations


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ Northup, Solomon, Twelve Years a Slave, edited by Sue Eakin
  2. ^ Act No. 128, General Assembly of Louisiana 1847
  3. ^
  4. ^ Official Journal of the House of Representatives, State of Louisiana, 1861-1867
  5. ^ The New York Times August 13, 1866
  6. ^ Biographical history of Northwest Louisiana
  7. ^ , Edward McPherson, Solomons & Chapman, 1876, p. 200Handbook of Politics for 1876
  8. ^ George C. Rable, But There Was No Peace: The Role of Violence in the Politics of Reconstruction, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1984, p. 132
  9. ^ Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, pp. 197, 201
  10. ^ "Representative Elam injured", Shreveport Times, October 1878
  11. ^

References

  • Chambers, Henry E., A History of Louisiana, the American Historical Society, Inc., (1925)
  • Fortier, Alcée, Louisiana, Southern Historical Association, (1909)
  • Biographical Dictionary of Louisiana, Louisiana Historical Society, (1988)
  • Biographical History of Northwest Louisiana, Southern Press, (1889)
  • 1850 United States Census, Sabine Parish, Louisiana
  • 1860 United States Census, DeSoto Parish
  • United States Congressional Record 1877-1881
  • Northup, Solomon, Twelve Years a Slave
  • La. Acts of the Leg. No. 128, 1847
  • DeSoto Parish History Vols. 1 & 2, DeSoto Historical Society, 1995, 2004.
  • Journal of the Confederate Congress, Vol. 7, pgs. 14-15,1864.
  • DeSoto Parish Clerk of Court records
  • Sabine Parish Clerk of Court records
  • Tunnell, Ted, Edge of the Sword: The Ordeal of Carpetbagger Marshal H. Twitchell, LSU Press (2004)
  • Tunnell, Ted, Crucible of Reconstruction, LSU Press (1984)
Political offices
Preceded by
Adolphus Olive
Speaker of the Louisiana House of Representatives(Confederate)
1863–1864
Simeon Belden (Union)
1862 – 1864
Succeeded by
Duncan S. Cage
United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
William Mallory Levy
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 4th congressional district

1877 – 1881
Succeeded by
Newton Crain Blanchard
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