World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta

Article Id: WHEBN0005105419
Reproduction Date:

Title: Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Juan de Acuña, 2nd Marquis of Casa Fuerte, El Puerto de Santa María, Francisco Antonio de Echávarri, Carlos Benites Franquis de Lugo, Colegio de San Ignacio de Loyola Vizcaínas
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta

Archbishop Juan Antonio de Vizarrón, Viceroy of New Spain

Juan Antonio de Vizarrón y Eguiarreta (ca. 1685, El Puerto de Santa María, Spain – January 25, 1747, Mexico City, Spain) was archbishop of Mexico from March 21, 1731 to January 25, 1747 and Spanish viceroy of New Spain from March 17, 1734 to August 17, 1740.

Contents

  • Early career 1
  • Actions as viceroy 2
  • The disasters of 1735 and 1736 3
  • Further actions as viceroy 4
  • Later life and career 5

Early career

He studied in the College of San Clemente in Rome. At the time he was named archbishop of Mexico (January 13, 1730), he was archdeacon in the patriarchal church in Seville. He was also chaplain to the king. He was consecrated archbishop in Mexico City on May 13, 1730, and took formal possession of the archdiocese on March 21, 1731.

Actions as viceroy

In 1734 he took over the government of the viceroyalty in conformity with sealed orders from the Crown. These orders were to be opened by the Audiencia in the event of the death of the previous viceroy, Juan de Acuña, marqués de Casafuerte. They named Vizarrón y Eguiarreta as his successor.

As viceroy, he confiscated the property of the Duke of Monteleone, a descendant of Hernán Cortés, because of his involvement in the war against Philip V of Spain in Naples. He reinforced the presidios in Coahuila because of the nearby French presence. Two of these were located 30 and 55 leagues (170 and 300 km) north of Monclova.

The disasters of 1735 and 1736

In 1735 a storm completely flooded the settlement of San Augustín, Florida, and the viceroy sent aid.

The year 1736 was disastrous for New Spain. Strong north winds uprooted trees and toppled weathercocks and crosses on the buildings. A comet appeared, provoking panic in the population, who feared it portended great disasters. In October a fearful epidemic of matlazáhuatl (perhaps yellow fever or smallpox) broke out in the vicinity of Mexico City. Vizarrón y Eguiarreta tried to mitigate the effects of the epidemic, which was said to have taken the lives of two-thirds of the Indian population of the capital. It certainly killed tens of thousands of people, mostly Indians, in many cities and villages. To combat the plague, he ordered many public buildings converted into hospitals, and he swore an oath to the Virgin of Guadalupe in 1737. He supplied food to the sick.

Further actions as viceroy

Also in 1736 new silver mines were discovered in Arizona, resulting in a rush of miners to the north.

In 1737 a religious prophet appeared among the Guaima and Pima Indians. This was Agustín Ascuchul, who claimed that the god Moctezuma had appeared to him and named him his prophet. He called on the Indians to follow him to a new place, to worship the god. More than 5,000 Indians abandoned their homes to follow the prophet. The governor of Sonora, Juan Bautista de Anza, interpreted this as a rebellion. He soon suppressed it and hung the prophet.

The English were still importing much contraband, and the viceroy took steps to suppress this trade. When the Armada de Barlovento (coast guard) detained four English ships on the high seas heading for New Spain, Vizarrón y Eguiarreta was on the point of breaking relations. The English sent a strong squadron to the region, but the incident was resolved diplomatically. In 1739 the English declared war on Spain and were threatening to invade Spanish possessions in the Americas. Because of the war with England, Vizarrón y Eguiarreta reinforced the garrisons at San Juan de Ulúa and Veracruz, and he sent arms, militiamen, supplies and money to the military posts in Florida, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo and Cartagena.

He sent aid to the Spanish in California and the Capitanía General of Guatemala, where Indian uprisings had broken out. The rebels in Guatemala were armed and assisted by the English in Belize and were assaulting and robbing Spanish settlements on the coast. In California Indians had killed two Jesuit missionaries, some soldiers and some friendly Indians. The Spanish and allied Indians took refuge in Loreto (Baja California Sur). The viceroy also ordered a fleet of the Armada de Barlovento to the Virgin Islands to expel the Danish, but the fleet didn't reach its destination.

He continued the campaign against banditry. He sent two million pesos in silver to Spain as a contribution to the rebuilding of the Royal Palace in Madrid, which had been destroyed by fire in 1734. The Mexico City mint was completed and streets were repaired. His reform of the coinage angered the silver merchants.

Later life and career

He turned over civil power to [[Pedro de Castro, 1st Duke of la Conquista|Pedro de Castro y Figueroa,

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.