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Linear molecular geometry

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Title: Linear molecular geometry  
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Linear molecular geometry

Idealised structure of a compound with linear geometry.
Structure of beryllium fluoride (BeF2), a compound with a linear geometry at the beryllium atom.

In orbital hybridization for the carbon centers.

According to the VSEPR model, linear geometry occurs at central atoms with two bonded atoms and zero or three lone pairs (AX2 or AX2E3) in the AXE notation. Neutral AX2 molecules with linear geometry include beryllium fluoride (F—Be—F) with two single bonds,[1] carbon dioxide (O=C=O) with two double bonds, hydrogen cyanide (H—C≡N) with one single and one triple bond. The most important linear molecule with more than three atoms is acetylene (H—C≡C—H), in which each carbon is considered a central atom with a single bond to one hydrogen and a triple bond to the other carbon. Linear anions include azide (N3) and thiocyanate (SCN), and a linear cation is nitronium ion (NO2+).[2]

Linear geometry also occurs in AX2E3 molecules, such as xenon difluoride (XeF2)[3] and the triiodide ion (I3) with one iodide bonded to the two others. As described by the VSEPR model, the five valence electron pairs on the central atom form a trigonal bipyramid in which the three lone pairs occupy the less crowded equatorial positions and the two bonded atoms occupy the two axial positions at opposite ends of an axis, forming a linear molecule.

See also

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Greenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.
  3. ^

External links

  • Chem| Chemistry, Structures, and 3D Molecules
  • Indiana University Molecular Structure Center
  • Interactive molecular examples for point groups
  • Molecular Modeling
  • Animated Trigonal Planar Visual
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