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London, Midland and Scottish Railway


London, Midland and Scottish Railway

London, Midland and Scottish Railway
LMS crest, carved into the stonework at Leeds station
Reporting mark LMS
Locale England; Northern Ireland; Scotland; Wales
Dates of operation 1 January 1923[1]–31 December 1947
Predecessor London and North Western Railway; Midland Railway; Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway; North Staffordshire Railway; Furness Railway; Caledonian Railway; Glasgow & South Western Railway; Highland Railway
Successor British Railways[2]
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Electrification 600 or 650 V DC third rail
630 V DC third and fourth rail
1,200 V DC side contact third rail
6.6 kV 25 Hz AC overhead
Length 7,790 miles (12,537 km)
Headquarters Euston House, London

The London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS)[1] was a British railway company. It was formed on 1 January 1923 under the Railways Act of 1921,[1] which required the grouping of over 120 separate railways into four. The companies merged into the LMS included the London and North Western Railway, Midland Railway, the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway (which had previously merged with the London and North Western Railway on 1 January 1922), several Scottish railway companies (including the Caledonian Railway), and numerous other, smaller ventures.

The resulting company was an unwieldy construction, with numerous interests other than railway operation. Besides being the world's largest transport organisation, it was also the largest commercial enterprise in the British Empire and the United Kingdom's second largest employer, after the Post Office.[3] The LMS also claimed to be the largest joint stock organisation in the world.

In 1938, the LMS operated 6,870 miles (11,056 km) of railway (excluding its lines in Northern Ireland), but its profitability was generally disappointing, with a rate of return of only 2.7%. Under the Transport Act 1947, along with the other members of the "Big Four" British railway companies (GWR, LNER and SR), the LMS was nationalised on 1 January 1948, becoming part of the state-owned British Railways.

The LMS was the largest of the Big Four railway companies[4] serving routes in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.


  • Geography 1
    • Overview 1.1
    • Joint lines 1.2
    • Areas of competition 1.3
    • Northern Ireland 1.4
    • Geographical oddities 1.5
  • History 2
    • Formation 2.1
    • Early history 2.2
    • The Stanier revolution 2.3
    • Nationalisation 2.4
  • Railway operations 3
    • Commercial organisation 3.1
    • Charter and excursion traffic 3.2
    • Scheduled services 3.3
    • Goods services 3.4
  • Traction and rolling stock 4
    • Construction 4.1
    • Locomotives 4.2
    • Coaching stock 4.3
    • Goods wagons 4.4
    • Livery 4.5
    • Preservation 4.6
  • Technical innovation 5
    • Electrification 5.1
    • All-steel carriages 5.2
  • Accidents 6
  • Non-railway interests 7
    • Canals 7.1
    • Shipping 7.2
    • Road transport 7.3
    • Hotels 7.4
  • Notable people 8
    • Chairmen of the Board of Directors 8.1
    • Presidents 8.2
    • Chief Mechanical Engineers 8.3
    • Other notable people 8.4
  • Legacy 9
  • References 10
    • Notes 10.1
    • Sources 10.2
  • Further reading 11
  • External links 12



Contemporary 1935 map of LMS system. Other railways' lines are omitted but LMS joint lines are shown.

The Railways Act 1921 created four large railway companies which were in effect geographical monopolies, albeit with competition at their boundaries, and with some lines either reaching into competitor territory, or being jointly operated.

The LMS operated services in and around London, the Midlands, the North West of England, Mid/North Wales and Scotland.[5] The company also operated a separate network of lines in Northern Ireland.

The principal routes were the West Coast Main Line and the Midland Main Line, which had been the main routes of the two largest constituent companies, the London and North Western Railway and the Midland Railway respectively.

Joint lines

The LMS operated a number of lines jointly with the other main railway companies,[6] a situation which arose when the former joint owners of a route were placed into different post-grouping companies.[7] Most of these were situated at or near the boundaries between two or more of the companies, however there were some notable examples which extended beyond this hinterland zone.

Together with the London and North Eastern Railway, the LMS ran the former Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway network.[6] Exceeding 183 miles (295 km), this was the largest jointly operated network in Great Britain in terms of route mileage,[8] and extended from Peterborough to the East Anglian coast. The M&GN was wholly incorporated into the LNER in 1936.[6]

The LMS also operated a significant joint network with the Southern Railway, in the shape of the former Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway.[6][9] This network connected Bath and Bournemouth, and wound its way through territory nominally allocated to a third railway company, the Great Western.[6]

Through the former Midland Railway holdings, the LMS together with the Great Northern Railway (Ireland) jointly owned the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee lines.[10]

Areas of competition

Being geographically the largest, and the most central of the four main post-grouping railway companies, the LMS shared numerous boundaries with both the LNER and GWR, although its overlap with the Southern Railway was limited due to the general lack of direct routes through London. The SR and the LMS were mainly overlapping on the West London Line.

Competition with the LNER was mainly in terms of the premium London to Scotland traffic, with the rival LMS (West Coast) and LNER (East Coast) routes competing to provide ever better standards of passenger comfort and faster journey times. The LNER also competed with the LMS for traffic between London, the East Midlands, South Yorkshire and Manchester, with the former Midland main line from St Pancras (LMS) and Great Central Main Line from Marylebone (LNER) both providing express, stopping and local services between these destinations.

The London to Birmingham corridor was fiercely contested with the LMS running expresses over its West Coast Main Line via Rugby, and the Great Western running services via Banbury.

Northern Ireland

The LMS was also the only one of the Big Four companies to operate rail services in Northern Ireland, serving most major settlements in the region.

On 1 July 1903, the Midland Railway took over the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway and operated it under the name of Midland Railway (Northern Counties Committee). On grouping, the network became part of the LMS, again operating under the name of the Northern Counties Committee, and consisted of 201 miles (323 km) of 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) gauge track with a further 63 miles (101 km) of 3 ft (914 mm) gauge line.[10]

Geographical oddities

In 1912, the Midland Railway purchased the London, Tilbury and Southend Railway which operated between London Fenchurch Street and Shoeburyness, with a loop serving Tilbury. This part of the country later came under the control of the LNER, although this particular route, being part of the Midland Railway, was incorporated into the LMS. This arrangement did however provide a choice for residents of Southend, who could take services from either Southend Victoria to London Liverpool Street or from Southend Central to Fenchurch Street.[11][12]



The LMS was formed from the following major companies:

There were also some 24 subsidiary railways, leased or worked by the above companies, and a large number of joint railways, including the UK's largest Joint Railway, the Midland & Great Northern, and one of the most famous, the Somerset & Dorset.[9] The LMS was the minority partner (with the LNER) in the Cheshire Lines Committee.

In Ireland there were three railways:

Most of the above operated in what became Northern Ireland

The total route mileage of the LMS in 1923 was 7,790 miles (12,537 km).

For all railways see List of constituents of the LMS.

Early history

The early history of the LMS was dominated by infighting between its two largest constituents and previously rivals, the Midland and the North Western, each of which believed their company's way was the right – and only – way of doing business. This rivalry was so severe, that stories of connecting trains at Birmingham New Street from the previous LNWR and MR parts of the system, being deliberately made to miss each other persisted even as late as the early 1950s, long after their demise. Generally, the Midland prevailed, with the adoption of many Midland practices such as the livery of Crimson Lake for passenger locomotives and rolling stock. Notable was the continuation of the Midland Railway's small-engine policy (see Locomotives of the Midland Railway).[13][14][15][16]

The LMS also implemented a novel management structure, breaking with British railway tradition, and mirroring a contemporary management practice more common in the United States, appointing a President and Vice-Presidents. On 4 January 1926

  • The LMS Society
  • Vintage training and educational videos for LMS staff, customers and the general public.
  • The LMS Forum
  • LMS discussion group on Yahoo!
  • LMS images of tourist attractions along their routes Use Advanced Search/Collections/LMS to view these images held by the English Heritage Archive

External links

  • G. C. Nash (1946). The LMS at War. LMS. p. 88. 

Further reading

  • Arnold, R. M. (16 Aug 1973). N. C. C. Saga: London, Midland and Scottish Railway in Northern Ireland. Newton Abbot: David & Charles.  
  • Bonavia, Michael R. (1980). The Four Great Railways. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. 
  • Day, John R.; Reed, John (2008) [1963]. The Story of London's Underground (10th ed.). Harrow: Capital Transport.  
  • Dixon, Frank (1994) [1973]. The Manchester South Junction & Altrincham Railway. The Oakwood Library of Railway History (2nd ed.). Headington: Oakwood Press.  
  • Ellis, Cuthbert Hamilton (1961) [1953]. The Midland Railway (4th ed.). Hampton Court:  
  • Gammell, C.J. (1980). LMS Branch Lines, 1945 – 1965. Oxford Publishing Company.  
  • Hendry, Dr R. Preston; Hendry, R. Powell (1982). An Historical Survey of selected LMS Stations, Layouts and Illustrations, Volume 1. Oxford Publishing Company.  
  • Hunt, David; Jennison, Kohn; Essery, Robert (23 Nov 2010). The standard compounds. LMS Locomotive Profile 13. Wild Swan Publications Ltd.  
  • Jenkinson, David (1990). British Railway Carriages of the 20th Century, Volume 2: The years of consolidation, 1923–53. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens Limited.  
  • Kay, Peter (April 2010). The London, Tilbury & Southend Railway: 1912 - 1939 the Midland and LMS Years v. 3: A History of the Company and Line. P.Kay.  
  • Simmons, Jack; Biddle, Gordon, eds. (Oct 1997). Oxford Companion to British Railway History (1 ed.). OUP.  
  • Welbourn, N. (1994). Lost Lines: LMR. Ian Allan.  
  • Welch, H. D. (1963). The London Tilbury and Southend Railway. Oakwood Press. 
  • Whitehouse, Patrick; Thomas, David St John (2002). LMS 150 : The London Midland & Scottish Railway A century and a half of progress. Newton Abbot: David & Charles.  


  1. ^ It has been argued that the initials LMSR should be used to be consistent with LNER, GWR and SR. However the London, Midland and Scottish Railway's corporate image used LMS, and this is what is generally used in historical circles. The LMS occasionally also used the initials LM&SR. For consistency, WorldHeritage uses the initials LMS.
  1. ^ a b c d e f Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 204.
  2. ^ a b c Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 205.
  3. ^ a b Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 7.
  4. ^ a b Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 15.
  5. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, pp. 7–8.
  6. ^ a b c d e Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 186.
  7. ^ Casserley 1968, Chapter I: "Introduction"
  8. ^ Casserley 1968, pp. 15–36.
  9. ^ a b Casserley 1968, pp. 46–67.
  10. ^ a b Arnold 1973, p. 
  11. ^ Welch 1963, p. 
  12. ^ Kay 2010, p. 
  13. ^ Hunt, Jennison & Essery 2010, p. 
  14. ^ a b c Nock 1964, p. 
  15. ^ a b "William Stanier". Graces Guide. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  16. ^ Simmons & Biddle 1997, p. 
  17. ^ a b Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, pp. 38–39.
  18. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 23.
  19. ^ "Main-Line Companies Dissolved".  
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 97.
  21. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 14.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 96.
  23. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 100.
  24. ^ a b c d e Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 98.
  25. ^ a b Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 99.
  26. ^ Jenkinson 1990, p. 87.
  27. ^ a b UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2015), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  28. ^ a b c d Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 103.
  29. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 106.
  30. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 117.
  31. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 109.
  32. ^ Whitehouse, Patrick;  
  33. ^  
  34. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 170.
  35. ^ a b Jenkinson 1990, p. 10.
  36. ^ a b Jenkinson 1990, p. 11.
  37. ^ a b Jenkinson 1990, p. 21.
  38. ^ a b c d Jenkinson 1990, p. 23.
  39. ^ Jenkinson 1990, p. 24.
  40. ^ Day & Reed 2008, p. 102
  41. ^ Dixon 1994, p. 67
  42. ^ Ellis 1961, p. 129
  43. ^ a b c Jenkinson 1990, p. 31.
  44. ^ "Accident at Dinwoodie - Wamphray on 25th October 1928". 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g Trevena, Arthur (1980). Trains in Trouble. Vol. 1. Redruth: Atlantic Books. pp. 31, 35–36, 38, 40, 42.  
  46. ^ a b c d Hall, Stanley (1990). The Railway Detectives. London: Ian Allan. pp. 83, 85, 103.  
  47. ^ a b c d Earnshaw, Alan (1989). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 5. Penryn: Atlantic Books. pp. 20–21, 23, 26, 31.  
  48. ^ a b c Earnshaw, Alan (1993). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 8. Penryn: Atlantic Books. pp. 14–15, 17, 19.  
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h Earnshaw, Alan (1990). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. pp. 16, 22, 24–25, 27.  
  50. ^ a b c d Earnshaw, Alan (1991). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 7. Penryn: Atlantic Books. pp. 21–25.  
  51. ^ "Report on the Accident at Ashchurch on 8 January 1929" (PDF). Ministry of Transport. 5 March 1929. Retrieved 10 June 2014. 
  52. ^ a b c  
  53. ^  
  54. ^ "The Times newspaper: Notice of a Special General Meeting of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway". 11 February 1937.  Retrieved on 2008-06-29 (Requires login/subscription)
  55. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 118.
  56. ^ "Midland Railway". Simplon Postcards. Retrieved 15 December 2009. 
  57. ^ a b "1116015". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required (help)). 
  58. ^ a b "1099938". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required (help)). 
  59. ^ a b "1099941". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required (help)). 
  60. ^ a b "1116017". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required (help)). 
  61. ^ "1084974". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required (help)). 
  62. ^ a b Bonavia 1980, p. 
  63. ^ a b c Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 38.
  64. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 37.
  65. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 39.
  66. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 56.
  67. ^ Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, p. 46.
  68. ^ a b Whitehouse & Thomas 2002, pp. 58–59.



The name of the LMS was recently revived by Govia in the form of the train operating company London Midland which operates services primarily around the West Midlands and services north to Liverpool and south to London.


Other notable people

Chief Mechanical Engineers


Sir Guy Granet, Chairman of the LMS between 1924 and 1927[63]

Chairmen of the Board of Directors

Notable people

The range of hotels was extensive ranging from large resort and city centre hotels to much smaller provincial establishments. One of the most famous was the Midland Hotel in Morecambe, which had been rebuilt as an Art Deco landmark, as had the Queens Hotel in Leeds. While most were open all year round, a number opened for only particular months in the year, to coincide with local tourist seasons.

The LMS Hotels & Catering Service, apart from providing catering cars on trains and refreshment facilities at stations also operated a chain of nearly 30 hotels throughout the United Kingdom. Just prior to World War II the department employed 8,000 staff, served over 50 million customers per annum and grossed more than £3 million in receipts (£166 million in 2016).[27], from the combined hotel and catering operations. The scale of the undertaking enabled the LMS to claim that they operated the largest chain of hotels in the British Empire.[3]

The Midland Hotel, Manchester; one of many hotels formerly owned and operated by the LMS.


In 1933, along with the other three main line railways, the LMS purchased the Hay's Wharf Cartage Company Ltd., the owners of Pickfords, and Carter Paterson. Subsequently, the LMS acquired Joseph Nall & Co. of Manchester and a 51% stake in Wordie & Co. of Glasgow.[62] The LMS operated a road haulage fleet consisting of 29,754 road vehicles.[20]

Road transport

The LMS also inherited docks at Goole.[62]

Ship Launched Tonnage
Notes and references
SS Antrim 1904 2,100[57] Sold in 1928 to the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company. Scrapped at Preston in November 1936[57]
SS City of Belfast 1893 1,055[58] Bought from Barrow Steam Navigation Co Ltd in 1907. Sold in 1925 to a Greek owner, renamed Nicolaos Togias.
Renamed Kephallina in 1933.
Sank on 13 August 1941 off the Egyptian coast.[58]
SS Duchess of Devonshire 1897 1,265[59] Sold in 1928 to Bland Line, Gibraltar, renamed Gibel Dersa.
Scrapped in 1949 at Málaga, Spain.[59]
SS Londonderry 1904 2,086[60] Sold in 1927 to Angleterre-Lorraine-Alsace, renamed Flamand.
Scrapped at Altenwerder, Germany in 1937.[60]
SS Wyvern 1905 232[61] Built as a tug, used for pleasure excursions from Heysham to Fleetwood until the Second World War.
Scrapped in 1960.

Ships inherited from the Midland Railway.[56]

Further information: Irish Mercantile Marine during World War II.

The LMS acquired numerous docks, harbours and piers from its predecessors. These ranged in size from major ports at Barrow-in-Furness and Grangemouth through ferry harbours such as Holyhead, Heysham, Stranraer and Fleetwood to much smaller facilities including piers on the Thames and Clyde.[55] The LMS also inherited steamers and piers from the Furness Railway on Lakes Windermere and Coniston Water.

The TS Queen Mary. This ship was part of the LMS Clyde steamer fleet from 1935 to 1947.


The LMS owned many canals, including the Montgomeryshire Canal, Ellesmere Canal and Chester Canal. Many were abandoned by Act of Parliament, instigated by LMS.[54] Those not abandoned passed to the British Transport Commission, at nationalisation; and ownership subsequently transferred to the British Waterways Board.


Non-railway interests

  • On 30 September 1945, an express passenger train was derailed at Bourne End, Hertfordshire due to excessive speed through a set of points. Forty-three people were killed and 64 were injured.
  • 1946 – Lichfield rail crash; 20 killed and 21 injured.
  • On 12 April 1947, a passenger train was derailed near Keighley, Yorkshire when a bridge collapsed under it.[52]
  • On 21 July 1947, an express passenger train was derailed at Grendon, Warwickshire due to defective track. Five people were killed and 64 were injured.[47]
  • On 18 December 1931, a goods train became divided at Dagenham Dock, Essex. Due to a signalman's error, a passenger train ran into the rear portion of the goods. Two people were killed and several were injured.[52]
  • On 17 June 1932, a passenger train was derailed at Great Bridgeford, Staffordshire.[53]
  • On 10 July 1933, an express passenger train was in collision with a goods train and was derailed at Little Salkeld, Cumberland due to a signallman's error. One person was killed and about 30 were injured, one seriously.[50]
  • On 6 September 1934, two passenger trains were in a head-on collision at Port Eglington Junction, Glasgow, Renfrewshire after the driver of one of them misread signals. Nine people were killed and 31 were injured, eleven seriously.[50]
  • On 28 September 1934, an express passenger train was in a rear-end collision with a passenger train at Winwick Junction, Cheshire due to a signalman's error. Eleven people were killed and nineteen were injured.
  • On 25 February 1935, a passenger train was derailed at Ashton under Hill due to a combination of locomotive design, speed and track condition. One person was killed.[49]
  • On 14 March 1935, an express passenger train was brought to a halt at Kings Langley, Hertfordshire due to a defective vacuum brake. Due to a signalman's error a milk train ran into its rear. A goods train then ran into the wreckage.[45]
  • On 23 February 1937, an express goods train was derailed at West Hampstead, Middlesex.[45]
  • On 17 November 1937, a passenger train overran signals and was in a rear-end collision with an express passenger train at Coppenhall Junction, Crewe, Cheshire.[46]
  • On 21 January 1938, an express passenger train was in a head-on collision with an empty stock train at Oakley Junction due to a combination of driver and signalman's errors. Three people were killed and 46 were injured.[47]
  • On 5 August 1939, a passenger train was derailed at Saltcoats North station, Ayrshire due to an obstruction on the line. Four people were killed.[48]
  • On 28 September 1939, a rear-end collision occurred at Winwick Junction.[49]
  • On 14 October 1939, An express passenger train was involved in a collision at Bletchley, Buckinghamshire. Five people were killed, more than 30 were injured.[45]
  • On 13 October 1940, an express passenger train collided with a platform barrow obstructing the line at Wembley Central, Middlesex and was derailed. Several people were killed and many more were injured.[49]
  • On 4 September 1942, a goods train overran a loop at Todmorden, Yorkshire in blackout conditions and was derailed.[49]
  • On 21 July 1945, an express passenger train overran signals at Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire and was in collision with a goods train that was being shunted. Two people were killed, 31 were injured.[52]
  • On 5 July 1923, an express passenger train was in a rear-end collision with a goods train at Diggle, Lancashire. Four people were killed.[45]
  • On 26 April 1924, an electric multiple unit overran signals and was in a rear-end collision with an excursion train at Euston station, London.[46]
  • On 4 November 1924, an express passenger train was derailed near Lytham St. Annes, Lancashire due to a broken tyre on the locomotive. Fourteen people were killed.[45]
  • On 8 September 1926, a passenger train was unable to stop at Leeds Wellington station due to greasy rails after a thunderstorm. It crashed through the buffers and ended up in building. There were no injuries.[47]
  • On 19 November 1926, a private owner wagon of a goods train disintegrated near Parkgate and Rawmarsh station, Yorkshire, derailing the goods train that it was part of. A signal post was partially knocked over, obstructing the adjacent line. An express passenger train had the sides of its carriages ripped open by the signal post, killing eleven people. A direct consequence of this accident was that private owner wagons had to be registered with railway companies before they were allowed to run on main lines. They were also subject to a detailed inspection every ten years.[48]
  • On 30 November 1926, a passenger train overran signals at Upney, Essex and was in a rear-end collision with another. Of 604 people injured, only four are hospitalised.[46]
  • In June 1928, a mail train was derailed at Swinderby, Lincolnshire.[49]
  • On 2 July 1928, a goods train was derailed at Pinwherry, Renfrewshire due to excessive speed on a curve.[48]
  • On 27 August 1928, a passenger train crashed into buffers at Euston, London, injuring 30 people.[45]
  • In August 1928, a train was derailed at Ashton under Hill, Worcestershire.[49]
  • On 25 October 1928, a goods train broke down at Dinwoodie, Dumfriesshire. An express passenger train was in a rear-end collision with it due to errors by the guard of the goods train and a signalman. Four people were killed and five were injured.[50]
  • On 8 January 1929, an express passenger train from Bristol, Somerset to Leeds, Yorkshire when it overran signals at Ashchurch, Gloucestershire and collided with a goods train that was being shunted. Four people were killed.[45][51]
  • On 2 February 1929, a passenger train was sent into the bay platform at Bridgeton Cross, Glasgow, Renfrewshire due to a signalman's error. Several people were injured when the train crashed through the buffers.[47]
  • On 12 February 1929, an express passenger train was in a head-on collision with a goods train at Doe Hill station, Derbyshire due to a signalman's error. Two people were killed.[50]
  • On 6 March 1930, a passenger train departed from Culgaith station, Cumberland against signals. It subsequently collided with a ballast train at Langwathby, Cumberland. Two people were killed and four were seriously injured.[46]
  • On 22 March 1931, an express passenger train was derailed at Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire due to excessive speed through a crossover. The locomotive crew were killed.[49]
  • On 17 July 1931, a mail train overran signals and was in a rear-end collision with a goods train at Crich Junction, Derbyshire. Two people were killed and seventeen people were injured.[49]


In 1926, the LMS introduced its “all-steel carriage”, which represented a significant departure from previous carriage construction. Previously carriages had been built with wood or steel-plated wood bodies, mounted on heavy underframes. The all-steel carriages differed in that they consisted of a steel tube or box girder, which not only formed the body but also formed the load-bearing part of the carriage, meaning that a heavy underframe was not required.[43] The new technique also meant that the carriages were stronger under collision conditions, as proved during an accident at Dinwoodie – Wamphray[44] on 25 October 1928 when the leading “all-steel” carriage absorbed most of the impact. Construction of the carriages was carried out for the LMS by external companies, largely to provide work for them during a difficult economic period,[43] but within a couple of years the company returned to more conventional construction methods, as it could no longer justify using external contractors due to efficiency improvements within its own workshops, which were set up to produce carriages of more traditional configuration.[43]

All-steel carriages

Finally the route between Lancaster and Heysham via Morecambe had been electrified by the Midland Railway using a 6600 V ac overhead system, as early as 1908.[42]

In Manchester, the line from Bury to Manchester Victoria had already been electrified by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway using a side-contact, third rail system. In conjunction with the LNER, the lines of the former Manchester, South Junction and Altrincham Railway were electrified using the 1500 V dc overhead line system, opening on 11 May 1931.[41]

In the Liverpool area, lines were electrified using a third rail, energised at 630 V dc. Routes from Liverpool Exchange to Southport and Aintree and from Aintree to Ormskirk were already completed prior to the formation of the LMS. Lines from Birkenhead Park to West Kirby and New Brighton were added to this network in 1938.

Schemes in the London area generally used the four-rail system in use by tube and sub-surface railways (such as the Metropolitan Railway). Lines from Bow to Barking, Euston to Watford Junction, Broad Street to Richmond and a number of related branches and connecting lines were already electrified when the LMS came into existence, although the LMS did extend electrification from Barking to Upminster in 1932.[40]

An electric multiple unit as used by the LMS in the London area, stands at Harrow and Wealdstone station after nationalisation.

The LMS operated a number of suburban lines using electric traction, in and around London, Liverpool, Manchester and Lancashire.


Technical innovation


Each of the constituent companies of the LMS had their own liveries for locomotives and rolling stock. The board of directors of the LMS was dominated by former Midland Railway officers, and the company adopted the "crimson lake" livery for coaching stock as had been used by the Midland and Glasgow & South Western Railways prior to grouping (with the North Staffordshire Railway using a very similar shade). The livery worked well, proving to be hard wearing and practical.[36]


  • Wagons of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway

Goods wagons

The natural progression was to streamline the assembly process and the company introduced a method known as Progressive Construction.[38] In this process the mass-produced parts were combined into “unit assemblies”, each of which was a major sub-component of the finished carriage such as side panels, carriage ends or the roof. The workshops were organised on the “flow-line” principle, similar to a modern assembly line, and the unit assemblies were taken to workstations, where the precision machining of the mass-produced parts ensured they all fitted accurately into position, building into a complete carriage as the unit moved along the flow line.[38] The technique was already in use in Derby prior to grouping,[37] and was adopted in Wolverton during 1925, with Newton Heath following two years later.[38] By using this method, the time taken to construct a typical carriage fell from six weeks to six days[38] and by 1931 Derby and Wolverton were able to handle the entire LMS carriage building workload, and production at Newton Heath ceased.[39]

Most railway carriages were constructed by fitting together component parts which had been roughly machined to larger dimensions than required, which were then cut to the required size and joined together by skilled coachbuilders. Reid's new method involved the use of templates or "jigs" to mass-produce components to a set pattern and size. Once these had been checked any example of a specific part could be used interchangeably with any other of the same type. The technique was applied to any item which could be manufactured in large numbers (as there were significant costs in producing the initial jigs) such as doors, ventilators, windows and seats.[37]

The LMS inherited a wide variety of passenger rolling stock from its constituent companies, and appointed Robert Whyte Reid, and ex-Midland Railway man, as the head of its Carriage department.[35] Reid had already started to introduce more efficient carriage building practises at the Derby Carriage and Wagon works of the Midland Railway prior to grouping[35] and these same practises were soon introduced to the carriage and wagon works of the former LNWR at Wolverton and the L&YR at Newton Heath.[36]

An LMS sleeping car in the standard maroon livery

Coaching stock


Works Pre-grouping company Type Closed by LMS
Barassie G&SWR Carriage & Wagon
Barrow-in-Furness FR Locomotive 1930
Bow NLR Locomotive
Bromsgrove MR Wagon
Crewe LNWR Locomotive
Derby Carriage & Wagon MR Carriage & Wagon
Derby Loco MR Locomotive
Earlestown LNWR Wagon
Horwich LNWR (L&Y) Locomotive
Kilmarnock G&SWR Locomotive
Lochgorm (Inverness) HR Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon
Maryport M&CR Locomotive c1925
Newton Heath LNWR (L&Y) Carriage & Wagon c1932
Stoke-on-Trent NSR Locomotive 1930
St. Rollox CR Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon
Wolverton LNWR Carriage

Smaller workshop facilities were also transferred to the LMS by other constituent companies, including at Barrow-in-Furness (Furness Railway), Bow (North London Railway), Kilmarnock (Glasgow and South Western Railway) and Inverness (Highland Railway). The table below shows all major works taken over by the LMS upon formation.[34]

St. Rollox railway works, north east of Glasgow, had been built in 1856 by the Caledonian Railway, while Stoke works in Staffordshire were established in 1864 by the North Staffordshire Railway. Both were absorbed into the LMS with their parent companies, and while the former became the main workshops for the Northern Division of the LMS, the latter works were wound down, closing in 1930, all work being transferred to nearby Crewe.

The LNWR also contributed several works sites to the LMS. Crewe Works was opened in 1840 by the Grand Junction Railway and by the time of grouping was the locomotive works for the LNWR. Wolverton works in Buckinghamshire had been established by the London and Birmingham Railway in the 1830s, and since 1862 (when all locomotive works had transferred to Crewe) had been the LNWR's carriage works. In 1922, one year prior to the formation of the LMS, the LNWR had absorbed the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, including their works at Horwich in Lancashire, which had opened in 1886.[33]

Two facilities were located in Derby, one known as Bromsgrove in Worcestershire, which had been inherited from the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway.

The LMS owned and operated a number of railway works, all of which were inherited from constituent companies. Between them these sites constructed locomotives, coaching stock, multiple units and freight wagons, as well as a number of non-rolling stock items required for the everyday running of the railway.[32]


Traction and rolling stock

Particularly notable were the TotonBrent coal trains, which took coal from the Nottinghamshire coalfield to London.[31]

Goods accounted for around 60% of LMS revenue,[29] and was even more varied than passenger services, catering for a range of goods from fresh perishables such as milk, fish and meat[30] through to bulk minerals and small consignments sent point to point between individuals and companies.

Goods services

Most other major cities on the network were linked by trains with names which would become famous in railway circles including the "Thames-Clyde Express"[28] between London St. Pancras and Glasgow St. Enoch, "The Palatine"[28] between London St. Pancras and Manchester Central, "The Irish Mail"[28] from London Euston to Holyhead and "The Pines Express"[28] conveying portions from Liverpool and Manchester to Bournemouth.

A number of premium services were offered, culminating in 1937 with the launch of the Coronation Scot,[2] which featured streamlined locomotives hauling a nine coach train of specially constructed stock between London Euston and Glasgow Central in six and a half hours.[2]

However important the excursion traffic was, it was the ordinary scheduled services which had to be the focus of efforts to improve the fortunes of the LMS. A number of initiatives were introduced, with the aim of making train travel more attractive and encouraging business growth. Services were accelerated, and better quality rolling stock was introduced and from 24 September 1928 sleeping cars were provided for third class ticket holders for the first time.[26] The effect of these improvements was significant, with receipts from passenger traffic increasing by £2.9 million (£1.57 billion in 2016),[27] between 1932 and 1938.

Scheduled services

Such was the importance of such excursion traffic that a special department was established in 1929 and oversaw the expansion from 7,500 special trains in that year to nearly 22,000 in 1938.[24]

Charter and excursion trains were a significant source of revenue and the LMS became a specialist in the movement of large numbers of people, with locomotives and rolling stock often kept in operation just to service such seasonal traffic. In one year, the LMS ran 43 special trains to take spectators to the Grand National at Aintree,[20] and a further 55 for the Cup Final at Wembley.[20] Longer running events demanded operations on a much larger scale, with the Glasgow Empire Exhibition requiring 1,800 special trains,[24] with a further 1,456 run in connection with the Blackpool Illuminations.[24] The number of people moved was huge, with over 2.2 million holidaymakers arriving in Blackpool between the start of July and the end of September alone.[24] Besides these mass-market events, the company also ran regular tourist excursions to a variety of destinations, such as Oban in the Scottish highlands,[25] Keswick in the English Lake District,[24] and even the First World War battlefields in Belgium, by way of the Tilbury to Dunkerque ferry service and the Belgian railways.[25]

LMS monogram at Llandudno Station

Charter and excursion traffic

Passenger miles rose quite dramatically, from a low point of 6,500 million in 1932 to 8,500 million by 1937, while at the same time the number of coaches required was reduced through improved maintenance and more efficient utilisation.[23]

Numerous special fares were introduced to encourage travel, develop niche markets and overcome competitors. The cheap day return ticket offered return travel at a price usually equivalent to the single fare, although in areas with rival bus services they were sometimes offered at less than the single fare. Companies holding large freight accounts with the LMS received reduced price season tickets for nominated employees, while commercial travellers, anglers and conveyors of racing pigeons were all tempted with special offers.[20]

Davies created a commercial research section, increased the sales force and provided them with specialist training.[22] The emphasis of the organisation switched from operators dictating what was reasonable to the commercial managers asking what was possible in order to maximise sales opportunities.[22] Thirty five district managers were appointed to oversee sales through the company's goods depots, passenger stations and key dock facilities.[20] There was even sales representation in the locomotives and rolling stock, and trained staff to step into key roles; firemen trained as drivers and locomotive cleaners trained to replace firemen.[20]

For nearly ten years after its formation, the LMS had been run using a similar organisational structure to one of its constituents, the Midland Railway.[22] In practice this meant that the commercial managers found themselves subservient to the needs of the operating departments. This changed in 1932 when a major restructuring was completed,[22] replacing the traditional board of directors with an executive headed by a president, supported by vice presidents each with responsibility for a specific area. Ernest Lemon, who had briefly held the office of Chief Mechanical Engineer pending the arrival of William Stanier[22] became Vice President (Railway traffic, operating & commercial), with separate chief operating and chief commercial managers of equal status reporting to him.[22] Railway operations were directed by Charles Byrom, a veteran officer of the LNWR, while commercial activities were headed by Ashton Davies, formerly of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway.[22]

Commercial organisation

Despite having widespread interests in a number of commercial areas, the LMS was first and foremost a railway organisation. It operated in all four constituent countries of the United Kingdom,[4] and in England its operations penetrated 32 of the 40 counties.[20] The company operated around 7,000 route miles of railway line, servicing 2,944 goods depots and 2,588 passenger stations, using 291,490 freight vehicles, 20,276 passenger vehicles and 9,914 locomotives.[20] The company directly employed 263,000 staff, and through its annual coal consumption of over six and a half million tons, could claim to indirectly employ a further 26,500 coal miners.[21]

Railway operations

The war-damaged LMS was nationalised in 1948 by the Transport Act 1947, becoming part of British Railways. It formed the London Midland Region and part of the Scottish Region. British Railways transferred the lines in Northern Ireland to the Ulster Transport Authority in 1949. The London Midland & Scottish Railway Company continued to exist as a legal entity for nearly two years after Nationalisation, being formally wound up on 23 December 1949.[19] The lines in Great Britain were rationalised through closure in the 1950s to 70s but the main routes survive and some have been developed for 125 mph inter-city services.


The arrival of the new chief mechanical engineer, William Stanier, who was brought in from the Great Western Railway by Josiah Stamp in 1932,[18] heralded a change. Stanier introduced new ideas rather than continuing the company's internal conflict.[14][15]

The Stanier revolution

[17].Sir Guy Granet succeeding [1]

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