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Manned spaceflight

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Title: Manned spaceflight  
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Manned spaceflight


Orbital human spaceflight
Name Debut Launches
Vostok 1961 6
Mercury 1962 4
Voskhod 1964 2
Gemini 1965 10
Soyuz 1967 118
Apollo/Skylab 1968 15
Shuttle 1981 135
Shenzhou 2003 5
Suborbital human spaceflight
Name Debut Flights
Mercury 1961 2
X-15 1962 13 or 2
(Soyuz 18a, Soyuz T-10-1) 1975, 1983 2
SpaceShipOne 2004 3

Human spaceflight (or manned spaceflight or crewed spaceflight) is space travel with humans aboard spacecraft. When a spacecraft is manned, it can be piloted directly, as opposed to machine or robotic space probes controlled remotely by humans or through automatic methods on board the spacecraft.

Humans have been continually present in space for 13 years and 269 days on the International Space Station. The first manned spaceflight was launched by the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 as a part of the Vostok program, with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard.

Currently, only Russia and China maintain human spaceflight capability independent of international cooperation. As of 2013, human spaceflights are only launched by the Soyuz program conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency and the Shenzhou program conducted by the China National Space Administration. The United States lost human spaceflight launch capability upon retirement of the space shuttle in 2011.

In recent years there has been a gradual movement towards more commercial means of spaceflight. The first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight. A number of non-governmental startup companies have sprung up, hoping to create a space tourism industry. NASA has also tried to stimulate private spaceflight through programs such as Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) and Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS). With its 2011 budget proposals released in 2010,[1] the Obama administration moved towards a model where commercial companies would supply NASA with transportation services of both crew and cargo to low Earth orbit. The vehicles used for these services would then serve both NASA and potential commercial customers. NASA intended to spend $6 billion in the coming years to develop commercial crew vehicles, using a model similar to that used under COTS.[2]

History

First human spaceflights

The first human spaceflight took place on 12 April 1961, when cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin made one orbit around the Earth aboard the Vostok 1 spacecraft, launched by the Soviet space program. Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman in space aboard Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963. Both spacecraft were launched by Vostok 3KA launch vehicles. Alexei Leonov made the first spacewalk when he left Voskhod 2 on 8 March 1965. Svetlana Savitskaya became the first woman to do so on 25 July 1984.

The United States became the second nation to achieve manned spaceflight with the suborbital flight of astronaut Alan Shepard aboard Freedom 7 as part of Project Mercury. The spacecraft was launched on 5 May 1961 on a Redstone rocket. The first U.S. orbital flight was that of John Glenn aboard Friendship 7, launched 20 February 1962 on an Atlas rocket. From 1981 to 2011, the U.S. conducted all its human spaceflight missions with reusable space shuttles. Sally Ride became the first American woman in space in 1983. Eileen Collins was the first female shuttle pilot, and with shuttle mission STS-93 in 1999 she became the first woman to command a U.S. spacecraft.

China became the third nation to achieve human spaceflight when Yang Liwei launched into space on a Chinese-made vehicle, the Shenzhou 5, on 15 October 2003. The flight also made China the third nation to have launched its own manned spacecraft using its own launcher. The first Chinese woman, Liu Yang, was launched in June 2012 aboard Shenzhou 9. Previous European (Hermes) and Japanese (HOPE-X) domestic manned programs were abandoned after years of development, as was the first Chinese attempt, the Shuguang spacecraft.

The farthest destination for a human spaceflight mission has been the Moon. The only manned missions to the Moon have been those conducted by NASA as part of the Apollo program. The first such mission, Apollo 8, orbited the Moon but did not land. The first Moon landing mission was Apollo 11, during which—on 20 July 1969—Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first people to set foot on the Moon. Six missions landed in total, numbered Apollo 11–17, excluding Apollo 13. Altogether 12 men walked on the Moon, the only humans to have been on an extraterrestrial body. The Soviet Union discontinued its program for lunar orbiting and landing of human spaceflight missions in 1974 when Valentin Glushko became General Designer of NPO Energiya.[3]

The longest single human spaceflight is that of Valeriy Polyakov, who left Earth on 8 January 1994, and did not return until 22 March 1995 (a total of 437 days 17 hr. 58 min. 16 sec.). Sergei Krikalyov has spent the most time of anyone in space, 803 days, 9 hours, and 39 seconds altogether. The longest period of continuous human presence in space is 13 years and 269 days on the International Space Station, exceeding the previous record of almost 10 years (or 3,634 days) held by Mir, spanning the launch of Soyuz TM-8 on 5 September 1989 to the landing of Soyuz TM-29 on 28 August 1999.

For many years beginning in 1961, only two countries, the USSR (later Russia) and the United States, had their own astronauts. Citizens of other nations flew in space, beginning with the flight of Vladimir Remek, a Czech, on a Soviet spacecraft on 2 March 1978. As of 2010, citizens from 38 nations (including space tourists) have flown in space aboard Soviet, American, Russian, and Chinese spacecraft.

Post-shuttle gap in United States human spaceflight capability

Under the Bush administration, the Constellation Program included plans for canceling the Shuttle and replacing it with the capability for spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit. In the 2011 United States federal budget, the Obama administration proposed canceling Constellation for being over budget and behind schedule while not innovating and investing in critical new technologies.[4] Under a new plan, NASA would rely on transportation services provided by the private sector, such as Space X's Falcon 9. The period between the retirement of the shuttle and the initial operational capability of new systems, similar to the gap between the end of Apollo and the first space shuttle flight, is referred to by a presidential Blue Ribbon Committee as the U.S. human spaceflight gap.[5]

Space programs


As of 2013, human spaceflight missions have been conducted by the former Soviet Union/Russian Federation, the United States, the People's Republic of China and by private spaceflight company Scaled Composites. The United States lost their human spaceflight agenda when the Space Shuttle program ended on August 2011.

Several other countries and space agencies have announced and begun human spaceflight programs by their own technology, including India (ISRO), Japan (JAXA), Iran (ISA) and Malaysia (MNSA).

Currently the following spacecraft and spaceports are used for launching human spaceflights:

Historically, the following spacecraft and spaceports have also been used for human spaceflight launches:

Numerous private companies attempted human spaceflight programs in an effort to win the $10 million Ansari X Prize. The first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight. SpaceShipOne captured the prize on 4 October 2004, when it accomplished two consecutive flights within one week. SpaceShipTwo, launching from the carrier aircraft White Knight Two, is planned to conduct regular suborbital space tourism.

Most of the time, the only humans in space are those aboard the ISS, whose crew of six spends up to six months at a time in low Earth orbit.

NASA and ESA now use the term "human spaceflight" to refer to their programs of launching people into space. Traditionally, these endeavors have been referred to as "manned space missions."

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from:11/08/1962 till:16/08/1962 barset:break # Vostok 3&4 occurred simultaneously 
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from:28/03/2013 till:end text:" "
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at:21/07/1961 mark:(line,USA) text:" " barset:break
at:20/02/1962 mark:(line,USA) text:" " barset:break
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at:30/10/1962 mark:(line,USA) text:" " barset:break
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at:15/06/1963 mark:(line,white) text:"Mercury" barset:break
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from:28/07/1973 till:25/09/1973 color:USA text:" " barset:break
from:16/11/1973 till:08/02/1974 color:USA text:" " barset:break
at:08/03/1974 text:"Skylab" barset:break

from:12/04/1981 till:14/04/1981 text:" " barset:break
from:12/11/1981 till:14/11/1981 text:" " barset:break
from:22/03/1982 till:30/03/1982 text:" " barset:break
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from:08/08/1989 till:13/08/1989 text:" " barset:break
from:09/01/1990 till:19/01/1990 text:" " barset:break
from:02/12/1990 till:10/12/1990 text:" " barset:break
from:05/06/1991 till:14/06/1991 text:" " barset:break
from:25/06/1992 till:08/07/1992 text:" " barset:break
from:22/10/1992 till:31/10/1992 text:" " barset:break
from:26/04/1993 till:05/05/1993 text:" " barset:break
from:18/10/1993 till:01/11/1993 text:" " barset:break
from:04/03/1994 till:17/03/1994 text:" " barset:break
from:08/07/1994 till:22/07/1994 text:" " barset:break
from:20/10/1995 till:04/11/1995 text:" " barset:break
from:22/02/1996 till:08/03/1996 text:" " barset:break
from:20/06/1996 till:06/07/1996 text:" " barset:break
from:19/11/1996 till:06/12/1996 text:" " barset:break
from:04/04/1997 till:07/04/1997 text:" " barset:break
from:01/07/1997 till:16/07/1997 text:" " barset:break
from:19/11/1997 till:04/12/1997 text:" " barset:break
from:17/04/1998 till:02/05/1998 text:" " barset:break
from:23/07/1999 till:27/07/1999 text:" " barset:break
from:01/03/2002 till:11/03/2002 text:" " barset:break
from:16/01/2003 till:31/01/2003 text:" " barset:break
barset:break at:03/03/2003 mark:(line,white) text:"STS, Columbia"
barset:USA2 # Gemini, Enterprise, Challenger, Endeavour
from:08/04/1964 till:12/04/1964 text:" " barset:break
from:19/01/1965 till:19/01/1965 text:" " barset:break
from:23/03/1965 till:23/03/1965 text:" " barset:break
from:03/06/1965 till:07/06/1965 text:" " barset:break
from:21/08/1965 till:29/08/1965 text:" " barset:break
from:04/12/1965 till:18/12/1965 text:" " barset:break
from:15/12/1965 till:16/12/1965 text:" " barset:break
from:16/03/1966 till:17/03/1966 text:" " barset:break
from:03/06/1966 till:06/06/1966 text:" " barset:break
from:18/07/1966 till:21/07/1966 text:" " barset:break
from:12/09/1966 till:15/09/1966 text:" " barset:break
from:11/11/1966 till:15/11/1966 text:" " barset:break
barset:break at:15/12/1966 mark:(line,white) text:"Gemini"
#from:12/08/1977 till:12/08/1977 text:" " barset:break
#from:13/09/1977 till:13/09/1977 text:" " barset:break
#from:23/09/1977 till:23/09/1977 text:" " barset:break
#from:12/10/1977 till:12/10/1977 text:" " barset:break
#from:26/10/1977 till:26/10/1977 text:" " barset:break
#barset:break at:26/11/1977 mark:(line,white) text:Enterprise the enterprise never flew in space
from:04/04/1983 till:09/04/1983 text:" " barset:break
from:18/06/1983 till:24/06/1983 text:" " barset:break
from:30/08/1983 till:05/09/1983 text:" " barset:break
from:03/02/1984 till:10/02/1984 text:" " barset:break
from:06/04/1984 till:12/04/1984 text:" " barset:break
from:05/10/1984 till:13/10/1984 text:" " barset:break
from:29/04/1985 till:06/05/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:29/07/1985 till:05/08/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:30/10/1985 till:06/11/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:28/01/1986 till:28/01/1986 text:" " barset:break
barset:break at:28/02/1986 mark:(line,white) text:"STS, Challenger"
from:07/05/1992 till:15/05/1992 text:" " barset:break
from:12/09/1992 till:19/09/1992 text:" " barset:break
from:13/01/1993 till:18/01/1993 text:" " barset:break
from:21/06/1993 till:30/06/1993 text:" " barset:break
from:02/12/1993 till:12/12/1993 text:" " barset:break
from:09/04/1994 till:20/04/1994 text:" " barset:break
from:30/09/1994 till:11/10/1994 text:" " barset:break
from:02/03/1995 till:18/03/1995 text:" " barset:break
from:07/09/1995 till:17/09/1995 text:" " barset:break
from:11/01/1996 till:19/01/1996 text:" " barset:break
from:19/05/1996 till:29/05/1996 text:" " barset:break
from:22/01/1998 till:30/01/1998 text:" " barset:break
from:04/12/1998 till:15/12/1998 text:" " barset:break
from:11/02/2000 till:22/02/2000 text:" " barset:break
from:30/11/2000 till:10/12/2000 text:" " barset:break
from:19/04/2001 till:30/04/2001 text:" " barset:break
from:05/12/2001 till:16/12/2001 text:" " barset:break
from:05/06/2002 till:18/06/2002 text:" " barset:break
from:23/11/2002 till:06/12/2002 text:" " barset:break
from:08/08/2007 till:21/08/2007 text:" " barset:break
from:11/03/2008 till:26/03/2008 text:" " barset:break
from:14/11/2008 till:30/11/2008 text:" " barset:break
from:15/07/2009 till:31/07/2009 text:" " barset:break
from:08/02/2010 till:22/02/2010 text:" " barset:break
from:16/05/2011 till:01/06/2011 text:" " barset:break
barset:break at:01/07/2011 mark:(line,white) text:"STS, Endeavour"

barset:USA3 # Apollo, Discovery
#from:26/02/1966 till:26/02/1966 text:" " barset:break 
#from:06/07/1966 till:06/07/1966 text:" " barset:break
#from:23/08/1966 till:23/08/1966 text:" " barset:break
#from:21/02/1967 till:07/03/1967 text:" " barset:break
#from:09/11/1967 till:09/11/1967 text:" " barset:break
#from:22/01/1968 till:23/01/1968 text:" " barset:break
#from:04/04/1968 till:04/04/1968 text:" " barset:break  these first missions were unmanned
from:11/10/1968 till:22/11/1968 text:" " barset:break
from:21/12/1968 till:27/12/1968 text:" " barset:break
from:03/03/1969 till:13/03/1969 text:" " barset:break
from:18/05/1969 till:26/05/1969 text:" " barset:break
from:16/07/1969 till:20/07/1969 text:" " barset:break 
from:14/11/1969 till:24/11/1969 text:" " barset:break
from:11/04/1970 till:17/04/1970 text:" " barset:break
from:31/01/1971 till:09/02/1971 text:" " barset:break
from:26/07/1971 till:07/08/1971 text:" " barset:break
from:16/04/1972 till:27/04/1972 text:" " barset:break
from:07/12/1972 till:19/12/1972 text:" " barset:break
from:15/07/1975 till:24/07/1975 text:" " barset:break
barset:break at:24/08/1975 mark:(line,white) text:"Apollo"
from:30/08/1984 till:05/09/1984 text:" " barset:break
from:08/11/1984 till:15/11/1984 text:" " barset:break
from:24/01/1985 till:27/01/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:12/04/1985 till:18/04/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:17/06/1985 till:24/06/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:27/08/1985 till:03/09/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:29/09/1988 till:03/10/1988 text:" " barset:break
from:13/03/1989 till:17/03/1989 text:" " barset:break
from:22/11/1989 till:27/11/1989 text:" " barset:break
from:24/04/1990 till:29/04/1990 text:" " barset:break
from:06/10/1990 till:10/10/1990 text:" " barset:break
from:28/04/1991 till:06/05/1991 text:" " barset:break
from:12/09/1991 till:17/09/1991 text:" " barset:break
from:22/01/1992 till:30/01/1992 text:" " barset:break
from:02/12/1992 till:09/12/1992 text:" " barset:break
from:08/04/1993 till:17/04/1993 text:" " barset:break
from:12/09/1993 till:21/09/1993 text:" " barset:break
from:03/02/1994 till:10/02/1994 text:" " barset:break
from:09/09/1994 till:19/09/1994 text:" " barset:break
from:03/02/1995 till:11/02/1995 text:" " barset:break
from:13/07/1995 till:21/07/1995 text:" " barset:break
from:11/02/1997 till:20/02/1997 text:" " barset:break
from:07/08/1997 till:18/08/1997 text:" " barset:break
from:02/06/1998 till:11/06/1998 text:" " barset:break
from:29/10/1998 till:06/11/1998 text:" " barset:break
from:27/05/1999 till:05/06/1999 text:" " barset:break
from:19/12/1999 till:26/12/1999 text:" " barset:break
from:11/10/2000 till:23/10/2000 text:" " barset:break
from:08/03/2001 till:20/03/2001 text:" " barset:break
from:10/08/2001 till:21/08/2001 text:" " barset:break
from:26/07/2005 till:08/08/2005 text:" " barset:break
from:04/07/2006 till:16/07/2006 text:" " barset:break
from:09/12/2006 till:21/12/2006 text:" " barset:break
from:23/10/2007 till:07/11/2007 text:" " barset:break
from:31/05/2008 till:14/06/2008 text:" " barset:break
from:15/03/2009 till:28/03/2009 text:" " barset:break
from:29/08/2009 till:11/09/2009 text:" " barset:break
from:05/04/2010 till:20/04/2010 text:" " barset:break
from:24/02/2011 till:09/03/2011 text:" " barset:break
barset:break at:09/04/2011 mark:(line,white) text:"STS, Discovery"
barset:USA4 # X-15  Atlantis
from:19/07/1963 till:19/07/1963 text:" "
from:22/08/1963 till:22/08/1963 text:" " barset:break
at:22/09/1963 text:"X-15" barset:break
from:03/10/1985 till:07/10/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:26/11/1985 till:02/12/1985 text:" " barset:break
from:02/12/1988 till:06/12/1988 text:" " barset:break
from:04/05/1989 till:08/05/1989 text:" " barset:break
from:18/10/1989 till:22/10/1989 text:" " barset:break
from:28/02/1990 till:04/03/1990 text:" " barset:break
from:15/11/1990 till:19/11/1990 text:" " barset:break
from:05/04/1991 till:10/04/1991 text:" " barset:break
from:02/08/1991 till:10/08/1991 text:" " barset:break
from:24/11/1991 till:30/11/1991 text:" " barset:break
from:24/03/1992 till:01/04/1992 text:" " barset:break
from:31/07/1992 till:07/08/1992 text:" " barset:break
from:03/11/1994 till:13/11/1994 text:" " barset:break
from:27/06/1995 till:06/07/1995 text:" " barset:break
from:12/11/1995 till:20/11/1995 text:" " barset:break
from:22/03/1996 till:31/03/1996 text:" " barset:break
from:16/09/1996 till:26/09/1996 text:" " barset:break
from:12/01/1997 till:22/01/1997 text:" " barset:break
from:15/05/1997 till:24/05/1997 text:" " barset:break
from:25/09/1997 till:05/10/1997 text:" " barset:break
from:19/05/2000 till:28/05/2000 text:" " barset:break
from:08/09/2000 till:19/09/2000 text:" " barset:break
from:07/02/2001 till:19/02/2001 text:" " barset:break
from:12/07/2001 till:24/07/2001 text:" " barset:break
from:08/04/2002 till:18/04/2002 text:" " barset:break
from:07/10/2002 till:17/10/2002 text:" " barset:break
from:09/09/2006 till:20/09/2006 text:" " barset:break
from:08/06/2007 till:22/06/2007 text:" " barset:break
from:07/02/2008 till:20/02/2008 text:" " barset:break
from:11/05/2009 till:24/05/2009 text:" " barset:break
from:16/11/2009 till:27/11/2009 text:" " barset:break
from:14/05/2010 till:26/05/2010 text:" " barset:break
from:08/07/2011 till:21/07/2011 text:" " barset:break
barset:break at:21/08/2011 mark:(line,white) text:"STS, Atlantis"
barset:china
color:CHI
  1. from:19/11/1999 till:19/11/1999 text:" " barset:break
  2. from:09/01/2001 till:16/01/2001 text:" " barset:break
  3. from:25/03/2002 till:01/04/2002 text:" " barset:break
  4. from:29/12/2002 till:05/01/2003 text:" " barset:break
from:15/10/2003 till:15/10/2003 text:" " barset:break
from:12/10/2005 till:16/10/2005 text:" " barset:break
from:25/09/2008 till:28/09/2008 text:" " barset:break
  1. from:31/10/2011 till:17/11/2011 text:" " barset:break
from:16/06/2012 till:29/06/2012 text:" " barset:break
from:11/06/2013 till:26/06/2013 text:" " barset:break
barset:break at:30/06/2013 mark:(line,white) text:"Shenzhou" 
barset:SpaceShipOne
color:USA
from:24/06/2004 till:24/06/2004 text:" "
from:29/09/2004 till:29/09/2004 text:" " barset:break
from:04/10/2004 till:04/10/2004 text:" " barset:break
at:04/12/2004 text:"SpaceShipOne" barset:break
shift:(3,-4) 
barset:stations

color:RUS
from:19/04/1971 till:11/10/1971 text:"1 "
# from:04/04/1973 till:28/05/1973 text:"2" barset:break #this station was never crewed
# from:11/05/1973 till:22/05/1973 text:"577" # this station was never crewed
from:25/06/1974 till:24/01/1975 text:"3" barset:break
from:26/12/1974 till:02/02/1977 text:"4" 
from:22/06/1976 till:08/08/1977 text:"Salyut 5" barset:break
from:29/09/1977 till:29/07/1982 text:"Salyut 6" 
from:19/04/1982 till:07/02/1991 text:"Salyut 7" barset:break
from:19/02/1986 till:23/03/2001 text:Mir
from:14/05/1973 till:07/11/1979 text:"Skylab" color:USA
from:29/09/2011 till:end text:"Tiangong-1" color:CHI
from:20/11/1998 till:end text:ISS color:black barset:break
barset:crewheader
width:12 shift:(0,-4)
from:01/01/1971 till:end text:"Long-Duration Crews on the Stations" align:center anchor:middle textcolor:white color:tan2

width:4 align:left fontsize:S anchor:till shift:(-2,-4) 
barset:crews
at:06/06/1971 text:"Salyut 1" shift:(-5,-4)
from:06/06/1971 till:29/06/1971 color:RUS text:" "
from:06/06/1971 till:29/06/1971 color:RUS text:" "
from:06/06/1971 till:29/06/1971 color:RUS text:" "
barset:break
at:25/05/1973 text:"Skylab"  
from:25/05/1973 till:22/06/1973 color:USA text:" "
from:25/05/1973 till:22/06/1973 color:USA text:" "
from:25/05/1973 till:22/06/1973 color:USA text:" "
from:28/07/1973 till:25/09/1973 color:USA text:" "
from:28/07/1973 till:25/09/1973 color:USA text:" "
from:28/07/1973 till:25/09/1973 color:USA text:" "
from:16/11/1973 till:08/02/1974 color:USA text:" "
from:16/11/1973 till:08/02/1974 color:USA text:" "
from:16/11/1973 till:08/02/1974 color:USA text:" "

barset:break
barset:skip
at:03/07/1974 text:"Salyut 3" 
from:03/07/1974 till:19/07/1974 color:RUS text:" "
from:03/07/1974 till:19/07/1974 color:RUS text:" "
at:11/01/1975 text:"Salyut 4"  
from:11/01/1975 till:10/02/1975 color:RUS text:" "
from:11/01/1975 till:10/02/1975 color:RUS text:" "
from:24/05/1975 till:26/07/1975 color:RUS text:" "
from:24/05/1975 till:26/07/1975 color:RUS text:" "
at:06/06/1976 text:"Salyut 5"
from:06/06/1976 till:24/08/1976 color:RUS text:" "
from:06/06/1976 till:24/08/1976 color:RUS text:" "
from:07/02/1977 till:25/02/1977 color:RUS text:" "
from:07/02/1977 till:25/02/1977 color:RUS text:" "
barset:skip # (space between the bottom row of crew and the axis)
at:10/12/1977 text:"Salyut 6" barset:break
from:10/12/1977 till:13/03/1978 color:RUS text:" "
from:10/12/1977 till:13/03/1978 color:RUS text:" "
from:15/06/1978 till:02/11/1978 color:RUS text:" "
from:15/06/1978 till:02/11/1978 color:RUS text:" "
from:25/02/1979 till:19/08/1979 color:RUS text:" "
from:25/02/1979 till:19/08/1979 color:RUS text:" "
from:09/04/1980 till:11/10/1980 color:RUS text:" "
from:09/04/1980 till:11/10/1980 color:RUS text:" "
from:12/03/1981 till:26/05/1981 color:RUS text:" "
from:12/03/1981 till:26/05/1981 color:RUS text:" "
at:13/05/1982 text:"Salyut 7" barset:break
from:13/05/1982 till:10/12/1982 color:RUS text:" " 
from:13/05/1982 till:10/12/1982 color:RUS text:" "
from:27/06/1983 till:23/11/1983 color:RUS text:" "
from:27/06/1983 till:23/11/1983 color:RUS text:" "
from:08/02/1984 till:02/10/1984 color:RUS text:" "
from:08/02/1984 till:02/10/1984 color:RUS text:" "
from:08/02/1984 till:02/10/1984 color:RUS text:" "
from:06/06/1985 till:21/11/1985 color:RUS text:" "
from:06/06/1985 till:26/09/1985 color:RUS text:" "
from:17/09/1985 till:21/11/1985 color:RUS text:" "
from:17/09/1985 till:21/11/1985 color:RUS text:" "
from:13/03/1986 till:16/07/1986 color:RUS text:" "
from:13/03/1986 till:16/07/1986 color:RUS text:" "
at:13/03/1986 text:"Mir" barset:break 
from:13/03/1986 till:16/07/1986 color:RUS text: "
from:13/03/1986 till:16/07/1986 color:RUS text: "
from:05/02/1987 till:30/07/1987 color:RUS text: "
from:05/02/1987 till:29/12/1987 color:RUS text: "
from:22/07/1987 till:29/12/1987 color:RUS text: "
from:21/12/1987 till:21/12/1988 color:RUS text: "
from:21/12/1987 till:21/12/1988 color:RUS text: "
from:29/08/1988 till:27/04/1989 color:RUS text: "
from:26/11/1988 till:27/04/1989 color:RUS text: "
from:26/11/1988 till:27/04/1989 color:RUS text: "
from:05/09/1989 till:19/02/1990 color:RUS text: "
from:05/09/1989 till:19/02/1990 color:RUS text: "
from:11/02/1990 till:09/08/1990 color:RUS text: "
from:11/02/1990 till:09/08/1990 color:RUS text: "
barset:break
from:01/08/1990 till:10/12/1990 color:RUS text: "
from:01/08/1990 till:10/12/1990 color:RUS text: "
from:02/12/1990 till:26/05/1991 color:RUS text: "
from:02/12/1990 till:26/05/1991 color:RUS text: "
from:18/05/1991 till:10/10/1991 color:RUS text: "
from:18/05/1991 till:25/03/1992 color:RUS text: "
from:02/10/1991 till:25/03/1992 color:RUS text: "
from:17/03/1992 till:10/08/1992 color:RUS text: "
from:17/03/1992 till:10/08/1992 color:RUS text: "
from:27/07/1992 till:01/02/1993 color:RUS text: "
from:27/07/1992 till:01/02/1993 color:RUS text: "
from:24/01/1993 till:22/07/1993 color:RUS text: "
from:24/01/1993 till:22/07/1993 color:RUS text: "
from:01/07/1993 till:14/01/1994 color:RUS text: "
from:01/07/1993 till:14/01/1994 color:RUS text: "
barset:break
from:08/01/1994 till:09/07/1994 color:RUS text: "
from:08/01/1994 till:09/07/1994 color:RUS text: "
from:08/01/1994 till:22/03/1995 color:RUS text: "
from:01/07/1994 till:04/11/1994 color:RUS text: "
from:01/07/1994 till:04/11/1994 color:RUS text: "
from:03/10/1994 till:22/03/1995 color:RUS text: "
from:03/10/1994 till:22/03/1995 color:RUS text: "
from:14/03/1995 till:07/07/1995 color:RUS text: "
from:14/03/1995 till:07/07/1995 color:RUS text: "
from:14/03/1995 till:07/07/1995 color:USA text: "
from:27/06/1995 till:11/09/1995 color:RUS text: "
from:27/06/1995 till:11/09/1995 color:RUS text: "
from:03/09/1995 till:29/02/1996 color:RUS text: "
from:03/09/1995 till:29/02/1996 color:RUS text: "
from:03/09/1995 till:29/02/1996 color:GER text: "
barset:break
from:21/02/1996 till:02/09/1996 color:RUS text: "
from:21/02/1996 till:02/09/1996 color:RUS text: "
from:22/03/1996 till:26/09/1996 color:USA text: "
from:17/08/1996 till:02/03/1997 color:RUS text: "
from:17/08/1996 till:02/03/1997 color:RUS text: "
from:16/09/1996 till:22/01/1997 color:USA text: "
from:12/01/1997 till:24/05/1997 color:USA text: "
from:10/02/1997 till:14/08/1997 color:RUS text: "
from:10/02/1997 till:14/08/1997 color:RUS text: "
from:15/05/1997 till:06/10/1997 color:USA text: "
from:05/08/1997 till:19/02/1998 color:RUS text: "
from:05/08/1997 till:19/02/1998 color:RUS text: "
from:26/10/1997 till:31/01/1998 color:USA text: "
from:23/01/1998 till:12/06/1998 color:USA text: "
barset:break
from:29/01/1998 till:25/08/1998 color:RUS text: "
from:29/01/1998 till:25/08/1998 color:RUS text: "
from:13/08/1998 till:28/02/1999 color:RUS text: "
from:13/08/1998 till:28/08/1999 color:RUS text: "
from:20/02/1999 till:28/08/1999 color:RUS text: "
from:20/02/1999 till:28/08/1999 color:FRA text: "
from:04/04/2000 till:16/06/2000 color:RUS text: "
from:04/04/2000 till:16/06/2000 color:RUS text: "
at:31/10/2000 text:"ISS" barset:break
from:31/10/2000 till:21/03/2001  color:USA text:" "  
from:31/10/2000 till:21/03/2001  color:RUS text:" "  
from:31/10/2000 till:21/03/2001  color:RUS text:" "  
from:08/03/2001 till:22/08/2001  color:RUS text:" "  
from:08/03/2001 till:22/08/2001  color:USA text:" "  
from:08/03/2001 till:22/08/2001  color:USA text:" "  
from:10/08/2001 till:17/12/2001  color:USA text:" "  
from:10/08/2001 till:17/12/2001  color:RUS text:" "  
from:10/08/2001 till:17/12/2001  color:RUS text:" "  
from:05/12/2001 till:19/06/2002  color:RUS text:" "  
from:05/12/2001 till:19/06/2002  color:USA text:" "  
from:05/12/2001 till:19/06/2002  color:USA text:" "  
barset:break
from:05/06/2002 till:07/12/2002  color:RUS text:" "  
from:05/06/2002 till:07/12/2002  color:USA text:" "  
from:05/06/2002 till:07/12/2002  color:RUS text:" "  
from:24/11/2002 till:04/05/2003  color:USA text:" "  
from:24/11/2002 till:04/05/2003  color:RUS text:" "  
from:24/11/2002 till:04/05/2003  color:USA text:" "  
from:26/04/2003 till:28/10/2003  color:RUS text:" "  
from:26/04/2003 till:28/10/2003  color:USA text:" "  
from:18/10/2003 till:30/04/2004  color:USA text:" "  
from:18/10/2003 till:30/04/2004  color:RUS text:" "  
from:19/04/2004 till:24/10/2004  color:RUS text:" "  
from:19/04/2004 till:24/10/2004  color:USA text:" "  
from:14/10/2004 till:24/04/2005  color:USA text:" "  
from:14/10/2004 till:24/04/2005  color:RUS text:" "  
barset:break
from:15/04/2005 till:11/10/2005  color:RUS text:" "  
from:15/04/2005 till:11/10/2005  color:USA text:" "  
from:01/10/2005 till:08/04/2006  color:USA text:" "  
from:01/10/2005 till:08/04/2006  color:RUS text:" "  
from:30/03/2006 till:28/09/2006  color:RUS text:" "  
from:30/03/2006 till:28/09/2006  color:USA text:" "  
from:04/07/2006 till:21/12/2006  color:GER text:" "  
from:18/09/2006 till:21/04/2007  color:USA text:" "  
from:18/09/2006 till:21/04/2007  color:RUS text:" "  
from:10/12/2006 till:22/06/2007  color:USA text:" "  
from:07/04/2007 till:21/10/2007  color:RUS text:" "  
from:07/04/2007 till:21/10/2007  color:RUS text:" "  
from:08/06/2007 till:07/11/2007  color:USA text:" "  
from:10/10/2007 till:19/04/2008  color:USA text:" "  
barset:break
from:10/10/2007 till:19/04/2008  color:RUS text:" "  
from:23/10/2007 till:20/02/2008  color:USA text:" "  
from:07/02/2008 till:27/03/2008  color:FRA text:" "  
from:11/03/2008 till:14/06/2008  color:USA text:" "  
from:08/04/2008 till:24/10/2008  color:RUS text:" "  
from:08/04/2008 till:24/10/2008  color:RUS text:" "  
from:31/05/2008 till:30/11/2008  color:USA text:" "  
from:12/10/2008 till:08/04/2009  color:USA text:" "  
from:12/10/2008 till:08/04/2009  color:RUS text:" "  
from:15/11/2008 till:28/03/2009  color:USA text:" "  
from:15/03/2009 till:31/07/2009  color:JPN text:" "  
from:26/03/2009 till:11/10/2009  color:RUS text:" "  
from:26/03/2009 till:11/10/2009  color:USA text:" "  
from:15/07/2009 till:12/09/2009  color:USA text:" "  
barset:break
from:27/05/2009 till:01/12/2009  color:BEL text:" "  
from:27/05/2009 till:01/12/2009  color:RUS text:" "   
from:27/05/2009 till:01/12/2009  color:CAN text:" "   
from:29/08/2009 till:27/11/2009  color:USA text:" "   
from:30/09/2009 till:18/03/2010  color:USA text:" "   
from:30/09/2009 till:18/03/2010  color:RUS text:" "   
from:20/12/2009 till:02/06/2010  color:RUS text:" "  
from:20/12/2009 till:02/06/2010  color:USA text:" "   
from:20/12/2009 till:02/06/2010  color:JPN text:" "
from:02/04/2010 till:25/09/2010  color:RUS text:" "
from:02/04/2010 till:25/09/2010  color:RUS text:" "
from:02/04/2010 till:25/09/2010  color:USA text:" "
from:15/06/2010 till:26/11/2010  color:USA text:" "
from:15/06/2010 till:26/11/2010  color:USA text:" "
from:15/06/2010 till:26/11/2010  color:RUS text:" "
barset:break
from:01/10/2010 till:16/03/2011  color:USA text:" "
from:01/10/2010 till:16/03/2011  color:RUS text:" "
from:01/10/2010 till:16/03/2011  color:RUS text:" "
from:15/12/2010 till:24/05/2011  color:RUS text:" "
from:15/12/2010 till:24/05/2011  color:USA text:" "
from:15/12/2010 till:24/05/2011  color:ITA text:" "
from:04/04/2011 till:16/09/2011  color:RUS text:" "
from:04/04/2011 till:16/09/2011  color:RUS text:" "
from:04/04/2011 till:16/09/2011  color:USA text:" "
from:07/06/2011 till:22/11/2011  color:RUS text:" "
from:07/06/2011 till:22/11/2011  color:USA text:" "
from:07/06/2011 till:22/11/2011  color:USA text:" "
from:14/11/2011 till:27/04/2012 color:RUS text:" "
from:14/11/2011 till:27/04/2012 color:RUS text:" "
from:14/11/2011 till:27/04/2012 color:RUS text:" "
barset:break
at:18/06/2012 text:"Tiangong-1"
from:18/06/2012 till:28/06/2012 color:CHI text:" "
from:18/06/2012 till:28/06/2012 color:CHI text:" "
from:18/06/2012 till:28/06/2012 color:CHI text:" "
barset:break
from:11/06/2013 till:26/06/2013 color:CHI text:" "
from:11/06/2013 till:26/06/2013 color:CHI text:" "
from:11/06/2013 till:26/06/2013 color:CHI text:" "
barset:skip
from:21/12/2011 till:01/07/2012  color:RUS text:" "
from:21/12/2011 till:01/07/2012  color:NLD text:" "
from:21/12/2011 till:01/07/2012  color:USA text:" "
from:15/05/2012 till:17/09/2012  color:USA text:" "
from:15/05/2012 till:17/09/2012  color:RUS text:" "
from:15/05/2012 till:17/09/2012  color:RUS text:" "
from:15/07/2012 till:19/11/2012  color:USA text:" "
from:15/07/2012 till:19/11/2012  color:RUS text:" "
from:15/07/2012 till:19/11/2012  color:JPN text:" "
from:23/10/2012 till:15/03/2013  color:USA text:" "
barset:break
barset:skip # Leave room for Tiangong-1
barset:skip
barset:skip
barset:skip
barset:skip
from:23/10/2012 till:15/03/2013  color:RUS text:" "
from:23/10/2012 till:15/03/2013  color:RUS text:" "
from:19/12/2012 till:end  color:CAN text:" "
from:19/12/2012 till:end  color:RUS text:" "
from:19/12/2012 till:end  color:USA text:" "
barset:skip # (space between the bottom row of crew and the axis)

National spacefaring attempts

This section list all nations which have the technologies to travel into space. This should not to be confused with nations with citizens who have traveled into space including space tourists, flown or intended to fly by foreign country's or non-domestic private space systems – these are not counted as national spacefaring attempts in this list.
Nation/Organization Space agency Term(s) for space human First launched astronaut Date Spacecraft Launcher Type
 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(1922–1991)
Soviet space program
(OKB-1 Design Bureau)
космонавт (Russian)
kosmonavt
cosmonaut
Yuri Gagarin 12 April 1961 Vostok spacecraft Vostok Orbital
 United States of America National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut
spaceflight participant
Alan Shepard (suborbital) 5 May 1961 Mercury spacecraft Redstone Suborbital
 United States of America National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) astronaut
spaceflight participant
John Glenn (orbital) 20 February 1962 Mercury spacecraft Atlas LV-3B Orbital
 People's Republic of China Space program of the People's Republic of China 宇航员 (Chinese)
yǔhángyuán
航天员 (Chinese)
hángtiānyuán
taikonaut
... 1973 (abandoned) Shuguang 1 Long March 2A
 People's Republic of China Space program of the People's Republic of China 宇航员 (Chinese)
yǔhángyuán
航天员 (Chinese)
hángtiānyuán
... 1981 (abandoned) Piloted FSW Long March 2
European Space Agency CNES / European Space Agency (ESA) spationaute (French)
astronaut
... 1992 (abandoned) Hermes Ariane V
Iraq Ba'athist Iraq
(1968–2003)[7]
... رجل فضاء (Arabic)
rajul faḍāʼ
رائد فضاء (Arabic)
rāʼib faḍāʼ
ملاح فضائي (Arabic)
mallāḥ faḍāʼiy
... 2001 (abandoned) ... Tammouz 2 or 3
Japan State of Japan National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) 宇宙飛行士 (Japanese)
uchūhikōshi or
アストロノート
astoronoto
... 2003 (abandoned) HOPE-X H-II
 People's Republic of China China National Space Administration (CNSA) 太空人 (Chinese)
tàikōng rén
宇航员 (Chinese)
yǔhángyuán
航天员 (Chinese)
hángtiānyuán
Yang Liwei 15 October 2003 Shenzhou spacecraft Long March 2F Orbital
India Republic of India Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) vyomanaut
gaganaut
aakashagaami
आकाशगामि:  (Sanskrit)
brahmāndagaami
ब्रह्मान्डगामि:  (Sanskrit)
antarikshyaatri
अन्तरिक्षयात्रि: (Sanskrit)
... after 2017 [8] Orbital Vehicle (OV) GSLV Mk II
Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Iranian Space Agency (ISA) کیهان نورد (Persian)
kayhan navard [9]
... 2017 (planned)[10][11] ISA manned spacecraft ...
European Space Agency European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut ... 2020 (approved conceptually but full development not begun)[12][13][14][15] ARV phase-2 Ariane V
Japan State of Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) 宇宙飛行士 (Japanese)
uchūhikōshi or
アストロノート
astoronoto
... 2025 (planned) HTV-based spacecraft H-IIB

Safety concerns

Planners of human spaceflight missions face a number of safety concerns.

Life support

Main article: Life support system

The immediate needs for breathable air and drinkable water are addressed by the life support system of the spacecraft.

Medical issues

Medical consequences such as possible blindness and bone loss have been associated with human space flight.[16]

On 31 December 2012, a NASA-supported study reported that manned spaceflight may harm the brain of astronauts and accelerate the onset of Alzheimer's disease.[17][18][19]

Effects of microgravity

Medical data from astronauts in low earth orbits for long periods, dating back to the 1970s, show several adverse effects of a microgravity environment: loss of bone density, decreased muscle strength and endurance, postural instability, and reductions in aerobic capacity. Over time these deconditioning effects can impair astronauts’ performance or increase their risk of injury.[20]

In a weightless environment, astronauts put almost no weight on the back muscles or leg muscles used for standing up. Those muscles then start to weaken and eventually get smaller. If there is an emergency at landing, the loss of muscles, and consequently the loss of strength can be a serious problem. Sometimes, astronauts can lose up to 25% of their muscle mass on long term flights. When they get back to ground, they will be considerably weakened and will be out of action for a while.

Astronauts experiencing weightlessness will often lose their orientation, get motion sickness, and lose their sense of direction as their bodies try to get used to a weightless environment. When they get back to Earth, or any other mass with gravity, they have to readjust to the gravity and may have problems standing up, focusing their gaze, walking and turning. Importantly, those body motor disturbances after changing from different gravities only get worse the longer the exposure to little gravity. These changes will affect operational activities including approach and landing, docking, remote manipulation, and emergencies that may happen while landing. This can be a major roadblock to mission success.

In addition, after long space flight missions, male astronauts may experience severe eyesight problems.[21][22][23][24][25] Such eyesight problems may be a major concern for future deep space flight missions, including a manned mission to the planet Mars.[21][22][23][24]


Radiation

Without proper shielding, the crews of missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) might be at risk from high-energy protons emitted by solar flares. Lawrence Townsend of the University of Tennessee and others have studied the most powerful solar flare ever recorded. That flare was seen by the British astronomer Richard Carrington in September 1859. Radiation doses astronauts would receive from a Carrington-type flare could cause acute radiation sickness and possibly even death.[26]

Another type of radiation, galactic cosmic rays, presents further challenges to human spaceflight beyond LEO.[27]

Radiation damage to the immune system

There is also some scientific concern that extended spaceflight might slow down the body’s ability to protect itself against diseases.[28] Some of the problems are a weakened immune system and the activation of dormant viruses in the body. Radiation can cause both short and long term consequences to the bone marrow stem cells which create the blood and immune systems. Because the interior of a spacecraft is so small, a weakened immune system and more active viruses in the body can lead to a fast spread of infection.

Isolation

During long missions, astronauts are isolated and confined into small spaces. Depression, cabin fever and other psychological problems may impact the crew's safety and mission success.

Astronauts may not be able to quickly return to Earth or receive medical supplies, equipment or personnel if a medical emergency occurs. The astronauts may have to rely for long periods on their limited existing resources and medical advice from the ground.

Launch safety

Reentry safety

Reliability

Fatality risk

As of 2010, 18 crew members have died during actual spaceflight missions (see table). Over 100 others have died in accidents during activity directly related to spaceflight missions or testing.

Year #of

Deaths

Mission Known or likely cause
1967 1 Soyuz 1 Trauma from crash landing
1971 3 Soyuz 11 Asphyxia
1986 7 Space Shuttle Challenger Inconclusive – asphyxia from cabin breach or trauma from water impact are most probable causes[29]
2003 7 Space Shuttle Columbia Asphyxia from cabin breach, trauma from object impact, or burns from re-entry heat

See also

Spaceflight portal

References

External links

  • NASA Human Space Flight
  • NASA's Solar System Exploration
  • Transitioning to the NASA Constellation Program
  • U.S. Spaceflight History

Literature

  • David Darling: The complete book of spaceflight. From Apollo 1 to Zero gravity. Wiley, Hoboken NJ 2003, ISBN 0-471-05649-9.
  • Wiley J. Larson (Hrsg.): Human spaceflight – mission analysis and design. McGraw-Hill, New York NY 2003, ISBN 0-07-236811-X.
  • Donald Rapp: Human missions to Mars – enabling technologies for exploring the red planet. Springer u. a., Berlin u. a. 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-72938-9.
  • Haeuplik-Meusburger: Architecture for Astronauts – An Activity based Approach. Springer Praxis Books, 2011, ISBN 978-3-7091-0666-2

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