Medicine Man

Yup'ik medicine man exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy in Nushagak, Alaska, 1890s.[1]

A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader among American Indians (the Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations in Canada). The terms are also used to refer to traditional healers of other indigenous aboriginal peoples.

The medicine man and woman in North America

Role in native society

The primary function of these "medicine elders" is to secure the help of the spirit world, including the Great Spirit (Wakan Tanka in the language of the Lakota people), for the benefit of the entire community. Sometimes the help sought may be for the sake of healing disease, sometimes it may be for the sake of healing the psyche, sometimes the goal is to promote harmony between human groups or between humans & nature.

So the term "medicine man/woman" is not entirely inappropriate, but it greatly oversimplifies and also skews the depiction of the people whose role in society complements that of the chief. These people are not the Native American equivalent of the Chinese "barefoot doctors", herbalists, nor of the emergency medical technicians who ride rescue vehicles.

To be recognized as the one who performs this function of bridging between the natural world and the spiritual world for the benefit of the community, an individual must be validated in his role by that community. Medicine men and women study through a medicine society or from a single teacher.

Cultural context

An Ojibwa Midew ("medicine man") preparing an herbal remedy.
Body of Ndyuka Maroon child brought before medicine man, Suriname River, Suriname, South America, 1955

The term "medicine people" is commonly used in Native American communities, for example, when Arwen Nuttall (Cherokee) of the National Museum of the American Indian writes, "The knowledge possessed by medicine people is privileged, and it often remains in particular families."[2]

Native Americans tend to be quite reluctant to discuss issues about medicine or medicine people with non-Indians. In some cultures, the people will not even discuss these matters with Indians from other tribes. In most tribes medicine elders are not expected to advertise or introduce themselves as such. As Nuttall writes, "An inquiry to a Native person about religious beliefs or ceremonies is often viewed with suspicion.[2] One example of this was the Apache medicine cord or Izze-kloth, whose purpose and use by Apache medicine elders was a mystery to nineteenth century ethnologists because "the Apache look upon these cords as so sacred that strangers are not allowed to see them, much less handle them or talk about them."[3]

The 1954 version of Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, reflects the poorly grounded perceptions of the people whose use of the term effectively defined it for the people of that time: "a man supposed to have supernatural powers of curing disease and controlling spirits." In effect, such definitions were not explanations of what these "medicine people" were to their own communities, but instead reported on the consensus of socially and psychologically remote observers when they tried to categorize these individuals. The term "medicine man/woman," like the term "shaman", has been criticized by Native Americans, as well as other specialists in the fields of religion and anthropology.

The term "medicine man/woman" was also frequently used by Europeans to refer to African traditional healers, also known as "witch doctors" or "fetish men/women".

While anthropologists sometimes use the term "shaman," for Indigenous healers, "shaman" is the specific name for a spiritual mediator from the Tungusic peoples of Siberia,[4] and is not used in Native American or First Nations communities.

Effectiveness

Some people believe native American healing can be used to treat a variety of human ailments including heart disease, diabetes and cancer. However, according to the American Cancer Society while its supportive community aspects might improve general well-being, "available scientific evidence does not support claims that Native American healing can cure cancer or any other disease".[5]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Fienup-Riordan, Ann. (1994). Boundaries & Passages: Rule and Ritual in Yup'ik Eskimo Oral Tradition. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, p. 206. Nushagak, located on Nushagak Bay of the Bering Sea in southwest Alaska, is part of the territory of the Yup'ik, speakers of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language.
  2. ^ a b National Museum of the American Indian. Do All Indians Live in Tipis? Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2007. ISBN 978-0-06-115301-3.
  3. ^ Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Annual report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Issue 9, Government Printing Office, United States Government, 1892, ... There is probably no more mysterious or interesting portion of the religious or 'medicinal' equipment of the Apache Indian, whether he be medicine-man or simply a member of the laity, than the 'izze-kloth' or medicine cord ... the Apache look upon these cords as so sacred that strangers are not allowed to see them, much less handle them or talk about them ... 
  4. ^ Smith, C. R. "Shamanism." Cabrillo College. (Retrieved 28 June 2011)
  5. ^ "Native American healing".  

External links

  • New Age Frauds & Plastic Shaman, an organization devoted to discussing fraudulent medicine people
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