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Nonanoic acid

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Nonanoic acid

Nonanoic acid
CAS number  YesY
ChemSpider  N
EC number
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula C9H18O2
Molar mass 158.23 g/mol
Appearance Clear to yellowish oily liquid
Density 0.900 g/cm3
Melting point 12.5 °C (54.5 °F; 285.7 K)
Boiling point 254 °C (489 °F; 527 K)
Solubility in water 0.3 g/L
Acidity (pKa) 4.96[1]



R-phrases R34
S-phrases (S1/2) S26 S28 S36/37/39 S45
Main hazards Corrosive (C)
NFPA 704
Flash point 114 °C (237 °F; 387 K)
Autoignition temperature 405 °C (761 °F; 678 K)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 N   YesY/N?)

Nonanoic acid, also called pelargonic acid, is an carboxylic acid with structural formula CH3(CH2)7COOH. Nonanoic acid forms esters—nonanoates. It is a clear, oily liquid with an unpleasant, rancid odor. It is nearly insoluble in water, but very soluble in chloroform, ether, and hexane. It is commonly used in conjunction with glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, for a quick burn-down effect in the control of weeds in turfgrass.

Its refractive index is 1.4322. Its critical point is at 712 K (439 °C) and 2.35 MPa.


  • Occurrence and uses 1
  • Tradenames 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Occurrence and uses

Nonanoic acid is a fatty acid which occurs naturally as esters in the oil of pelargonium. Synthetic esters, such as methyl nonanoate, are used as flavorings.

Nonanoic acid is also used in the preparation of plasticizers and lacquers.

The derivative 4-nonanoylmorpholine is an ingredient in some pepper sprays.

The ammonium salt of nonanoic acid, ammonium nonanoate, is used in formulations of glyphosate, a herbicide.




  1. ^ Lide, D. R. (Ed.) (1990). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (70th Edn.). Boca Raton (FL):CRC Press. 
  2. ^ at 2.06–2.63 K
  3. ^ at −191 °C

External links

  • MSDS at
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