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Nuclear weapons and Ukraine

Contents

  • Background information on Russian and Ukrainian relationship 1
  • The Budapest Memorandums 2
  • 2014 Crimean crisis 3
  • Reference list 4
    • External links 4.1

Background information on Russian and Ukrainian relationship

On December 1, 1991 Ukraine, the second most powerful republic in the USSR, voted overwhelmingly for independence, which ended any realistic chance of the Soviet Union staying together even on a limited scale. That day, more than 90% of the electorate expressed their support for the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, and they elected the chairman of the parliament, Leonid Kravchuk to serve as the first president of the country. At the meeting in Brest, Belarus on December 8, followed by the Alma Ata meeting on December 21, the leaders of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine formally dissolved the Soviet Union and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

After the dissolution of the USSR, about one third of Soviet nuclear arsenal, as well as a significant means of its design and production, remained within Ukrainian territory.[1]

The Budapest Memorandums

On December 5, 1994 the leaders of Ukraine, Russia, Britain and the United States signed a memorandum to remove nuclear weapons in Ukraine. They all signed six agreements for Ukraine, the agreements are:[2]

  1. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine, in accordance with the principles of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, to respect the independence and sovereignty and the existing borders of Ukraine;
  2. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm their obligation to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of Ukraine, and that none of their weapons will ever be used against Ukraine except in self-defence or otherwise in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations;
  3. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to Ukraine, in accordance with the principles of the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, to refrain from economic coercion designed to subordinate to their own interest the exercise by Ukraine of the rights inherent in its sovereignty and thus to secure advantages of any kind;
  4. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm their commitment to seek immediate United Nations Security Council action to provide assistance to Ukraine, as a non-nuclear-weapon State party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, if Ukraine should become a victim of[2] an act of aggression or an object of a threat of aggression in which nuclear weapons are used;
  5. The Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America reaffirm, in the case of Ukraine, their commitment not to use nuclear weapons against any non-nuclearweapon State party to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, except in the case of an attack on themselves, their territories or dependent territories, their armed forces, or their allies, by such a State in association or alliance with a nuclear-weapon State;
  6. Ukraine, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America will consult in the event a situation arises that raises a question concerning these commitments.[2]

2014 Crimean crisis

Despite Russia's claimed annexation of Crimea, the Government of Ukraine has reaffirmed its decision in 1994 to accede to the Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear-weapon state. [3] Nonetheless, some Ukrainians and foreign policy commentators argue that if Ukraine had not removed its nuclear weapons, Russia would have been deterred from aggression against Ukraine. Certain Ukrainian leaders are angered by Western Europe and the United States, who advised them to remove their nuclear arsenal.

After Yanukovych fled and was replaced, a power vacuum opened and Russia[4] annexed Crimea. Russia intervened through nationalist and cultural rhetoric stating that they were protecting ethnic Russians from attacks in Crimea and Eastern Ukraine. The memorandum was violated because the Russian military intervened in Ukraine.[5] Pavlo Rizanenko told USA Today that Ukraine may have to arm themselves with their own nuclear weapons if the USA and other world leaders do not hold up their end of the agreement. He said "We gave up nuclear weapons because of this agreement. Now, there's a strong sentiment in Ukraine that we made a big mistake."[4] He also said that, "In the future, no matter how the situation is resolved in Crimea, we need a much stronger Ukraine. If you have nuclear weapons, people don't invade you."[6]

Reference list

  1. ^ Dahlburg, Decemb. "Ukraine Votes to Quit Soviet Union : Independence: More than 90% of Voters Approve Historic Break with Kremlin. The President-elect Calls for Collective Command of the Country's Nuclear Arsenal". LA Times. Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c "Budapest Memorandums on Security Assurances". Retrieved April 15, 2014. 
  3. ^ Joint Statement by the United States and Ukraine, March 25, 2014.
  4. ^ a b Dorell, Oren. "Ukraine May Have to Go Nuclear, Says Kiev Lawmaker". USA Today. Retrieved 15 April 2014. 
  5. ^ Kramer, Andrew. "Ukraine Reports Russian Invasion on a New Front". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  6. ^ Koren, Marina. "The Ukraine Crisis Is Unsettling Decades-Old Nuclear-Weapons Agreements". Retrieved April 15, 2014. 

External links

  • The Ukraine Crisis is Unsettling Decades-old Nuclear Weapons Agreements
  • Ukraine Votes to Quit Soviet Union : Independence: More than 90% of Voters Approve Historic Break with Kremlin. The President-elect Calls for Collective Command of the Country's Nuclear Arsenal
  • Russia, Ukraine, and the Breakup of the Soviet Union
  • Memorandums on Security Assurances, 1994
  • Ukraine May Have to Go Nuclear, Says Kiev Lawmaker The Ukraine Crisis Is Unsettling Decades-Old Nuclear-Weapons Agreements
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