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Octane

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Octane

Octane
Skeletal formula of octane
Skeletal formula of octane with all implicit carbons shown, and all explicit hydrogens added
Ball-and-stick model of octane
Space-filling model of octane
Names
IUPAC name
Octane[1]
Identifiers
 YesY
3DMet
1696875
ChEBI  N
ChEMBL  YesY
ChemSpider  YesY
DrugBank  N
EC number 203-892-1
82412
Jmol-3D images Image
KEGG  YesY
MeSH
PubChem
RTECS number RG8400000
UN number 1262
Properties
C8H18
Molar mass 114.23 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Gasoline-like[2]
Density 0.703 g cm−3
Melting point −57.2 to −56.6 °C; −70.9 to −69.8 °F; 216.0 to 216.6 K
Boiling point 125.1 to 126.1 °C; 257.1 to 258.9 °F; 398.2 to 399.2 K
0.007 mg dm−3 (at 20 °C)
log P 4.783
Vapor pressure 1.47 kPa (at 20.0 °C)
29 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
1.398
Viscosity 542 μPa s (at 20 °C)
Thermochemistry
255.68 J K−1 mol−1
361.20 J K−1 mol−1
−252.1–−248.5 kJ mol−1
−5.53–−5.33 MJ mol−1
Hazards
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) The environment pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word DANGER
H225, H304, H315, H336, H410
P210, P261, P273, P301+310, P331
Highly Flammable F Harmful Xn Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
R-phrases R50/53, R65, R67
S-phrases (S2), S16, S29, S33
NFPA 704
3
1
0
Flash point 13.0 °C (55.4 °F; 286.2 K)
220.0 °C (428.0 °F; 493.2 K)
Explosive limits 0.96–6.5%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
428 mg/kg (mouse, intravenous)[3]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 500 ppm (2350 mg/m3)[2]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 75 ppm (350 mg/m3) C 385 ppm (1800 mg/m3) [15-minute][2]
1000 ppm[2]
Related compounds
Related alkanes
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: YesY/N?)

Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3. Octane has many structural isomers that differ by the amount and location of branching in the carbon chain. One of these isomers, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) is used as one of the standard values in the octane rating scale.

Octane is a component of gasoline (petrol). As with all low molecular weight hydrocarbons, octane is volatile and very flammable.

Use of the term in gasoline

"Octane" is colloquially used as a short form of "octane rating" (an index of a fuel's ability to resist engine knock at high compression ratios, which is a characteristic of octane's branched-chain isomers, especially isooctane), particularly in the expression "high octane." However, components of gasoline other than isomers of octane can also contribute to a high octane rating, while some isomers of octane can lower it, and n-octane itself has a negative octane rating.[4]

Metaphorical use

Octane became well known in American popular culture in the mid- and late 1960s, when gasoline companies boasted of "high octane" levels in their gasoline advertisements.

The compound adjective "high-octane" is recorded in a figurative sense from 1944.[5] By the mid-1990s, the phrase was commonly being used as an intensifier and has found a place in modern English vernacular.

Isomers

Octane has 18 structural isomers (24 including stereoisomers):

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c d
  3. ^
  4. ^ eejit's guides – Octane ratings explained
  5. ^

External links

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0933
  • Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, Octane, http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/duke/chemical.pl?OCTANE
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