World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Oil terminal

Article Id: WHEBN0003385681
Reproduction Date:

Title: Oil terminal  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Eilat Ashkelon Pipeline Company, North Mainland, Mongstad, Petrolimex Gas, Skhira
Collection: Fuel Containers, Oil Storage, Oil Terminals, Petroleum Production
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Oil terminal

An oil depot in Kowloon, Hong Kong
Tank farm at McMurdo Station, Antarctica

An oil depot (sometimes called a tank farm, installation or oil terminal) is an industrial facility for the storage of oil and/or petrochemical products and from which these products are usually transported to end users or further storage facilities. An oil depot typically has tankage, either above ground or underground, and gantries (framework) for the discharge of products into road tankers or other vehicles (such as barges) or pipelines.

Oil depots are usually situated close to oil refineries or in locations where marine tankers containing products can discharge their cargo. Some depots are attached to pipelines from which they draw their supplies and depots can also be fed by rail, by barge and by road tanker (sometimes known as "bridging").

Most oil depots have road tankers operating from their grounds and these vehicles transport products to petrol stations or other users.

An oil depot is a comparatively unsophisticated facility in that (in most cases) there is no processing or other transformation on site. The products which reach the depot (from a refinery) are in their final form suitable for delivery to customers. In some cases additives may be injected into products in tanks, but there is usually no manufacturing plant on site. Modern depots comprise the same types of tankage, pipelines and gantries as those in the past and although there is a greater degree of automation on site, there have been few significant changes in depot operational activities over time.

Contents

  • Health, safety and environment 1
  • Ownership 2
    • Airports 2.1
    • Japan 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Health, safety and environment

One of the key imperatives is Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) and the operators of a depot must ensure that products are safely stored and handled. There must be no leakages (etc.) which could damage the soil or the water table.

Massive fire at Buncefield Oil Depot, UK December 2005

Fire protection is a primary consideration, especially for the more flammable products such as petrol (gasoline) and Aviation Fuel.

Ownership

The ownership of oil depots falls into three main categories:

  • Single oil company ownership. When one company owns and operates a depot on its own behalf.
  • Joint or consortium ownership, where two or more companies own a depot together and share its operating costs.
  • Independent ownership, where a depot is owned not by an oil company but by a separate business which charges oil companies (and others) a fee to store and handle products. The Royal Vopak from the Netherlands is the largest independent terminal operator with 80 terminals in 30 countries.[1]

In all cases the owners may also provide "hospitality" or "pick up rights" at the facility to other companies.

Airports

Aircraft refueller at Vancouver airport

Most airports also have their own dedicated oil depots (usually called "fuel farms") where aviation fuel (Jet A or 100LL) is stored prior to being discharged into aircraft fuel tanks. Fuel is transported from the depot to the aircraft either by road tanker or via a hydrant system.

Japan

The world's third largest oil consumer had national reserves of 113 days of oil demand under the government's storage and 85 days held by the private sector at the end of December 2010. In this respect, the total oil stored in Japan in December stood at 587.4 million barrels. Japan requires the private sector to hold 70 days as oil reserves, but is making the period shorter by three days to 67 days. As such it will allow oil companies to release 8.9 million barrels of crude oil from mandatory stockpiles.[2]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.vopak.com/business_segments/storage/142_tank_terminal.php
  2. ^ "UPDATE 1-Japan lets oil companies release stocks | Energy & Oil | Reuters". Af.reuters.com. 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2011-03-15. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.