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Operation Mandrel

 

Operation Mandrel

Operation Mandrel
Mandrel Mint Leaf tunnel reentry team
Information
Country United States
Test site Amchitka Island, Alaska; near Parachute, Colorado; NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 16, Shoshone Mountain; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS Areas 5, 11, Frenchman Flat; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1969-1970
Number of tests 52
Test type underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 1.9 megatonnes of TNT (7.9 PJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Bowline
Next test series Operation Emery

The United States's Mandrel nuclear test series[1] was a group of 52 nuclear tests conducted in 1969-1970. These tests [note 1] followed the Operation Bowline series and preceded the Operation Emery series.

United States' Mandrel series tests and detonations
Name [note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 3][2] Location [note 4] Elevation + height [note 5] Delivery [note 6]
Purpose [note 7]
Device [note 8] Yield [note 9] Fallout [note 10] References Notes
Ildrim 16 July 1969 13:02:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2au 1,256 m (4,121 ft) - 410.26 m (1,346.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
Hutch 16 July 1969 14:55:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2df 1,300 m (4,300 ft) - 548.64 m (1,800.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
120 kt Venting detected, 1.1 kCi (41 TBq) [1][4][5][6][7][8]
Spider - 1 14 August 1969 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bp1 1,292 m (4,239 ft) - 207.26 m (680.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected, 2 Ci (74 GBq) [1][4][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Spider - 2 14 August 1969 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bp2 1,291 m (4,236 ft) - 213 m (699 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt [1][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Horehound 27 August 1969 13:45:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gm 1,174 m (3,852 ft) - 331.83 m (1,088.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6]
Pliers 27 August 1969 13:45:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gn 1,187 m (3,894 ft) - 238.87 m (783.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
10 kt Venting detected on site [1][4][5][6][7][8]
Rulison 10 September 1969 21:00:00.01 MST (-7 hrs)
near Parachute, Colorado 2,498 m (8,196 ft) - 2,570 m (8,430 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
40 kt Venting detected off site [1][6][8] Plowshare - gas stimulation experiment.
Minute Steak 12 September 1969 18:02:20.42 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U11f 1,007 m (3,304 ft) - 264.26 m (867.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
5 kt Venting detected on site, 8.4 kCi (310 TBq) [1][4][5][6][7][8]
Jorum 16 September 1969 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20e - 1,898 m (6,227 ft) - 1,158.24 m (3,800.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 kt [1][3][5][6][9]
Kyack - 1 20 September 1969 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bq1 1,296 m (4,252 ft) - 192.02 m (630.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 t Venting detected on site [1][3][5][6][7][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Kyack - 2 20 September 1969 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bq2 1,293 m (4,242 ft) - 192 m (630 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected on site, 510 Ci (19,000 GBq) [1][5][6][7][8][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Seaweed - 1 1 October 1969 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hk3 1,184 m (3,885 ft) - 118.43 m (388.5 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 0.00000005 Ci (1.9×10−6 GBq) [1][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Seaweed - 2 1 October 1969 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hkf 1,183 m (3,881 ft) - 118 m (387 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site [1][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Seaweed - 3 1 October 1969 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hkc 1,184 m (3,885 ft) + underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site [1][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Milrow 2 October 1969 22:06:00.04 BST (-11 hrs)
Amchitka Island, Alaska 40 m (130 ft) - 1,220 m (4,000 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 Mt [1][4][6] Calibration for Grommet Cannikin test. Was initially named "Ganja", until someone in the DoE got wise to it.
Pipkin 8 October 1969 14:30:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20b 1,965 m (6,447 ft) - 624.84 m (2,050.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 kt Venting detected, 6 Ci (220 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Seaweed B 16 October 1969 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hkd 1,185 m (3,888 ft) - 118.55 m (388.9 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 0.0000002 Ci (7.4×10−6 GBq) [1][5][6][7]
Cruet 29 October 1969 19:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2cn 1,372 m (4,501 ft) - 263.65 m (865.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
11 kt [1][4][5][6]
Pod - 1 29 October 1969 20:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ch 1,397 m (4,583 ft) - 266.7 m (875 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
16.7 kt Venting detected on site, 3.9 kCi (140 TBq) [1][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Pod - 2 29 October 1969 20:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ci 1,464 m (4,803 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
16.7 kt Venting detected on site [1][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Pod - 3 29 October 1969 20:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dj 1,448 m (4,751 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
16.7 kt Venting detected on site [1][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Pod - 4 29 October 1969 20:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ck 1,424 m (4,672 ft) - 312 m (1,024 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
16.7 kt Venting detected on site [1][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Calabash 29 October 1969 22:01:51.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2av 1,283 m (4,209 ft) - 624.84 m (2,050.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
110 kt [1][4][5][6][9]
Scuttle 13 November 1969 15:15:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bh 1,312 m (4,304 ft) - 164.59 m (540.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.7 kt Venting detected, 210 Ci (7,800 GBq) [1][5][6][7][8]
Piccalilli 21 November 1969 14:52:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fc 1,195 m (3,921 ft) - 393.8 m (1,292 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
22 kt [1][4][5][6][9]
Planer 21 November 1969 14:52:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ei 1,183 m (3,881 ft) - 377.84 m (1,239.6 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt [1][5][6][9]
Diesel Train 5 December 1969 17:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12e.11 2,207 m (7,241 ft) - 419.15 m (1,375.2 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
20 kt [1][3][5][6][9]
Culantro - 1 10 December 1969 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hia 1,181 m (3,875 ft) - 134.13 m (440.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Culantro - 2 10 December 1969 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hib 1,182 m (3,878 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Tun - 1 10 December 1969 15:30:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10am1 1,323 m (4,341 ft) - 193.55 m (635.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2.5 kt Venting detected on site [1][3][5][6][7][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Tun - 2 10 December 1969 15:30:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10am2 1,324 m (4,344 ft) - 194 m (636 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected on site, 72 Ci (2,700 GBq) [1][5][6][7][8][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Tun - 3 10 December 1969 15:30:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10am3 1,319 m (4,327 ft) - 194 m (636 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected on site [1][5][6][7][8][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Tun - 4 10 December 1969 15:30:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10am4 1,320 m (4,330 ft) - 256 m (840 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt Venting detected on site [1][5][6][7][8][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Grape A 17 December 1969 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7s 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 550.67 m (1,806.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
89 kt [1][4][5][6][9]
Lovage 17 December 1969 15:15:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fe 1,181 m (3,875 ft) - 378.05 m (1,240.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
16 kt [1][4][5][6][9]
Terrine-White - 1 18 December 1969 19:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bi1 1,264 m (4,147 ft) - 461.77 m (1,515.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
38 kt Venting detected, 48 Ci (1,800 GBq) [1][5][6][7][8][9] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Terrine-Yellow - 2 18 December 1969 19:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bi2 1,277 m (4,190 ft) - 417 m (1,368 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
unknown yield Venting detected [1][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Fob-Blue - 3 23 January 1970 16:30:00.21 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9iy27 1,273 m (4,177 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Fob-Green - 1 23 January 1970 16:30:00.21 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9iv27 1,266 m (4,154 ft) - 266.7 m (875 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8 kt [1][4][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Fob-Red - 2 23 January 1970 16:30:00.21 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9iv24 1,263 m (4,144 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Ajo 30 January 1970 17:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gd 1,191 m (3,907 ft) - 304.11 m (997.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
Belen 4 February 1970 17:00:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3br 1,206 m (3,957 ft) - 420.8 m (1,381 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
97 kt [1][5][6][9][10]
Grape B 4 February 1970 17:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7v 1,269 m (4,163 ft) - 554.46 m (1,819.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
120 kt [1][4][5][6][9]
Labis 5 February 1970 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10an 1,286 m (4,219 ft) - 441.96 m (1,450.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
25 kt [1][4][5][6]
Diana Mist 11 February 1970 19:15:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12n.06 2,229 m (7,313 ft) - 402.02 m (1,319.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
12 kt [1][3][5][6][9]
Cumarin 25 February 1970 14:28:38.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gz 1,206 m (3,957 ft) - 408.51 m (1,340.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
51 kt [1][4][5][6][9]
Yannigan-Blue - 2 26 February 1970 15:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ay3 1,258 m (4,127 ft) - 394 m (1,293 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7][8][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Yannigan-Red - 1 26 February 1970 15:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ay1 1,258 m (4,127 ft) - 388.62 m (1,275.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
70 kt Venting detected, 320 Ci (12,000 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Yannigan-White - 3 26 February 1970 15:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ay2 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 363 m (1,191 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
30 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7][8][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Cyathus 6 March 1970 14:24:00.94 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U8b 1,353 m (4,439 ft) - 289.56 m (950.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8.7 kt Venting detected, less than 46 Ci (1,700 GBq) [1][4][5][6][7][8]
Arabis-Blue - 3 6 March 1970 15:00:00.21 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsz26 1,265 m (4,150 ft) + underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Arabis-Green - 2 6 March 1970 15:00:00.21 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsx28 1,270 m (4,170 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Arabis-Red - 1 6 March 1970 15:00:00.21 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsv26 1,276 m (4,186 ft) - 249.94 m (820.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3.5 kt [1][4][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Jal 19 March 1970 14:03:30.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hh 1,178 m (3,865 ft) - 301.39 m (988.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
Shaper 23 March 1970 23:05:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7r 1,252 m (4,108 ft) - 560.44 m (1,838.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
89 kt [1][4][5][6][9]
Handley 26 March 1970 19:00:00.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U20m 1,772 m (5,814 ft) - 1,209.14 m (3,967.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.9 Mt [1][3][4][5][6]
Snubber 21 April 1970 14:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ev2s 1,253 m (4,111 ft) - 343.5 m (1,127 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
12.7 kt Venting detected off site, 55 kCi (2,000 TBq) [1][3][5][6][7][8]
Can-Green - 1 21 April 1970 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dd1 1,266 m (4,154 ft) - 274.32 m (900.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt [1][3][4][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Can-Red - 2 21 April 1970 15:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dd4 1,268 m (4,160 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Beebalm 1 May 1970 14:13:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3fn 1,209 m (3,967 ft) - 390.21 m (1,280.2 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt [1][3][5][6][9]
Hod-C (Blue) - 3 1 May 1970 14:25:00.0 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9iz25 1,276 m (4,186 ft) + underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][6][7]
Hod-A (Green) - 1 1 May 1970 14:40:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsx23 1,268 m (4,160 ft) - 265.18 m (870.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
9 kt Venting detected on site, 1 Ci (37 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Hod-B (Red) - 2 1 May 1970 14:40:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsx20 1,266 m (4,154 ft) - 241 m (791 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
4 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7][8][10]
Mint Leaf 5 May 1970 15:30:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12t.01 2,094 m (6,870 ft) - 396.24 m (1,300.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
20 kt Venting detected off site, 960 kCi (36,000 TBq) [1][3][5][6][7][8]
Diamond Dust 12 May 1970 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U16a.05 1,899 m (6,230 ft) - 221.89 m (728.0 ft) underground tunnel,
joint verification
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 5 Ci (190 GBq) [1][5][6][7][8] Designed to test detection of underground nuclear tests; see Vela Uniform.
Cornice-Green - 2 15 May 1970 13:30:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ap3 1,286 m (4,219 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
40 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Cornice-Yellow - 1 15 May 1970 13:30:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ap1 1,293 m (4,242 ft) - 390.14 m (1,280.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
45 kt [1][3][4][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Manzanas 21 May 1970 14:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gr 1,194 m (3,917 ft) - 240.65 m (789.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected on site, less than 0.2 Ci (7.4 GBq) [1][3][5][6][7][8]
Morrones 21 May 1970 14:15:00.03 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ei 1,237 m (4,058 ft) - 482.72 m (1,583.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
29 kt [1][5][6][9]
Hudson Moon 26 May 1970 14:16:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12e.12 2,274 m (7,461 ft) - 422.45 m (1,386.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
9 kt Venting detected on site, 1.3 kCi (48 TBq) [1][3][5][6][7][8]
Flask-Green - 1 26 May 1970 15:00:00.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2az1 1,251 m (4,104 ft) - 529 m (1,736 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
105 kt Venting detected, 63 Ci (2,300 GBq) [1][4][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, Separate holes. Project Plowshare - develop clean devices for hard rock excavation.
Flask-Red - 3 26 May 1970 15:00:00.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2az3 1,259 m (4,131 ft) - 152.4 m (500 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
35 t Venting detected [1][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, Separate holes. Project Plowshare - develop clean devices for hard rock excavation.
Flask-Yellow - 2 26 May 1970 15:00:00.05 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2az2 1,259 m (4,131 ft) - 335 m (1,099 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
90 t Venting detected [1][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, Separate holes. Project Plowshare - develop clean devices for hard rock excavation.
Piton C 28 May 1970 11:45:00.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsaa2 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 100.58 m (330.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2.5 kt Venting detected on site, 25 kCi (930 TBq) [1][5][6][7][8]
Piton - 1 28 May 1970 12:00:00.164 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsy30 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 236.22 m (775.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
800 t Venting detected on site, more than 10 Ci (370 GBq) [1][3][5][6][7][8] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Piton - 2 28 May 1970 12:00:00.164 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsx27 1,270 m (4,170 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site [1][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Arnica-Violet - 2 26 June 1970 13:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dd3 1,272 m (4,173 ft) - 264 m (866 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected, 73 Ci (2,700 GBq) [1][5][6][7][8][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Arnica-Yellow - 1 26 June 1970 13:00:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dd2 1,270 m (4,170 ft) - 309.37 m (1,015.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3.5 kt [1][4][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
  1. ^ A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. "Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing". Begell-Atom, LLC. 
  2. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  4. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  10. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.

References

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  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)" (PDF), Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council), retrieved 2013-10-26 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Bolt, Bruce A. (1976), Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
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  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2 (PDF), National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1) (PDF), DOE Nevada Operations Office, August 1996, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Hechanova, Anthony E.; O'Donnell, James E. (1998-09-25), Estimates of yield for nuclear tests impacting the groundwater at the Nevada Test Site, Nuclear Science and Technology Division 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013 
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