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Operation Niblick

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Title: Operation Niblick  
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Operation Niblick

Operation Niblick
Information
Country United States
Test site NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS, Areas 1–4, 6–10, Yucca Flat
Period 1963–1964
Number of tests 41
Test type underground shaft
Max. yield 249 kilotonnes of TNT (1,040 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Roller Coaster
Next test series Operation Whetstone

The United States's Niblick nuclear test series[1] was a group of 41 nuclear tests conducted in 1963–1964. These tests [note 1] followed the Operation Roller Coaster series and preceded the Operation Whetstone series.

United States' Niblick series tests and detonations
Name [note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 3][2] Location [note 4] Elevation + height [note 5] Delivery [note 6]
Purpose [note 7]
Device [note 8] Yield [note 9] Fallout [note 10] References Notes
Pekan 12 August 1963 23:45:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bw 1,197 m (3,927 ft) – 302.27 m (991.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8 kt Venting detected, 1.1 MCi (41 PBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Satsop 15 August 1963 13:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2g 1,306 m (4,285 ft) – 224.94 m (738.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt [1][5][6][7]
Kohocton – 1 (with Natches) 23 August 1963 13:20:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ak 1,289 m (4,229 ft) – 254.51 m (835.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected, 3 kCi (110 TBq) [1][3][4][6][7]
Natches – 2 (with Kohocton) 23 August 1963 13:20:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ak1 1,261 m (4,137 ft) + underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][6][7]
Ahtanum 13 September 1963 13:53:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2l 1,320 m (4,330 ft) – 225.55 m (740.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1 kt Venting detected, 35 Ci (1,300 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Bilby 13 September 1963 17:00:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3on 1,215 m (3,986 ft) – 714.3 m (2,344 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
249 kt Venting detected, 1 Ci (37 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Carp 27 September 1963 14:20:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cb 1,193 m (3,914 ft) – 329.55 m (1,081.2 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
80 t Venting detected on site, 1.1 kCi (41 TBq) [1][3][4][6][7][8]
Narraguagus 27 September 1963 17:30:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2f 1,302 m (4,272 ft) – 150.27 m (493.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
80 t Venting detected, 160 Ci (5,900 GBq) [1][4][6][7][8]
Grunion 11 October 1963 14:00:00.11 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bz 1,193 m (3,914 ft) – 261.31 m (857.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8 kt Venting detected, 4 kCi (150 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Tornillo 11 October 1963 21:00:00.155 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9aq 1,267 m (4,157 ft) – 149.05 m (489.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
380 t Venting detected, 520 Ci (19,000 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7] Plowshare experiment to provide a clean device for excavations.
Clearwater 16 October 1963 17:00:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12q 2,233 m (7,326 ft) – 548.03 m (1,798.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
60 kt Venting detected, 4.6 kCi (170 TBq) [1][3][4][6][7]
Mullet 17 October 1963 15:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2ag 1,275 m (4,183 ft) – 60.35 m (198.0 ft) underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][6][7]
Shoal 26 October 1963 17:00:00.1 PST (-8 hrs)
Fallon, Nevada 1,603 m (5,259 ft) – 370 m (1,210 ft) underground shaft,
joint verification
12 kt Venting detected, 110 Ci (4,100 GBq) [1][4][7] Project Vela Uniform, investigation of detection of underground testing.
Anchovy 14 November 1963 16:00:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bq 1,194 m (3,917 ft) – 260.25 m (853.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
9 kt Venting detected on site, less than 230 kCi (8,500 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Mustang 15 November 1963 15:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9at 1,257 m (4,124 ft) – 165.81 m (544.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected, 100 Ci (3,700 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Greys 22 November 1963 17:30:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ax 1,248 m (4,094 ft) – 300.84 m (987.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt Venting detected, less than 460 Ci (17,000 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Barracuda – 2 (with Sardine) 4 December 1963 16:38:30.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cr 1,202 m (3,944 ft) – 263.3 m (864 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 100 Ci (3,700 GBq) [1][4][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Sardine – 1 (with Barracuda) 4 December 1963 16:38:30.118 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ch 1,194 m (3,917 ft) – 262 m (860 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8 kt Venting detected on site, 30 Ci (1,100 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Eagle 12 December 1963 16:02:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9av 1,254 m (4,114 ft) – 164.59 m (540.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5.3 kt Venting detected off site, 760 Ci (28,000 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Tuna 20 December 1963 15:24:00.13 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3de 1,203 m (3,947 ft) – 414.35 m (1,359.4 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, less than 0.1 Ci (3.7 GBq) [1][3][4][6][7]
Fore 16 January 1964 16:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ao 1,263 m (4,144 ft) – 490.42 m (1,609.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
38 kt Venting detected, 1.2 kCi (44 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Oconto 23 January 1964 16:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ay 1,260 m (4,130 ft) – 264.69 m (868.4 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
10.5 kt Venting detected off site, 30 kCi (1,100 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Club 30 January 1964 16:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2aa 1,283 m (4,209 ft) – 180.44 m (592.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected, 590 Ci (22,000 GBq) [1][3][4][6][7][8]
Solendon 12 February 1964 15:38:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cz 1,206 m (3,957 ft) – 150.17 m (492.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 10 Ci (370 GBq) [1][3][4][6][7]
Bunker 13 February 1964 15:30:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bb 1,270 m (4,170 ft) – 226.77 m (744.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.5 kt Venting detected on site, less than 420 Ci (16,000 GBq) [1][3][4][6][7][8]
Bonefish 18 February 1964 15:37:19.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bt 1,207 m (3,960 ft) – 300.76 m (986.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 kt Venting detected, 19 Ci (700 GBq) [1][4][6][7][8]
Mackerel 18 February 1964 15:37:37.124 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U4b 1,236 m (4,055 ft) – 333.71 m (1,094.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][6][7]
Klickitat 20 February 1964 15:30:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10e 1,273 m (4,177 ft) – 492.56 m (1,616.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
70 kt Venting detected, less than 10 Ci (370 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7] A Plowshare device-development experiment to produce an improved nuclear explosive for excavation applications.
Handicap 12 March 1964 15:00:00.01 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ba 1,261 m (4,137 ft) – 143.26 m (470.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 t Venting detected on site, 300 Ci (11,000 GBq) [1][3][4][6][7][8]
Pike 13 March 1964 16:02:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cy 1,211 m (3,973 ft) – 114.5 m (376 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected off site, 120 kCi (4,400 TBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7] Vented massively for 69 seconds after detonation until quieted by chimney collapse. Possible fault crack.
Hook 14 April 1964 14:40:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9bc 1,276 m (4,186 ft) – 203.67 m (668.2 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
3 kt Venting detected on site, less than 350 Ci (13,000 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Sturgeon 15 April 1964 14:30:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3bo 1,198 m (3,930 ft) – 149.77 m (491.4 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected, 230 Ci (8,500 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Bogey 17 April 1964 15:29:52.28 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9au 1,265 m (4,150 ft) – 118.84 m (389.9 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, less than 60 Ci (2,200 GBq) [1][3][4][6][7]
Turf 24 April 1964 20:10:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10c 1,272 m (4,173 ft) - 506.88 m (1,663.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
38 kt Venting detected, less than 200 Ci (7,400 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Pipefish 29 April 1964 20:47:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3co 1,194 m (3,917 ft) – 261.92 m (859.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
15 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][3][5][6][7][8]
Driver 7 May 1964 13:00:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ar 1,253 m (4,111 ft) – 148.19 m (486.2 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected on site, 37 Ci (1,400 GBq) [1][3][4][6][7]
Backswing 14 May 1964 14:40:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9aw 1,257 m (4,124 ft) – 163.37 m (536.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8 kt Venting detected on site, 37 Ci (1,400 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Minnow 15 May 1964 16:15:00.12 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cv 1,199 m (3,934 ft) – 241.34 m (791.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt [1][5][6][7]
Ace 11 June 1964 16:45:00.15 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2n 1,300 m (4,300 ft) – 262.74 m (862.0 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
3 kt Venting detected on site, 9 Ci (330 GBq) [1][3][4][6][7] A Plowshare device-development experiment to produce an improved nuclear explosive for excavation applications.
Bitterling 12 June 1964 14:01:00.1 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3cu 1,196 m (3,924 ft) – 192.6 m (632 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
500 t [1][6][7][8][9]
Duffer 18 June 1964 13:30:00.2 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ds 1,288 m (4,226 ft) – 445.71 m (1,462.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
150 t Venting detected, less than 41 Ci (1,500 GBq) [1][4][6][7][8]
Fade 25 June 1964 13:30:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9be 1,280 m (4,200 ft) – 205.16 m (673.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
6 kt Venting detected on site, 35 Ci (1,300 GBq) [1][3][4][5][6][7]
Dub 30 June 1964 13:33:00.14 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10a 1,282 m (4,206 ft) – 258.56 m (848.3 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
11.7 kt Venting detected on site, 29 Ci (1,100 GBq) [1][3][5][6][7][8] A Plowshare experiment to develop emplacement techniques.
  1. ^ A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length". Mikhailov, V. N., Editor in Chief. "Catalog of World Wide Nuclear Testing". Begell-Atom, LLC. 
  2. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  4. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  10. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Yang, Xiaoping; North, Robert; Romney, Carl (August 2000), CMR Nuclear Explosion Database (Revision 3), SMDC Monitoring Research 
  2. ^ "Timezone Historical Database". iana.com. Retrieved March 8, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Estimated exposures and thyroid doses received by the American people from Iodine-131 in fallout following Nevada atmospheric nuclear bomb tests, Chapter 2 (PDF), National Cancer Institute, 1997, retrieved 2014-01-05 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Radiological Effluents Released from U.S. Continental Tests 1961 Through 1992 (DOE/NV-317 Rev. 1) (PDF), DOE Nevada Operations Office, August 1996, retrieved 2013-10-31 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Bolt, Bruce A. (1976), Nuclear Explosions and Earthquakes: The Parted Veil, San Francisco, CA: W.H. Freeman and Co. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap Official list of underground nuclear explosions, Sandia National Laboratories, 1994-07-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq United States Nuclear Tests: July 1945 through September 1992 (PDF) (DOE/NV-209 REV15), Las Vegas, NV: Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 2000-12-01, retrieved 2013-12-18 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Norris, Robert Standish; Cochran, Thomas B. (1 February 1994), "United States nuclear tests, July 1945 to 31 December 1992 (NWD 94-1)" (PDF), Nuclear Weapons Databook Working Paper (Washington, DC: Natural Resources Defense Council), retrieved 2013-10-26 
  9. ^ Operation Argus, 1958 (DNA6039F), Washington, DC: Defense Nuclear Agency, Department of Defense, retrieved 26 November 2013 
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