World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Operation Southern Watch

Article Id: WHEBN0007179803
Reproduction Date:

Title: Operation Southern Watch  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: VFA-115, VFA-136, USS Independence (CV-62), 190th Fighter Squadron, Martha McSally
Collection: 1992 in Iraq, 1993 in Iraq, 1994 in Iraq, 1995 in Iraq, 1996 in Iraq, 1998 in Iraq, 1999 in Iraq, 2000 in Iraq, 2001 in Iraq, 2002 in Iraq, 2003 in Iraq, 20Th Century in Iraq, Aerial Bombing Operations and Battles, Conflicts in 1992, Conflicts in 1993, Conflicts in 1996, Conflicts in 1998, Conflicts in 2000, Conflicts in 2001, Conflicts in 2002, Iraq–saudi Arabia Relations, Iraq–united Kingdom Relations, Iraq–united States Relations, Military Operations Involving Australia, Military Operations Involving France, Military Operations Involving the United Kingdom, Military Operations Involving the United States, Modern History of Iraq, No-Fly Zone Operations
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Operation Southern Watch

Operation Southern Watch
Part of Iraqi no-fly zones conflict

Two F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft prepare to depart on a patrol as part of Operation Southern Watch in 2000
Type No-fly zone operation
Location Southern Iraq
Planned by United States Department of Defense
Commanded by Bill Clinton (1993-2001)
George W. Bush (2001-2003)
Objective Enforce no-fly zone over Iraq and contain Iraqi aggression
Date 27 August 1992 – 19 March 2003
Executed by Joint Task Force Southwest Asia
Outcome Operation mostly a success; start of Iraq War
Casualties American:: 19 American airmen killed in Khobar Towers Bombing, 4 RQ-1 Predator shot down,One US-F-16 damaged ,372 injured. [1]

Iraqi: 1 MiG-25 Foxbat and 1 MiG-23 Flogger shot down; 10-15 air defense systems destroyed

Civilian: 175+ civilians killed, 500 civilians wounded[2]

Operation Southern Watch was a military operation conducted by the United States Department of Defense. United States Central Command's Joint Task Force Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA) had the mission of monitoring and controlling the airspace south of the 32nd Parallel (extended to the 33rd Parallel in 1996) in Iraq, following the 1991 Gulf War until the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

Contents

  • Summary 1
  • Military operations 2
    • Immediate postwar 2.1
    • Operations "Vigilant Warrior" and "Desert Strike" 2.2
    • Operation "Desert Fox" 2.3
    • Last years 2.4
  • Withdrawal 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Summary

Operation Southern Watch began on 27 August 1992 with the stated purpose of ensuring Iraqi compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 of 5 April 1991, which demanded that Iraq "immediately end this repression and express the hope in the same context that an open dialogue will take place to ensure that the human and political rights of all Iraqi citizens are respected." Nothing in the resolution spelled out the Iraqi no-fly zones or Operation Southern Watch.

Iraqi military bombing and strafing attacks against the Shi’ite Muslims in Southern Iraq during the remainder of 1991 and during 1992 indicated Saddam Hussein chose not to comply with the resolution. Forces from Saudi Arabia, the US, the UK, and France participated in Operation Southern Watch. The commander of JTF-SWA reported directly to U.S. Central Command.

Military engagements in Southern Watch occurred with regularity, with Coalition aircraft (primarily USAF, USN, USMC and RAF), routinely being shot at by Iraqi forces, though they were usually only reported in the press occasionally. An intensification was noted prior to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, though it was said at the time to just be in response to increasing activity by Iraqi air-defense forces. It is now known that this increased activity occurred during an operation known as Operation Southern Focus.

Military operations

Immediate postwar

At first, Iraqi forces did not attack Coalition aircraft. However, after the United Nations voted to maintain sanctions on Iraq, Iraqi forces began to fire on the aircraft and American E-3 Sentry AWACS aircraft reported an unusual amount of Iraqi Air Force activity.

On 27 December 1992, a lone Iraqi MiG-25 Foxbat crossed into the no-fly zone and flew towards a flight of USAF F-15 Eagles before turning north and using its superior speed to outrun the pursuing Eagles. Later in the day, several Iraqi fighters dodged back and forth across the 32nd parallel, staying out of missile range of American fighters. However, an Iraqi MiG-25 crossed too far and was trapped inside the 32nd parallel by a flight of USAF F-16 Falcons of the 33rd Tactical Fighter Squadron. After intelligence verified the aircraft was hostile, the fighter pilot received clearance to fire. The lead plane piloted by then-Lieutenant Colonel Gary North fired a missile which destroyed the Iraqi fighter. This was the first combat kill by an F-16 in USAF service, and the first combat kill using the AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.[3] On 17 January 1993, a USAF F-16C destroyed an Iraqi MiG-23 with an AMRAAM missile for the second USAF aerial victory.[4]

On 7 January 1993, Iraq agreed to American, British, and French demands to withdraw their surface-to-air missiles from below the 32nd parallel. However, they did not remove all of them, and US President Nasiriyah, Samawah, Najaf, and Al-Amarah. Around half the Iraqi sites south of the 32nd parallel were hit.[5] On 29 June, an American F-4G Phantom destroyed an Iraqi radar which had illuminated it, and a month later, two US Navy EA-6B Prowlers fired AGM-88 missiles at more Iraqi radars.[6]

Operations "Vigilant Warrior" and "Desert Strike"

The first nine months of 1994 were quiet, and the USAF began to withdraw forces from the region. In October, Saddam deployed two divisions of Iraqi Republican Guard troops to the Kuwaiti border after demanding that UN sanctions were to be lifted, precipitating Operation Vigilant Warrior, the rushing of American troops to the Persian Gulf region. Saddam later withdrew the Iraqi Republican Guard out of the Kuwati border due to massive American military buildup. This served to increase Coalition resolve to enforce the no-fly zones and contain Iraqi aggression.

On 25 June 1996, a barracks (Khobar Towers) at a US base in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia housing personnel supporting Operation Southern Watch was blown up by a truck bomb. The blast killed 19 US Air Force servicemen and a Saudi national, and injured 372 people. Who ordered the bombing is still in doubt, with suspicion being cast on

  • Global Security brief on Operation Southern Watch
  • Lt. Col. Gary North's MiG Kill – December 1992
  • Legacy of the Air Blockades – Air Force Magazine, February 2003

External links

  1. ^ Knights, Michael (2005).Cradle of conflict: Iraq and the birth of modern U.S. military power. Naval Institute Press, p. 242. ISBN 1-59114-444-2
  2. ^ a b c John Pike. "Operation Southern Watch". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  3. ^ "f16viper.org". f16viper.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  4. ^ "F-16 Aircraft Database: F-16 Airframe Details for 86-0262." F-16.net. Retrieved: 16 May 2008.
  5. ^ John Pike. "Air Strike 13 January 1993 – Operation Southern Watch". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  6. ^ John Pike. "Operation Southern Watch". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  7. ^ John Pike. "Operation Desert Focus". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  8. ^ John Pike. "Operation Southern Watch". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  9. ^ John Pike. "Operation Southern Watch". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  10. ^ John Pike. "Operation Southern Watch". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  11. ^ John Pike. "Operation Southern Watch". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  12. ^ "TRACES OF TERROR: THE DRAGNET; Sudanese Says He Fired Missile at U.S. Warplane". New York Times. 14 June 2002. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  13. ^ Telegraph.co.uk

References

See also

On 29 April 2003, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld announced that he would be withdrawing US troops from the country stating that the Iraq War no longer required the support. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz had earlier said that the continuing US presence in the kingdom was putting American lives in danger.

On 27 February 2003, it was announced that the US would be allowed to launch warplanes from its bases inside Saudi Arabia, to support the Iraq War – and would in turn begin a phased withdrawal from the country.[13]

Withdrawal

From 1992 to 2003, various coalition naval assets supported maritime interdiction operations in the Persian Gulf under the banners of Operation Southern Watch and Operation Northern Watch.

From August 1992 to early 2001, Coalition pilots had flown 153,000 sorties over southern Iraq.[2]

In June 2002, American and British forces stepped up attacks on Iraqi air defense targets all over southern Iraq. It was later revealed that this was part of a pre-planned operation called Southern Focus which had the goal of degrading the Iraqi air-defense system in preparation for the planned invasion of Iraq.

In late 2001, a Sudanese man with links to Al-Qaida fired a man-portable SA-7 Strela missile at an American F-15 Eagle fighter taking off from Prince Sultan Air Base in Saudi Arabia. The missile missed the target and was not detected by the pilot or anyone at the base. Saudi police found the empty launcher in the desert in May 2002, and a suspect was arrested in Sudan a month later. He led police to a cache in the desert where a second missile was buried.[12]

On 16 February 2001, American and British aircraft launched attacks against six targets in southern Iraq, including command centers, radars and communications centers. Only about 40% of the targets were hit. This operation sparked scathing editorials in the foreign press, which reflected growing world skepticism about American-British policy towards Iraq.[11] Incidents of Coalition planes coming under fire, followed by retaliatory air strikes began to happen on a weekly basis.

On 22 May 2000 it was reported that since Operation Desert Fox there had been 470 separate incidents of AAA or surface-to-air missile fire at Coalition aircraft and Iraqi aircraft had violated the southern no-fly zone 150 times.[10] Over the same time period, American aircraft had attacked Iraqi targets on 73 occasions.[2]

Last years

On 15 December 1998, France suspended participation in the no-fly zones, arguing that they had been maintained for too long and were ineffective. On 16 December, US President Bill Clinton ordered execution of Operation Desert Fox, a four-day air campaign against targets all over Iraq, citing Iraq's failure to comply with UNSC Resolutions (UNSCRs). This resulted in an increased level of combat in the no-fly zones which lasted until 2003. On 30 December, Iraqi SA-6 sites fired 6 to 8 surface-to-air missiles at American military aircraft. USAF F-16s responded by bombing the sites. On 5 January 1999, four Iraqi MiG-25s crossed into the no-fly zone, sparking aerial combat with 2 USAF F-15 Eagles and 2 USN F-14 Tomcats. The American fighters fired six missiles at the Iraqi aircraft, but they were able to evade them all and escape back to the north.[9]

Two US Navy aircraft – an F-14 Tomcat (foreground) and an EA-6B Prowler – over Iraq during January 1998.

Operation "Desert Fox"

In August 1996, Iraqi forces invaded the Kurdish regions of northern Iraq and American forces responded with Operation Desert Strike against targets in north and south Iraq. As a result, the no-fly zone was extended north to the 33rd parallel. This marked renewed conflict with Iraqi air defenses and several more radars were destroyed by F-16 fighters.[8]

[7]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.