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Operation Toggle

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Operation Toggle

Operation Toggle
Toggle Diamond Sculls tunnel test chamber
Information
Country United States
Test site near Rifle, Colorado; NTS Area 12, Rainier Mesa; NTS Area 19, 20, Pahute Mesa; NTS, Areas 1-4, 6-10, Yucca Flat
Period 1972-1973
Number of tests 28
Test type underground shaft, underground tunnel
Max. yield 250 kilotonnes of TNT (1,000 TJ)
Navigation
Previous test series Operation Grommet
Next test series Operation Arbor

The United States's Toggle nuclear test series[1] was a group of 28 nuclear tests conducted in 1972-1973. These tests [note 1] followed the Operation Grommet series and preceded the Operation Arbor series.

United States' Toggle series tests and detonations
Name [note 2] Date time (UT) Local time zone [note 3][2] Location [note 4] Elevation + height [note 5] Delivery [note 6]
Purpose [note 7]
Device [note 8] Yield [note 9] Fallout [note 10] References Notes
Diamond Sculls 20 July 1972 17:16:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12t.02 2,113 m (6,932 ft) - 419.4 m (1,376 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
21 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
Atarque 25 July 1972 13:30:00.06 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3ht 1,182 m (3,878 ft) - 294.2 m (965 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
1.5 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7]
Cebolla - 1 (with Cuchillo,Solano) 9 August 1972 13:31:10.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jc 1,180 m (3,870 ft) - 287 m (942 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 5 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Cuchillo - 2 (with Cebolla, Solano) 9 August 1972 13:31:10.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jt 1,179 m (3,868 ft) - 198.81 m (652.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 5 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Solano - 3 (with Cebolla,Cuchillo 9 August 1972 13:31:10.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jx 1,179 m (3,868 ft) + underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 5 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Oscuro 21 September 1972 15:30:00.19 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7z 1,225 m (4,019 ft) - 560.21 m (1,838.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
160 kt [1][3][5][6][8]
Delphinium 26 September 1972 14:30:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dp 1,276 m (4,186 ft) - 295.66 m (970.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
15 kt [1][5][6][8]
Akbar 9 November 1972 15:15:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10ax 1,295 m (4,249 ft) - 267 m (876 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
600 t [1][4][5][6]
Arsenate 9 November 1972 18:15:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ci 1,268 m (4,160 ft) - 250.24 m (821.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
600 t Venting detected, 12 Ci (440 GBq) [1][4][5][6][7]
Canna-Limoges - 2 17 November 1972 18:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsyz26 1,273 m (4,177 ft) + underground shaft,
safety experiment
less than 20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, same hole.
Canna-Umbrinus - 1 17 November 1972 18:00:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsyz2 1,273 m (4,177 ft) - 213.36 m (700.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6] Simultaneous, same hole.
Tuloso 12 December 1972 16:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3gi 1,189 m (3,901 ft) - 271.09 m (889.4 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 t [1][4][5][6]
Solanum 14 December 1972 15:30:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9itsw24 1,267 m (4,157 ft) - 201.17 m (660.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7]
Flax-Source 21 December 1972 20:15:00.24 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dj 1,296 m (4,252 ft) - 440 m (1,440 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
20 kt [1][3][6][8]
Flax-Backup - 2 21 December 1972 20:15:24.35 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dj 1,296 m (4,252 ft) + underground shaft,
weapon effect
less than 20 kt [1][5][6]
Flax-Test - 1 21 December 1972 20:15:24.35 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2dj 1,296 m (4,252 ft) - 688.85 m (2,260.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapon effect
20 kt [1][5][6]
Alumroot 14 February 1973 15:30:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9cj 1,264 m (4,147 ft) - 182.88 m (600.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6]
Miera 8 March 1973 16:10:00.19 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7ad 1,279 m (4,196 ft) - 568.39 m (1,864.8 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
67 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][5][6][7][8][9]
Gazook 23 March 1973 20:15:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2do 1,274 m (4,180 ft) - 326.14 m (1,070.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
200 t Venting detected, 12 Ci (440 GBq) [1][4][5][6][7]
Natoma 5 April 1973 14:50:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10aw 1,283 m (4,209 ft) - 243.84 m (800.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt [1][5][6]
Angus - 1 (with Velarde) 25 April 1973 22:25:00.03 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jg 1,180 m (3,870 ft) - 452.63 m (1,485.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
9 kt Venting detected, 0.6 Ci (22 GBq) [1][3][5][6][7][9] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Velarde - 2 (with Angus) 25 April 1973 22:25:00.07 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jk 1,176 m (3,858 ft) - 277 m (909 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
8 kt Venting detected, 250 Ci (9,300 GBq) [1][5][6][7][10] Simultaneous, separate holes.
Colmor 26 April 1973 15:15:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3hv 1,182 m (3,878 ft) - 245.81 m (806.5 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
500 t Venting detected [1][4][5][6][7]
Starwort 26 April 1973 17:15:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bs 1,261 m (4,137 ft) - 563.88 m (1,850.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
90 kt Venting detected, 10 Ci (370 GBq) [1][5][6][7][8][9]
Mesita 9 May 1973 13:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U3jd 1,180 m (3,870 ft) - 149.25 m (489.7 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
less than 20 kt Venting detected [1][5][6][7]
Rio Blanco - 1 17 May 1973 16:00:00.12 MST (-7 hrs)
near Rifle, Colorado 1,938 m (6,358 ft) - 1,758 m (5,768 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
33 kt [1][6] Operation Plowshare - AEC/Gas industry enhancement experiment. Simultaneous, same hole.
Rio Blanco - 2 17 May 1973 16:00:00.12 MST (-7 hrs)
near Rifle, Colorado 1,938 m (6,358 ft) - 1,875 m (6,152 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
33 kt [1][6] Project Plowshare - AEC/Gas industry enhancement experiment. Simultaneous, same hole.
Rio Blanco - 3 17 May 1973 16:00:00.12 MST (-7 hrs)
near Rifle, Colorado 1,938 m (6,358 ft) - 2,015 m (6,611 ft) underground shaft,
peaceful research
33 kt [1][6] Project Plowshare - AEC/Gas industry enhancement experiment. Simultaneous, same hole.
Cabresto 24 May 1973 13:30:00.04 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7h 1,228 m (4,029 ft) - 197.89 m (649.2 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
15 kt [1][5][6]
Kashan 24 May 1973 14:30:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U10av 1,277 m (4,190 ft) - 265.18 m (870.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
2 kt Venting detected, 270 Ci (10,000 GBq) [1][4][5][6][7]
Dido Queen 5 June 1973 17:00:00.17 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U12e.14 2,247 m (7,372 ft) - 391.36 m (1,284.0 ft) underground tunnel,
weapon effect
18 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
Almendro 6 June 1973 13:00:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U19v - 2,069 m (6,788 ft) - 1,066.52 m (3,499.1 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
250 kt [1][3][4][5][6]
Potrillo 21 June 1973 14:45:00.08 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U7af 1,255 m (4,117 ft) - 567.02 m (1,860.3 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
58 kt Venting detected [1][3][5][6][7]
Portulaca 28 June 1973 19:15:12.4 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U2bv 1,311 m (4,301 ft) - 466.34 m (1,530.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
24 kt I-131 venting detected, 0 [1][4][5][6][8][9]
Silene 28 June 1973 19:45:00.16 PST (-8 hrs)
NTS Area U9ck 1,254 m (4,114 ft) - 198.12 m (650.0 ft) underground shaft,
weapons development
5 t [1][4][5][6]
  1. ^ A bomb test may be a salvo test, defined as two or more explosions "where a period of time between successive individual explosions does not exceed 5 seconds and where the burial points of all explosive devices can be connected by segments of straight lines, each of them connecting two burial points and does not exceed 40 kilometers in length".
  2. ^ The US, France and Great Britain have code-named their test events, while the USSR and China did not, and therefore have only test numbers (with some exceptions – Soviet peaceful explosions were named). Word translations into English in parentheses unless the name is a proper noun. A dash followed by a number indicates a member of a salvo event. The US also sometimes named the individual explosions in such a salvo test, which results in "name1 – 1(with name2)". If test is canceled or aborted, then the row data like date and location discloses the intended plans, where known.
  3. ^ To convert the UT time into standard local, add the number of hours in parentheses to the UT time; for local daylight saving time, add one additional hour. If the result is earlier than 00:00, add 24 hours and subtract 1 from the day; if it is 24:00 or later, subtract 24 hours and add 1 to the day. All historical timezone data are derived from here:
  4. ^ Rough place name and a latitude/longitude reference; for rocket-carried tests, the launch location is specified before the detonation location, if known. Some locations are extremely accurate; others (like airdrops and space blasts) may be quite inaccurate. "~" indicates a likely pro-forma rough location, shared with other tests in that same area.
  5. ^ Elevation is the ground level at the point directly below the explosion relative to sea level; height is the additional distance added or subtracted by tower, balloon, shaft, tunnel, air drop or other contrivance. For rocket bursts the ground level is "N/A". In some cases it is not clear if the height is absolute or relative to ground, for example, Plumbbob/John. No number or units indicates the value is unknown, while "0" means zero. Sorting on this column is by elevation and height added together.
  6. ^ Atmospheric, airdrop, balloon, gun, cruise missile, rocket, surface, tower, and barge are all disallowed by the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Sealed shaft and tunnel are underground, and remained useful under the PTBT. Intentional cratering tests are borderline; they occurred under the treaty, were sometimes protested, and generally overlooked if the test was declared to be a peaceful use.
  7. ^ Include weapons development, weapon effects, safety test, transport safety test, war, science, joint verification and industrial/peaceful, which may be further broken down.
  8. ^ Designations for test items where known, "?" indicates some uncertainty about the preceding value, nicknames for particular devices in quotes. This category of information is often not officially disclosed.
  9. ^ Estimated energy yield in tons, kilotons, and megatons. A ton of TNT equivalent is defined as 4.184 gigajoules (1 gigacalorie).
  10. ^ Radioactive emission to the atmosphere aside from prompt neutrons, where known. The measured species is only iodine-131 if mentioned, otherwise it is all species. No entry means unknown, probably none if underground and "all" if not; otherwise notation for whether measured on the site only or off the site, where known, and the measured amount of radioactivity released.

References

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